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  • Erie (county, Pennsylvania, United States)

    Erie, county, extreme northwestern Pennsylvania, U.S., bordered by Lake Erie to the northwest, New York state to the northeast, and Ohio to the southwest. It consists of low hills that rise toward the southeast. The principal waterways are Conneaut, Elk, and French creeks as well as Edinboro Lake

  • Erie (county, New York, United States)

    Erie, county, extreme western New York state, U.S., bounded to the south by Cattaraugus Creek, to the west by Lake Erie, to the northwest by the Niagara River, and to the north by Tonawanda Creek, which is incorporated into the New York State Canal System and its constituent the Erie Canal. The

  • Erie Canal (canal, United States)

    Erie Canal, historic waterway of the United States, connecting the Great Lakes with New York City via the Hudson River at Albany. Taking advantage of the Mohawk River gap in the Appalachian Mountains, the Erie Canal, 363 miles (584 km) long, was the first canal in the United States to connect

  • Erie Extension Canal (canal, Pennsylvania, United States)

    Erie: …the opening (1844) of the Erie Extension (or Beaver-Erie) Canal and with railway construction in the 1850s. Manufactures are now well diversified and include locomotives, plastics, electrical equipment, metalworking and machinery, hospital equipment, paper, chemicals, and rubber products. Erie is Pennsylvania’s only port on the St. Lawrence Seaway and is…

  • Erie Lackawanna Railroad Company (American railway)

    Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad Company, American railroad built to carry coal from the anthracite fields of northeastern Pennsylvania. Originally known as Ligget’s Gap Railroad, it was chartered in 1851 as the Lackawanna and Western. Eventually it ran from the Lackawanna Valley in

  • Erie Railroad Company (American railway)

    Erie Railroad Company, U.S. railroad running between New York City, Buffalo, and Chicago, through the southern counties of New York state and skirting Lake Erie. It was incorporated in 1832 as the New York and Erie Railroad Company, to build from Piermont, N.Y., on the west bank of the Hudson

  • Erie, Lake (lake, North America)

    Lake Erie, fourth largest of the five Great Lakes of North America. It forms the boundary between Canada (Ontario) to the north and the United States (Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York) to the west, south, and east. The major axis of the lake extends from west-southwest to east-northeast

  • Erie-Ontario Lowlands (region, North America)

    New York: Relief: …plateaulike region known as the Erie-Ontario Lowlands lies to the north of the Appalachian Highlands and west of the Mohawk valley and extends along the southern shores of the Great Lakes. It is composed of lake plains bordering the Great Lakes that extend up to 30 miles (50 km) inland…

  • Erigena, John Scotus (Irish philosopher)

    John Scotus Erigena, theologian, translator, and commentator on several earlier authors in works centring on the integration of Greek and Neoplatonist philosophy with Christian belief. From about 845, Erigena lived at the court of the West Frankish king Charles II the Bald, near Laon (now in

  • Erigeron (plant)

    Fleabane, any of the plants of the genus Erigeron of the family Asteraceae, order Asterales, containing about 200 species of annual, biennial, and perennial herbs native primarily to temperate parts of the world. Some species are cultivated as rock garden or border ornamentals, especially E.

  • Erignathus barbatus (mammal)

    Bearded seal, (Erignathus barbatus), nonmigratory seal of the family Phocidae, distinguished by the bushy, bristly whiskers for which it is named; it is also known as “squareflipper” after the rectangular shape of the foreflipper. Highly valued by Eskimos for its hide, meat, and blubber, the

  • Erigone (Greek mythology)

    Erigone, in Greek mythology, daughter of Icarius, the hero of the Attic deme (township) of Icaria. Her father, who had been taught by the god Dionysus to make wine, gave some to several shepherds, who became intoxicated. Their companions, thinking they had been poisoned, killed Icarius and buried

  • eriin gurvan naadam (Mongolian national festival)

