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  • Erlander, Tage Fritiof (prime minister of Sweden)

    Tage Erlander, politician and prime minister of Sweden (1946–69). His tenure as prime minister coincided with the years when the Swedish welfare state was most successful and the so-called “Swedish Model” attracted international attention. Erlander, son of a schoolteacher, graduated from the

  • Erlandsen, Jakob (Danish archbishop)

    Denmark: The church: …with the pope’s installation of Jakob Erlandsen as bishop of Roskilde. The conflict lasted through the reign of Christopher I (1252–59) and Erlandsen’s appointment as archbishop of Lund. Christopher’s imprisonment of the prelate caused several German rulers to attack Denmark, and in the ensuing war the king died.

  • Erlandson, Eric (American musician)

    Courtney Love: …formed Hole with the guitarist Eric Erlandson, the bassist Jill Emery, and the drummer Caroline Rue. Hole was known for its intense raw sound and unpredictable live shows, and the band quickly gained wide acclaim for its debut album, Pretty on the Inside (1991), produced by Sonic Youth’s Kim Gordon.

  • Erlangen (Germany)

    Erlangen, city, Bavaria Land (state), southern Germany. It lies at the junction of the Schwabach and Regnitz rivers, just north of Nürnberg. Founded in the 8th century, Erlangen was transferred from the bishopric of Würzburg to that of Bamberg in 1017 and then was sold to the king of Bohemia in

  • Erlangen Programm (mathematics)

    Felix Klein: … of transformations, known as the Erlanger Programm, profoundly influenced mathematical developments.

  • Erlangen school (Protestant theology)

    Protestantism: Germany: The third group, the so-called Erlangen school, rejected Rationalism, Repristination, and Romanticism and asserted a theology that recognized the relationship of faith to history, thus providing a new setting for understanding both the Bible and the Lutheran confessions. Chief representatives were Gottfried Thomasius (1802–75) and J.C.K. von Hofmann (1810–77).

  • Erlanger Loan (United States history)

    Erlanger Loan, in U.S. history, attempt of the Confederate government to raise funds abroad during the American Civil War. In 1863 the Confederacy entered into an arrangement with the French banking house of Emile Erlanger & Company. Erlanger agreed to market $15,000,000 worth of Confederate bonds

  • Erlanger program (mathematics)

    Felix Klein: … of transformations, known as the Erlanger Programm, profoundly influenced mathematical developments.

  • Erlanger, Emile (French banker)

    Erlanger Loan: …the French banking house of Emile Erlanger & Company. Erlanger agreed to market $15,000,000 worth of Confederate bonds backed by cotton. He could receive the bonds at 77 (i.e., $77 per $100 face value) and sell them in foreign financial markets at 90. In addition, he received a 5 percent…

  • Erlanger, Joseph (American physiologist)

    Joseph Erlanger, American physiologist, who received (with Herbert Gasser) the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1944 for discovering that fibres within the same nerve cord possess different functions. Erlanger’s research into nerve function was the product of a profitable collaboration

  • Erlangga (Indonesian ruler)

    Erlangga, early Indonesian ruler who succeeded in reuniting the empire of eastern Java. Erlangga was married to the daughter of Dharmavamsa, the earliest Javanese historical figure for whom clear information is available and who created an empire centred on his capital in eastern Java between a

  • Erlau (Hungary)

    Eger, city of county status and seat of Heves megye (county), northern Hungary. It lies in the valley of the Eger River, which is a tributary of the Tisza, between the Mátra and Bükk mountains. Eger is an old Magyar tribal city with a bishopric founded in the 11th century. The Tatar invasion of the

  • Erlen khan (Central Asian deity)

    dualism: Among religions of modern indigenous peoples: The character of Erlik in the mythologies of the Central Asiatic Turks (e.g., among the Altaics) is typical.

  • Erligang (ancient site, China)

    China: The Shang dynasty: …by the remains found at Erligang (c. 1600 bce) near Zhengzhou, some 50 miles (80 km) to the east of Erlitou. The massive rammed-earth fortification, 118 feet (36 metres) wide at its base and enclosing an area of 1.2 square miles (3.2 square km), would have taken 10,000 people more…

  • Erlik (Central Asian deity)

    dualism: Among religions of modern indigenous peoples: The character of Erlik in the mythologies of the Central Asiatic Turks (e.g., among the Altaics) is typical.