    Mongolia: Sports and recreation: …“three games of men” (eriin gurvan naadam), the main components of the annual national festival beginning on July 11—the date previously observed as the anniversary of the Mongolian revolution. In Qing times these ancient games (naadam) were held every three years and accompanied a Tibetan Buddhist ritual for the…

  • Erik av Pommern (king of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden)

    Erik VII, king of the united realms of Denmark, Norway (as Erik III), and Sweden (as Erik XIII) from 1397 to 1439; his autocratic rule and foreign wars eventually lost him the throne in all three of his dominions. The son of Duke Vratislav VII of Pomerania and the great-nephew of Margaret, queen of

  • Erik Bloodax (king of Norway and Northumberland)

    Erik I, king of Norway (c. 930–935) and later king of Northumberland (948, 952–954). On the death of his father, Harald I Fairhair, first king of united Norway, Erik attempted to make himself sole king of Norway, defeating and slaying two of his brothers to whom vassal kingdoms had been assigned by

  • Erik Ejegod (king of Denmark)

    Denmark: The monarchy: …Holy; 1080–86), Oluf Hunger (1086–95), Erik Ejegod (1095–1103), and Niels (1104–34). Their reigns were marked by conflict over the extent of the king’s power, and both Canute and Niels were assassinated. By 1146 civil war had divided the kingdom between three contenders.

  • Erik Eriksson (king of Sweden)

    Sweden: Civil wars: Erik, Erik Eriksson, to whose sister he was married. Birger’s eldest son, Valdemar, was elected king when Erik died (1250). After Birger defeated the rebellious magnates, he assisted his son in the government of the country and gave fiefs to his younger sons. Birger was in…

  • Erik Glipping (king of Denmark)

    Erik V, king of Denmark (1259–86) whose reign saw the expansion of the power of the great nobles and prelates, formalized by the royal charter of 1282, and the restoration of Danish sovereignty in Schleswig (southern Jutland). The son of Christopher I, Erik succeeded to the throne in 1259 after the

  • Erik I (king of Norway and Northumberland)

    Erik I, king of Norway (c. 930–935) and later king of Northumberland (948, 952–954). On the death of his father, Harald I Fairhair, first king of united Norway, Erik attempted to make himself sole king of Norway, defeating and slaying two of his brothers to whom vassal kingdoms had been assigned by

  • Erik II (king of Norway)

    Norway: Conflict of church and state: …succeeded by his young son Erik II (1280–99). Erik’s regency was led by secular magnates who controlled central power throughout his reign. The church tried to win privileges that had been denied by Magnus, but the regency proved stronger. The magnates also tried to limit the rights of the German…

  • Erik Ivarsson (Norwegian archbishop)

    Sverrir Sigurdsson: …forces, however, alienated Eystein’s successor, Erik Ivarsson, who refused to crown Sverrir and fled to Denmark with many of the nation’s bishops in 1190. The remaining bishops crowned Sverrir in 1194 but were later excommunicated along with the king by Pope Innocent III. To the denunciations of the pope and…

  • Erik IX (king of Sweden)

    Christianity: Papal mission: Sweden’s Eric IX controlled Finland and in 1155 required the Finns to be baptized, but only in 1291, with the appointment of Magnus, the first Finnish bishop, was evangelization completed.

  • Erik Jedvardsson (Swedish leader)

    Sweden: The 12th, 13th, and 14th centuries: …Sverker’s reign, a pretender named Erik Jedvardsson was proclaimed king in Svealand; little is known about Erik, but according to legend he undertook a crusade to Finland, died violently about 1160, and was later canonized as the patron saint of Sweden.

  • Erik Klipping (king of Denmark)

    Erik V, king of Denmark (1259–86) whose reign saw the expansion of the power of the great nobles and prelates, formalized by the royal charter of 1282, and the restoration of Danish sovereignty in Schleswig (southern Jutland). The son of Christopher I, Erik succeeded to the throne in 1259 after the

  • Erik Knutsson (king of Sweden)

    Sweden: Civil wars: …the archbishop was that of Erik Knutsson in 1210. The church also gave its sanction to the “crusades” against Finland and the eastern Baltic coast; the action combined an attempt at Christianization with an attempt at conquering the areas.

  • Erik Magnusson (king of Sweden)

    Sweden: Code of law: In 1344 Magnus’s elder son Erik was elected heir to the Swedish throne, one year after his younger brother Haakon received the crown of Norway. Erik made common cause with the nobility and his uncle, Albert of Mecklenburg, against his father; and in 1356 Magnus was forced to share the…

  • Erik Magnusson (Swedish duke)

    Sweden: Civil wars: The king’s younger brothers Erik and Valdemar, who were made dukes, attempted to establish their own policies and were forced to flee to Norway (1304), where they received support from the Norwegian king; the following year the three brothers were reconciled. A new political faction was created by the…

  • Erik Menved (king of Denmark)

    Erik VI, king of Denmark (1286–1319) under whom the conflict between church and monarchy, which had first arisen during the rule of his grandfather Christopher I, reached its peak and was tenuously resolved. Erik’s attempts to renew Danish conquests along the southern Baltic coast greatly w

  • Erik of Pomerania (king of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden)

    Erik VII, king of the united realms of Denmark, Norway (as Erik III), and Sweden (as Erik XIII) from 1397 to 1439; his autocratic rule and foreign wars eventually lost him the throne in all three of his dominions. The son of Duke Vratislav VII of Pomerania and the great-nephew of Margaret, queen of

  • Erik of Pommern (king of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden)

    Erik VII, king of the united realms of Denmark, Norway (as Erik III), and Sweden (as Erik XIII) from 1397 to 1439; his autocratic rule and foreign wars eventually lost him the throne in all three of his dominions. The son of Duke Vratislav VII of Pomerania and the great-nephew of Margaret, queen of

  • Erik the Red (Norwegian explorer)

    Erik the Red, founder of the first European settlement on Greenland (c. 985) and the father of Leif Erikson, one of the first Europeans to reach North America. According to the Icelanders’ sagas, Erik left his native Norway for western Iceland with his father, Thorvald, who had been exiled for

  • Erik V (king of Denmark)

    Erik V, king of Denmark (1259–86) whose reign saw the expansion of the power of the great nobles and prelates, formalized by the royal charter of 1282, and the restoration of Danish sovereignty in Schleswig (southern Jutland). The son of Christopher I, Erik succeeded to the throne in 1259 after the

  • Erik VI (king of Denmark)

    Erik VI, king of Denmark (1286–1319) under whom the conflict between church and monarchy, which had first arisen during the rule of his grandfather Christopher I, reached its peak and was tenuously resolved. Erik’s attempts to renew Danish conquests along the southern Baltic coast greatly w

  • Erik VII (king of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden)

    Erik VII, king of the united realms of Denmark, Norway (as Erik III), and Sweden (as Erik XIII) from 1397 to 1439; his autocratic rule and foreign wars eventually lost him the throne in all three of his dominions. The son of Duke Vratislav VII of Pomerania and the great-nephew of Margaret, queen of

  • Erik XIV (king of Sweden)

    Erik XIV, king of Sweden (1560–68) who expanded the powers of the monarchy and pursued an aggressive foreign policy that led to the Seven Years’ War of the North (1563–70) against Denmark. Succeeding his father, Gustav I Vasa, in 1560, Erik soon obtained passage of the Articles of Arboga (1561),

  • Eriksen, Ivar (Norwegian speed skater)

    Ivar Ballangrud, Norwegian speed skater who, with Clas Thunberg of Finland, dominated speed-skating competitions in the 1920s and ’30s. He won seven Olympic medals in his career, as well as four world championships and four European championships. Ballangrud’s Olympic debut came at the 1928 Games