  • Erlik khan (Central Asian deity)

    dualism: Among religions of modern indigenous peoples: The character of Erlik in the mythologies of the Central Asiatic Turks (e.g., among the Altaics) is typical.

  • Erlingsson, Thorsteinn (Icelandic poet)

    Thorsteinn Erlingsson, Icelandic poet whose satirical and rebellious writing was always softened by his own humanity. Erlingsson was a farmer’s son. He attended the University of Copenhagen, where he spent 13 years dabbling in philology and Old Norse but never took a degree. This was a time of

  • Erlitou culture (Chinese history)

    Erlitou culture, Neolithic culture (1900–1350 bce) of the central plains of northern China. It was the first state-level society in China, and its remains are taken to be correlates of the Xia dynasty. Remains of palatial buildings, royal tombs, and paved roads have been uncovered, leading to

  • Erlk?nig (song by Schubert)

    Erlk?nig, song setting by Franz Schubert, written in 1815 and based on a 1782 poem of the same name by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. “Erlk?nig” is considered by many to be one of the greatest ballads ever penned. The song was written for two performers, a singer and a pianist, and it packs a

  • Erlk?nig, Der (work by Goethe)

    The Erl-King, dramatic ballad by J.W. von Goethe, written in 1782 and published as Der Erlk?nig. The poem is based on the Germanic legend of a malevolent elf who haunts the Black Forest, luring children to destruction. It was translated into English by Sir Walter Scott and set to music in a famous

  • Erlon, Jean-Baptiste Drouet, Count d’ (French marshal)

    Jean-Baptiste Drouet, count d’Erlon, French soldier whose long career raised him from the ranks of both Louis XVI’s and Napoleon’s armies to be the first governor-general of Algeria and a marshal of France under Louis-Philippe. A volunteer in the regiment of Beaujolais from 1782, Drouet had reached

  • Erl?sungen (work by Dehmel)

    Richard Dehmel: …his first collection of poems, Erl?sungen (1891; “Redemptions”), the conflict is expressed in the opposition of unbridled sensuality and ascetic self-discipline. Dehmel found a resolution of the conflict through his belief in the mystical power of love and sex. He came to view the sensual relations between a man and…

  • erlotinib (drug)

    pancreatic cancer: Treatment: …a drug called erlotinib (Tarceva) blocks the activity of a kinase (a type of enzyme) associated with the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which stimulates unregulated cell division when mutated in cancer cells. When erlotinib is given in combination with the chemotherapeutic agent gemcitabine (Gemzar), an antimetabolite that inhibits…

  • ERM (information technology)

    electronic records: …the challenge by developing specialized electronic-records-management (ERM) tools to sit alongside office systems—and other primary software—and capture not just evidence of business transactions but the associated metadata needed to interpret those transactions (e.g., evidence of who sent what to whom, when). The prize in this branch of systems development is…

  • Ermak (Russian ship)

    Stepan Osipovich Makarov: …designed and built the icebreaker Ermak to explore the Arctic.

  • Ermak Timofeevich (Russian folk hero)

    Yermak Timofeyevich, Cossack leader of an expeditionary force during Russia’s initial attempts to annex western Siberia. He became a hero of Russian folklore. In 1579 the merchant and factory-owning Stroganov family enlisted the assistance of Yermak and a band of Cossacks to force Siberian

  • Erman, Adolf (German Egyptologist)

    ancient Egypt: The recovery and study of ancient Egypt: …greatest late 19th-century Egyptologist was Adolf Erman of Berlin, who put the understanding of the Egyptian language on a sound basis and wrote general works that for the first time organized what was known about the earlier periods.

  • Ermanaric (king of Ostrogoths)

    Ermanaric, king of the Ostrogoths, the ruler of a vast empire in Ukraine. Although the exact limits of his territory are obscure, it evidently stretched south of the Pripet Marshes between the Don and Dniester rivers. The only certain facts about Ermanaric are that his great deeds caused him to be

  • Ermanox camera (German camera)

    Erich Salomon: …1928, when he bought an Ermanox, one of the first miniature cameras equipped with a high-speed lens, which enabled him to photograph in dim light. He concealed this camera in an attaché case and secretly took photographs of a sensational murder trial. These sold so well to news periodicals that…

  • Ermelo (Netherlands)

    Ermelo, gemeente (municipality), central Netherlands, near Veluwe Lake, comprising the villages of Ermelo, Nunspeet, and Elspeet. First mentioned in 855, it has ruins of the monastery of the Knights of St. John and a church with an 11th-century Romanesque steeple and a 14th-century choir. The main

  • Ermenegildo Zegna (Italian company)

    Stefano Pilati: …head of design (2013–16) at Ermenegildo Zegna.