  • Eriksen, Stein (Norwegian-born skier, instructor, and ski-resort developer)

    Stein Eriksen, Norwegian-born skier, instructor, and ski-resort developer (born Dec. 11, 1927, Oslo, Nor.—died Dec. 27, 2015, Park City, Utah), won a gold medal in the giant slalom and a silver medal in the slalom at the 1952 Olympic Winter Games in Oslo and three gold medals (slalom, giant slalom,

  • Erikson, Erik (American psychoanalyst)

    Erik Erikson, German-born American psychoanalyst whose writings on social psychology, individual identity, and the interactions of psychology with history, politics, and culture influenced professional approaches to psychosocial problems and attracted much popular interest. As a young man, Erikson

  • Erikson, Erik H. (American psychoanalyst)

    Erik Erikson, German-born American psychoanalyst whose writings on social psychology, individual identity, and the interactions of psychology with history, politics, and culture influenced professional approaches to psychosocial problems and attracted much popular interest. As a young man, Erikson

  • Erikson, Erik Homburger (American psychoanalyst)

    Erik Erikson, German-born American psychoanalyst whose writings on social psychology, individual identity, and the interactions of psychology with history, politics, and culture influenced professional approaches to psychosocial problems and attracted much popular interest. As a young man, Erikson

  • Erikson, Joan Mowat Serson (American psychologist)

    Joan Mowat Serson Erikson, Canadian-born American psychologist, writer, and craftsperson who, in addition to pursuing her own arts and crafts interests, collaborated with her husband, Erik Erikson, on a human-development theory that proposed that there are eight cycles through which a person’s

  • Eriksson, Leif (Norse explorer)

    Leif Erikson, Norse explorer widely held to have been the first European to reach the shores of North America. The 13th- and 14th-century Icelandic accounts of his life show that he was a member of an early voyage to North America, although he may not have been the first to sight its coast. The

  • Erim, Nihat (prime minister of Turkey)

    Nihat Erim, Turkish politician who served as prime minister of Turkey from 1971 to 1972, heading a coalition government while the country was under martial law. Erim was trained as a lawyer in Istanbul and Paris, and he taught at the University of Ankara until his appointment in 1942 as legal

  • Erimyzon sucetta (fish)

    sucker: The lake chubsucker (Erimyzon sucetta), for example, is a small species up to 25 cm (10 inches) long, and the bigmouth buffalo fish (Ictiobus cyprinellus), a large sucker, measures up to 90 cm in length and 33 kg (73 pounds) in weight. Suckers are bony but…

  • Erin Brockovich (film by Soderbergh [2000])

    Steven Soderbergh: Breakthrough: sex, lies, and videotape; Erin Brockovich; and Traffic: …director with the release of Erin Brockovich and Traffic. The former was based on the true story of a woman (played by Julia Roberts) who discovers that a power company is polluting the groundwater of a small town and aids the residents in a successful lawsuit. Traffic, a pseudo-documentary, depicts…

  • Erinaceidae (mammal family)

    insectivore: Classification: Family Erinaceidae (hedgehogs, gymnures, and the moonrat) 23 species in 7 genera. 22 fossil genera dating to the Paleocene in North America, the Eocene in Europe and Asia, and the Miocene in Africa. Subfamily Erinaceinae (hedgehogs) 15 species in 4 genera from Europe, Asia, and Africa.…

  • Erinaceinae (mammal)

    Hedgehog, (subfamily Erinaceinae), any of 15 Old World species of insectivores possessing several thousand short, smooth spines. Most species weigh under 700 grams (1.5 pounds), but the common western European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) can grow to 1,100 grams. Body length is 14 to 30 cm (5.5

  • Erinaceomorpha (mammal order)

    insectivore: Classification: Order Erinaceomorpha 23 species in 1 family. 4 fossil families contain 15 genera and 9 additional genera unallocated to families dating to the Early Paleocene Epoch. The group’s evolutionary relationship with other lipotyphlans and even with other mammalian orders is unresolved. Moles (family Talpidae) are sometimes…

  • Erinaceus europaeus (mammal)

    hedgehog: 5 pounds), but the common western European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) can grow to 1,100 grams. Body length is 14 to 30 cm (5.5 to 12 inches), and there is a stumpy and sparsely furred tail measuring 1 to 6 cm. In addition to the three species of Eurasian hedgehogs (genus…

  • Erinna (Greek poet)

    Erinna, Greek poet of the Aegean island of Telos, known in antiquity for “The Distaff,” a hexameter poem of lament for a friend, written in the local Dorian dialect. Surviving fragments of her work include three epigrams. She is said to have died at the age of

  • Erinnerungen (work by Speer)

    Albert Speer: His published works included Erinnerungen (1969; Inside the Third Reich, 1970), Spandauer Tagebücher (1975; Spandau: The Secret Diaries, 1976), and Der Sklavenstaat (1981; Infiltration, 1981).

  • Erinyes (Greco-Roman mythology)

    Furies, in Greco-Roman mythology, the chthonic goddesses of vengeance. They were probably personified curses, but possibly they were originally conceived of as ghosts of the murdered. According to the Greek poet Hesiod, they were the daughters of Gaea (Earth) and sprang from the blood of her

  • Eriobotrya japonica (tree)

    Loquat, (Eriobotrya japonica), subtropical tree of the rose family (Rosaceae), grown for its evergreen foliage and edible fruit. The loquat is native to central eastern China. It was introduced to Japan more than 1,000 years ago, where it was developed horticulturally and is still highly valued.

  • Eriocaulaceae (plant family)

    Poales: Eriocaulaceae and Xyridaceae: Eriocaulaceae and Xyridaceae are generally tufted herbs with rosettes of leaves and flowers clustered into capitate inflorescences. Eriocaulaceae, or the pipewort family, contains 10 genera of small tufted herbs with grasslike leaves that grow in aquatic and marshy habitats, mostly in tropical…

  • Eriocaulales (plant order)

    Eriocaulales, the pipewort order of monocotyledonous flowering plants (i.e., those characterized by one seed leaf), consisting of one family, Eriocaulaceae, with 13 genera of small, tufted herbs with grasslike leaves that grow in aquatic and marshy habitats, mostly in tropical and subtropical

  • Eriocaulon (plant genus)

    Eriocaulales: …genera are Paepalanthus (485 species), Eriocaulon (400 species), Syngonanthus (195 species), and Leiothrix (65 species). About 30 species of Eriocaulon occur outside the tropics in Japan, about 8 occur in eastern North America, and only 1 (E. septangulare) is known in Europe.

  • Eriocheir sinensis (crustacean)

    migration: Lower invertebrates: …freshwater crabs, such as the Chinese crab (Eriocheir sinensis), after remaining for three to five years in fresh water, migrate to brackish water, where mating occurs. Females with eggs externally attached then travel to the sea and remain a few miles offshore for several months during winter. The following spring…

  • eriocraniid moth (insect)

    lepidopteran: Annotated classification: Family Eriocraniidae (sparkling archaic sun moths) 24 species with a Holarctic distribution; often brilliantly coloured; adults feed on nectar; related families: Mnesarchiidae (New Zealand), Mesopseustidae (India and Taiwan). Assorted Referencesability to hear

  • Eriocraniidae (insect)

    lepidopteran: Annotated classification: Family Eriocraniidae (sparkling archaic sun moths) 24 species with a Holarctic distribution; often brilliantly coloured; adults feed on nectar; related families: Mnesarchiidae (New Zealand), Mesopseustidae (India and Taiwan). Assorted Referencesability to hear