  • Ermengild, St. (Visigoth prince)

    St. Hermenegild, ; canonized 1585; feast day April 13), Visigothic prince who is celebrated as a saint and martyr. Hermenegild was the son of Leovigild of Spain and was brought up in the Arian heresy. In 579 he married Ingund, the daughter of Sigebert I of Austrasia and a zealous orthodox Catholic.

  • Ermenrich (king of Ostrogoths)

    Ermanaric, king of the Ostrogoths, the ruler of a vast empire in Ukraine. Although the exact limits of his territory are obscure, it evidently stretched south of the Pripet Marshes between the Don and Dniester rivers. The only certain facts about Ermanaric are that his great deeds caused him to be

  • Ermenrichus (king of Ostrogoths)

    Ermanaric, king of the Ostrogoths, the ruler of a vast empire in Ukraine. Although the exact limits of his territory are obscure, it evidently stretched south of the Pripet Marshes between the Don and Dniester rivers. The only certain facts about Ermanaric are that his great deeds caused him to be

  • Ermetismo (Italian literature)

    Hermeticism, modernist poetic movement originating in Italy in the early 20th century, whose works were characterized by unorthodox structure, illogical sequences, and highly subjective language. Although it influenced a wide circle of poets, even outside Italy, it remained inaccessible to the l

  • ermine (mammal)

    Ermine, (Mustela erminea), northern weasel species in the genus Mustela, family Mustelidae. The species is called ermine especially during its winter white colour phase. The animal’s pelt was used historically in royal robes in Europe, and the term ermine also refers to the animal’s white coat,

  • ermine (heraldry)

    heraldry: The field: …or one of the furs ermine (a white field with black spots), ermines (a black field with white spots), erminois (gold field with black spots), pean (black field with gold spots), or vair (alternating blue and white figures mimicking the fur of a species of squirrel). Two other colours appear…

  • ermine moth (insect)

    Ermine moth, any of several species of insects belonging to the family Yponomeutidae (order Lepidoptera). Ermine moths are widely distributed in the Northern Hemisphere. The hairy caterpillars feed on dandelions and other weeds, cultivated shrubs, and trees, particularly fruit trees. Ermine moths

  • Ermine Street (ancient road, England, United Kingdom)

    Ermine Street, major Roman road in England between London and York. It ran north from Bishopsgate, London, through Ware, Royston, Godmanchester, and Ancaster to Lincoln (Lindum) and thence to York (Eboracum), crossing the River Humber at Brough. It remained one of the great roads of England until

  • Ermita (district, Manila, Philippines)

    Manila: City layout: On the south shore, Ermita and Malate are choice residential districts and the sites of hotels and embassies. The districts to the southeast are generally middle-income residential areas.

  • Ermita de Jesús (chapel, Murcia, Spain)

    Murcia: In the Hermitage of Jesus (Ermita de Jesús) are the majority of the Passion sculptures of Francisco Salzillo, which attract many visitors during Holy Week. The University of Murcia was founded in 1915.

  • Ermittlung, Die (work by Weiss)

    Peter Weiss: Die Ermittlung (1965; The Investigation) is a documentary drama re-creating the Frankfurt trials of the men who carried out mass murders at Auschwitz; at the same time, it attacks later German hypocrisy over the existence of concentration camps and investigates the root causes of aggression. Weiss’s other plays…

  • Ermler, Fridrikh Markovich (Russian film director)

    Fridrikh Markovich Ermler, motion-picture director whose films deal with Soviet problems. Ermler studied at the Leningrad Institute of Screen Arts. He directed his first film in 1927 and then earned critical notice for Parizhsky sapozhnik (1928; The Parisian Cobbler). Other major films include

  • Ermo, Saint (Christian martyr)

    Saint Erasmus, ; feast day June 2), early Christian bishop, martyr, and one of the patron saints of sailors, who is romantically associated with Saint Elmo’s fire (the glow accompanying the brushlike discharges of atmospheric electricity that appears as a tip of light on the masts of ships during

  • Ermoúpolis (Greece)