  • Eriocranioidea (insect superfamily)

    lepidopteran: Annotated classification: Superfamily Eriocranioidea 24 species in 1 family; females with one genital opening, a long cloaca, and a piercing ovipositor; adults with a short proboscis; pupae with functional mandibles. Family Eriocraniidae (sparkling archaic sun moths) 24 species with a Holarctic distribution; often brilliantly coloured; adults feed on…

  • Eriogonum alenii (plant)

    umbrella plant: Eriogonum alenii, native to the western United States, is a white woolly member of the buckwheat family (Polygonaceae). It grows to 50 cm (20 inches). Another umbrella plant, in the family Saxifragaceae, is Peltiphyllum peltatum; its leaves are about 25 cm (10 inches) across, with…

  • erionite (mineral)

    Erionite, hydrated sodium-potassium-calcium aluminosilicate mineral in the zeolite family, one of the most abundant zeolites present in sedimentary rocks. Its chemical composition is approximately represented by the formula (Na2,K2,Ca)2Al4Si14O36·15H2O. It forms woolly, fibrous crystals that have

  • Eriosoma lanigerum (insect)

    aphid: Types of aphids: The woolly apple aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum) lives on roots and may stunt or kill apple trees. White cottony masses enclose the young aphids. It is controlled by parasites.

  • Eriosorus (former plant genus)

    Pteridaceae: Pteridoid clade: …species of the former genus Eriosorus are now placed in Jamesonia. They occur at high elevations, such as the Andean paramos, and some of the species have leaves that drape over other vegetation and continue to uncurl from an indeterminate apex. Anopteris, Ochropteris, and Neurocallis each have a single species…

  • Eriosyce senilis (plant)

    old man cactus: chrysacanthus); old woman (Mammillaria hahniana); Chilean old lady (Eriosyce senilis); and old man of the mountain (Cleistocactus trollii).

  • Eris (astronomy)

    Eris, large, distant body of the solar system, revolving around the Sun well beyond the orbits of Neptune and Pluto in the Kuiper belt. It was discovered in 2005 in images taken two years earlier at Palomar Observatory in California, U.S. Before it received its official name, Eris was known by the

  • Eris (Greek and Roman mythology)

    Eris, in Greco-Roman mythology, the personification of strife. She was called the daughter of Nyx (Night) by Hesiod, but she was sister and companion of Ares (the Roman Mars) in Homer’s version. Eris is best known for her part in starting the Trojan War. When she alone of the gods was not invited

  • Eris Scandica (work by Pufendorf)

    Samuel, baron von Pufendorf: Career in Sweden: …him, and, in pamphlets signed Eris Scandica (1686), he defended his beliefs very effectively.

  • Eristavi, Giorgi (Georgian dramatist)

    Georgian literature: The 18th and 19th centuries: Its sole significant dramatist was Giorgi Eristavi, who edited a literary journal, directed the Georgian-language theatre (which functioned only sporadically until the 1880s), and translated Russian comedies. He wrote one effective drama, Sheshlili (written 1839, first performed 1861; “The Madwoman”), about women in conflict, as well as two successful comedies,…

  • eristic (philosophy)

    Eristic, (from Greek eristikos, “fond of wrangling”), argumentation that makes successful disputation an end in itself rather than a means of approaching truth. Such argumentation reduces philosophical inquiry to a rhetorical exercise. Eristic argument is closely associated with the Sophists and

  • Erith (area, Bexley, London, United Kingdom)

    Bexley: Erith was granted a charter as early as the 7th century, and it later developed as a royal dockyard (see London Docklands). It was there in the 16th century that the British fitted out major warships such as the Henry Grace à Dieu (also called…

  • Erithacus luscinia (bird)

    Sprosser, species of nightingale

  • Erithacus megarhynchos (bird)

    songbird: The nightingale of Europe (Erithacus, or Luscinia, megarhynchos), a small thrush, perhaps heads the list of famous songsters of European literature. Also a favourite of the poets was the European skylark (Alaudia arvensis). In North America the mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos) is a wonderful performer with a…