    Hermoúpolis, chief port of the island of Syros (part of the Cyclades group in the Aegean Sea), South Aegean (Modern Greek: Nótio Aigaío) periféreia (region), southeastern Greece. The seat of both a Greek Orthodox and a Roman Catholic archbishopric, it was founded in 1821 at the beginning of the War

  • Ernald, Sir Oswald (English politician)

    Oswald Mosley, English politician who was the leader of the British Union of Fascists from 1932 to 1940 and of its successor, the Union Movement, from 1948 until his death. Those groups were known for distributing anti-Semitic propaganda, conducting hostile demonstrations in the Jewish sections of

  • Ernani (opera by Verdi)

    Giuseppe Verdi: Early career: …on the First Crusade) and Ernani (1844). The latter became the only work of the “galley-slave” period to gain a steady place in the opera repertory worldwide. His other operas had varying receptions. A list made in 1844 of possible subjects for librettos shows Verdi’s high-minded concern for literary and…

  • Ernaux, Annie (French author)

    French literature: Prose fiction: …in the autobiographical fiction of Annie Ernaux, who, in La Place (1983; Positions, also published as A Man’s Place) and Une Femme (1988; “A Woman”; A Woman’s Story), looked at the stresses between generations created by social change and changes of class allegiance. Ernaux’s later writing was more directly personal:…

  • Erne Basin (region, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom)

    Fermanagh: …chiefly in the ruggedly scenic Erne basin, which divides it into two nearly equal sections. The surface is hilly, rising to 2,188 feet (667 metres) on the southern frontier at Cuilcagh. Upper and Lower Lough (lake) Erne stretch from southeast to northwest, being expansions of the River Erne, which enters…

  • Erne, Lough (lake, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom)

    Lough Erne, lake in Fermanagh district (established 1973), formerly County Fermanagh, Northern Ireland. It is 40 miles (64 km) long and has an average width of 5 miles (8 km) and a maximum depth of 200 feet (60 m). The lake consists of the shallow Upper Lough Erne, 12 miles (19 km) long, and Lower

  • Erne, River (river, Ireland-United Kingdom)

    River Erne, river in northwestern Ireland and southwestern Northern Ireland. It rises in Lough (lake) Gowna, County Longford (Ireland), and flows into Upper and Lower Lough Erne via Enniskillen in the district of Fermanagh, Northern Ireland. The river then reenters Ireland before reaching Donegal

  • Ernest (Babenberg margrave)

    Austria: Early Babenberg period: In 1075 Margrave Ernest, who had regained the Neumark and the Bohemian March for his family, was killed in the Battle of the Unstrut, fighting on the side of Henry IV against the rebellious Saxons. Altmann, bishop of Passau, a leader of church reform and a champion of…

  • Ernest Augustus (king of Hanover)

    Ernest Augustus, king of Hanover, from 1837 to 1851, the fifth son of George III of England. Ernest Augustus studied at G?ttingen, entered the Hanoverian army, and served as a leader of cavalry when war broke out between Great Britain and France in 1793. When Hanover withdrew from the war in 1795

  • Ernest Augustus (pretender to Hanoverian throne)

    Ernest Augustus, only son of George V of Hanover and pretender to the Hanoverian throne from 1878 to 1913. After his father was deposed as a result of the Seven Weeks’ War between Prussia and Austria (in which Hanover had sided with losing Austria), Ernest Augustus lived mainly in Austria. On his

  • Ernest Augustus (elector of Hanover)

    Ernest Augustus, duke (from 1679) and elector (from 1692) of Hanover, father of George Louis, who became George I, king of Great Britain. The Protestant bishop of Osnabrück from 1661, Ernest Augustus succeeded his elder brother as ruler of the duchy of Lüneburg-Calenburg (which became known as the

  • Ernest Augustus, Prince, duke of Cumberland, duke of Teviotdale, earl of Armagh (king of Hanover)

    Ernest Augustus, king of Hanover, from 1837 to 1851, the fifth son of George III of England. Ernest Augustus studied at G?ttingen, entered the Hanoverian army, and served as a leader of cavalry when war broke out between Great Britain and France in 1793. When Hanover withdrew from the war in 1795

  • Ernest der Fromme (duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg)

    Ernest I, duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, who, after the ravages of the Thirty Years’ War, sought to rebuild and reform his country. An ardent Lutheran, Ernest allied himself with the Swedes from 1631, fighting in the battles of Lech, Nürnberg, Lützen, and N?rdlingen. In 1635 he signed the Peace of P

  • Ernest I (duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha)

    Ernest I, duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (as Ernest III) from 1806 and then, from 1826, duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. He was the uncle of Queen Victoria and the father of her husband, Prince Albert. When Ernest succeeded to the Duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld on the death of his father (Francis) in 1806,

  • Ernest I (duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg)

    Ernest I, duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, who, after the ravages of the Thirty Years’ War, sought to rebuild and reform his country. An ardent Lutheran, Ernest allied himself with the Swedes from 1631, fighting in the battles of Lech, Nürnberg, Lützen, and N?rdlingen. In 1635 he signed the Peace of P

  • Ernest II (duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha)

    Ernest II, duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, brother of Prince Albert (consort of Queen Victoria of England), and a strong supporter of German unification. Ernest was the eldest son of Duke Ernest I and his first wife, Louise of Saxe-Gotha. In 1842 he married Alexandrine of Baden, and he succeeded to the

  • Ernest Louis (grand duke of Hesse-Darmstadt)

    Ernest Louis, grand duke of Hesse-Darmstadt from 1892 until his abdication in 1918, at the end of World War I. His father was the grand duke Louis IV, whom he succeeded on March 13, 1892, and his mother was Princess Alice, daughter of Queen Victoria of England and the prince consort, Albert. Ernest

  • Ernest Maltravers (novel by Lytton)

    Japanese literature: Introduction of Western literature: …of a European novel was Ernest Maltravers, by the British novelist Edward Bulwer-Lytton, which appeared in 1879 under the title Karyū shunwa (“A Spring Tale of Blossoms and Willows”). The early translations were inaccurate, and the translators unceremoniously deleted any passages that they could not understand readily or that they…

  • Ernest the Pious (duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg)

    Ernest I, duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, who, after the ravages of the Thirty Years’ War, sought to rebuild and reform his country. An ardent Lutheran, Ernest allied himself with the Swedes from 1631, fighting in the battles of Lech, Nürnberg, Lützen, and N?rdlingen. In 1635 he signed the Peace of P

  • Ernesti, August (German educator)

    Johann Sebastian Bach: Nonmusical duties: …1734 and was succeeded by Johann August Ernesti, a young man with up-to-date ideas on education, one of which was that music was not one of the humanities but a time-wasting sideline. Trouble flared up again in July 1736; it then took the form of a dispute over Bach’s right…

  • Ernestine duchies (historical region, Germany)

    Saxon duchies, several former states in the Thuringian region of east-central Germany, ruled by members of the Ernestine branch of the house of Wettin between 1485 and 1918; today their territory occupies Thuringia Land (state) and a small portion of northern Bavaria Land in Germany. The house of

  • Ernestinische Herzogtümer (historical region, Germany)

    Saxon duchies, several former states in the Thuringian region of east-central Germany, ruled by members of the Ernestine branch of the house of Wettin between 1485 and 1918; today their territory occupies Thuringia Land (state) and a small portion of northern Bavaria Land in Germany. The house of

  • Erni, Hans (Swiss artist)

    Hans Erni, (Fran?ois Grècque), Swiss artist (born Feb. 21, 1909, Lucerne, Switz.—died March 21, 2015, Lucerne), produced a wide range of graphic works, from scores of tiny postage stamps for Switzerland, Liechtenstein, the United Nations, and others to massive frescoes, most notably the 100-m-long

  • Ernst August (elector of Hanover)

    Ernest Augustus, duke (from 1679) and elector (from 1692) of Hanover, father of George Louis, who became George I, king of Great Britain. The Protestant bishop of Osnabrück from 1661, Ernest Augustus succeeded his elder brother as ruler of the duchy of Lüneburg-Calenburg (which became known as the

  • Ernst Ludwig Karl Albrecht Wilhelm (grand duke of Hesse-Darmstadt)

    Ernest Louis, grand duke of Hesse-Darmstadt from 1892 until his abdication in 1918, at the end of World War I. His father was the grand duke Louis IV, whom he succeeded on March 13, 1892, and his mother was Princess Alice, daughter of Queen Victoria of England and the prince consort, Albert. Ernest

  • Ernst of Bavaria (German bishop)

    Germany: Religion and politics, 1555–1618: …by Spanish troops, and Duke Ernst of Bavaria was chosen as his successor. Throughout the 1590s the incorporation of church properties by Protestant governments was a cause of litigation before the empire’s courts, as Roman Catholic authorities sought to compel the return of everything confiscated since 1555; Protestant states, in…

  • Ernst the Pious (German noble)

    education: The schools of Gotha: The duke, Ernst the Pious, commissioned the rector Andreas Reyher to compile a system of school regulations, which appeared in 1642 and is known historically as the Gothaer Schulmethodus. This was the first independent civil system of school regulations in Germany and was strongly influenced by Ratke.…

  • Ernst, Joni (United States senator)

    Joni Ernst, American politician who was elected as a Republican to the U.S. Senate in 2014 and began her first term representing Iowa the following year. She was the first female combat veteran to serve in the Senate and the first woman to represent Iowa in Congress. Culver was raised on a farm

  • Ernst, Karl (Nazi leader)

    Reichstag fire: …whereby 10 agents led by Karl Ernst were to gain access to the Reichstag through a tunnel leading from the official residence of Hermann G?ring, Reichstag president and Hitler’s chief minister, who was then to conduct an official investigation, which would fix responsibility for the fire on the communists. The…

  • Ernst, Max (German artist)

    Max Ernst, German painter and sculptor who was one of the leading advocates of irrationality in art and an originator of the Automatism movement of Surrealism. He became a naturalized citizen of both the United States (1948) and France (1958). Ernst’s early interests were psychiatry and philosophy,

  • Ernst, Maximilian Maria (German artist)

    Max Ernst, German painter and sculptor who was one of the leading advocates of irrationality in art and an originator of the Automatism movement of Surrealism. He became a naturalized citizen of both the United States (1948) and France (1958). Ernst’s early interests were psychiatry and philosophy,

  • Ernst, Paul (German writer)

    Paul Ernst, German writer known particularly for his short stories and for essays on philosophical, economic, and literary problems. Ernst studied for the ministry but quickly became disillusioned with theology. He became a militant Marxist and the editor of the Berliner Volkstribüne. He severed

  • Ernst, Paul Karl Friedrich (German writer)

    Paul Ernst, German writer known particularly for his short stories and for essays on philosophical, economic, and literary problems. Ernst studied for the ministry but quickly became disillusioned with theology. He became a militant Marxist and the editor of the Berliner Volkstribüne. He severed

  • Ernst, Richard R. (Swiss chemist)

    Richard R. Ernst, Swiss chemist and teacher who in 1991 won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry for his development of techniques for high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Ernst’s refinements made NMR techniques a basic and indispensable tool in chemistry and also extended their

  • Ernst, Richard Robert (Swiss chemist)

    Richard R. Ernst, Swiss chemist and teacher who in 1991 won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry for his development of techniques for high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Ernst’s refinements made NMR techniques a basic and indispensable tool in chemistry and also extended their

  • Ernst-Barlack-Haus (museum, Hamburg, Germany)

    Hamburg: Cultural life: The Ernst-Barlach-Haus, in Jenisch Park, was founded in 1961–62 by another great patron of the arts, Hermann F. Reemtsma, to make his private collection accessible to the public. Hamburg’s once famous Zoological Museum was destroyed by bombs in 1943 after a century of existence.

  • ERO (American organization)

    eugenics: Eugenics organizations and legislation: In the United States, the Eugenics Record Office (ERO) was opened at Cold Spring Harbor, Long Island, New York, in 1910 with financial support from the legacy of railroad magnate Edward Henry Harriman. Whereas ERO efforts were officially overseen by Charles B. Davenport, director of the Station for Experimental Study…

  • Eroberung der Welt, Die (novel by Graf)

    Oskar Maria Graf: …in particular his utopian novel, Die Eroberung der Welt (1949; “The Conquest of the World”), reissued as Die Erben des Untergangs (1959; “The Heirs of the Ruins”).

  • Erode (India)

    Erode, city, northern Tamil Nadu state, southern India. It lies on the Kaveri (Cauvery) River, roughly equidistant from Salem (northeast) and Tiruppur (southwest). Temple inscriptions indicate the prominent role played by the town as early as the 10th century ce. Its name is associated with a Chola

  • Erodium (plant, Erodium genus)

    Storksbill, any of several flowering plants of the genus Erodium, in the geranium family (Geraniaceae), of worldwide distribution. Many species are wild flowers useful in garden borders and rock gardens; some are used for forage; and a number of them are weedy. The common names refer to the

  • Erodium cicutarium (plant)

    Geraniales: Erodium cicutarium (pin-clover), a Mediterranean species now naturalized in the United States, is a weed, though in California it is grown as a forage crop.

  • eroe del nostro tempo, Un (work by Pratolini)

    Vasco Pratolini: …A Hero of Today, or, A Hero of Our Time) attacks fascism.

  • Ero?lu, Dervi? (president of Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus)

    Dervi? Ero?lu, Turkish Cypriot physician and politician who served as president of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC) from 2010 to 2015. Ero?lu completed his secondary education in Famagusta, Cyprus, after which he attended Istanbul University in the faculty of medicine. After

  • Eroica (work by Politis)

    Greek literature: Literature after 1922: …in the turbulent 1920s; and Eroica (1937) by Kosmás Polítis, about the first encounter of a group of well-to-do schoolboys with love and death.

  • Eroica Symphony (symphony by Beethoven)

    Eroica Symphony, symphony by Ludwig van Beethoven, known as the Eroica Symphony for its supposed heroic nature. The work premiered in Vienna on April 7, 1805, and was grander and more dramatic than customary for symphonies at the time. It was Beethoven’s largest solely instrumental work. It has

  • eroici furori, De gli (work by Bruno)

    Giordano Bruno: Works: …De gli eroici furori (1585; The Heroic Frenzies), Bruno, making use of Neoplatonic imagery, treats the attainment of union with the infinite One by the human soul and exhorts man to the conquest of virtue and truth.

  • Erolia alpina (bird)

    Dunlin, (Calidris alpina), one of the most common and sociable birds of the sandpiper group. The dunlin is a member of the family Scolopacidae (order Charadriiformes). It is about 20 cm (8 inches) long and has a bill curved downward at the tip. In breeding season, its plumage is brightly coloured,

  • Eromanga (island, Vanuatu)

    Erromango, volcanic island of Vanuatu, in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The island, with an area of 376 square miles (975 square km), rises in the interior to 2,907 feet (886 metres) at Santop. It had a sandalwood trade beginning in 1825; overexploitation caused almost total depletion of the

  • Eromango (island, Vanuatu)

    Erromango, volcanic island of Vanuatu, in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The island, with an area of 376 square miles (975 square km), rises in the interior to 2,907 feet (886 metres) at Santop. It had a sandalwood trade beginning in 1825; overexploitation caused almost total depletion of the

  • Erophila (plant genus)
  • Erophila verna (plant)

    whitlow grass: The European common whitlow grass (Draba verna) is a low annual with small rosettes of narrow leaves, clusters of white flowers at the ends of leafless stems, and spear-shaped fruits borne on long stalks. It has naturalized in northern North America and grows on mountains, sandy ground,…

  • eros (psychology and philosophy)

    Christianity: Church and family: …in the Platonic concept of eros, was opposed in the Christian community by the biblical understanding of love, agape. Although erotic love has frequently been understood primarily as sexual desire and passion, its classical religious and philosophical meaning was the idealistic desire to acquire the highest spiritual and intellectual good.…

  • Eros (statue, London, United Kingdom)

    Western sculpture: 19th-century sculpture: …fountain since the Renaissance (the Eros in Piccadilly Circus), also became the first sculptor of the foremost rank since Cellini to devote himself wholeheartedly to the art of the goldsmith.

  • Eros (Greek god)

    Eros, in Greek religion, god of love. In the Theogony of Hesiod (fl. 700 bce), Eros was a primeval god, son of Chaos, the original primeval emptiness of the universe, but later tradition made him the son of Aphrodite, goddess of sexual love and beauty, by either Zeus (the king of the gods), Ares

  • Eros (asteroid)

    Eros, first asteroid found to travel mainly inside the orbit of Mars and the first to be orbited and landed on by a spacecraft. Eros was discovered on August 13, 1898, by German astronomer Gustav Witt at the Urania Observatory in Berlin. It is named for the god of love in Greek mythology. A member

  • Eros and Civilization: A Philosophical Inquiry into Freud (work by Marcuse)

    Herbert Marcuse: Marcuse’s first major work, Eros and Civilization: A Philosophical Inquiry into Freud (1955), is a sweeping indictment of capitalism that is remarkable for not once mentioning Karl Marx (1818–83). The basis of Marcuse’s critique is the instinctive psychological drives posited by Sigmund Freud (1856–1939); according to Marcuse, these drives…

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