  • Erithacus rubecula (bird)

    robin: The European robin, or robin redbreast, is a chat-thrush (subfamily Saxicolinae) that breeds throughout Europe, western Asia, and parts of North Africa. It is migratory in northern Europe but only partially so or sedentary farther south. It is a plump, small-billed bird, 14 cm (5.5 inches)…

  • Erithacus svecicus (bird)

    Bluethroat, (Erithacus svecicus or Luscinia svecica), Eurasian chat-thrush of the thrush family, Turdidae (order Passeriformes). The bluethroat is aobut 14 centimetres (5 12 inches) long and has a bright blue throat, incorporating a crescentic spot of red or white, depending on the subspecies.

  • Eritrea

    Eritrea, country of the Horn of Africa, located on the Red Sea. Eritrea’s coastal location has long been important in its history and culture—a fact reflected in its name, which is an Italianized version of Mare Erythraeum, Latin for “Red Sea.” The Red Sea was the route by which Christianity and

  • Eritrea, flag of

    national flag consisting of triangles of green, red, and blue and a yellow emblem off-centre toward the hoist. The flag’s width-to-length ratio is 1 to 2.The first flag of Eritrea was officially adopted on September 15, 1952, the day British authorities relinquished control over the area and four

  • Eritrea, history of

    Eritrea: History: Beginning about 1000 bce, Semitic peoples from the South Arabian kingdom of Saba? (Sheba) migrated across the Red Sea and absorbed the Cushitic inhabitants of the Eritrean coast and adjacent highlands. These Semitic invaders,

  • Eritrean Highlands (region, Ethiopia)

    Eritrea: Ethnic groups and languages: …of the people in the Eritrean highlands are Tigray. In Eritrea that group is sometimes called Tigrinya, though linguists of Semitic languages note that -nya is an Amharic suffix meaning “language of.” In any case, proper nomenclature for the people is fluid, given contemporary political sensitivities. The Tigray make up…

  • Eritrean Liberation Front (political organization, Eritrea)

    eastern Africa: Cracks in the empire: … announced the establishment of the Eritrean Liberation Front (ELF). Its manifesto, which called for armed struggle to obtain Eritrea’s rights, attracted the support of Syria, which eagerly offered military training for rebellion in a country tied to the United States and Israel. This largely Muslim movement received an infusion of…

  • Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church (church, Eritrea)

    Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church: …the independence of the new Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church.

  • Eritrean People’s Liberation Front (political organization, Eritrea)

    Eritrean People’s Liberation Front (EPLF), secessionist movement that successfully fought for the creation of an independent Eritrean nation out of the northernmost province of Ethiopia in 1993. The historical region of Eritrea had joined Ethiopia as an autonomous unit in 1952. The Eritrean

  • Eritrean War (Ethiopian history)

    Eritrea: The war of independence: Muslims had been the first to suffer from Ethiopia’s intervention in Eritrea, and it was they who formed the first opposition movement. In 1960, leaders of the defunct independence movement who were then living in exile announced…

  • Eriugena, Johannes Scotus (Irish philosopher)

    John Scotus Erigena, theologian, translator, and commentator on several earlier authors in works centring on the integration of Greek and Neoplatonist philosophy with Christian belief. From about 845, Erigena lived at the court of the West Frankish king Charles II the Bald, near Laon (now in

  • Erivan (national capital, Armenia)

    Yerevan, capital of Armenia. It is situated on the Hrazdan River, 14 miles (23 km) from the Turkish frontier. Though first historically recorded in 607 ce, Yerevan dates by archaeological evidence to a settlement on the site in the 6th–3rd millennia bce and subsequently to the fortress of Yerbuni

  • Erkel Ferenc (Hungarian composer)

    Ferenc Erkel, founding father of Hungary’s national opera in the 19th century and composer of the “Hymnusz,” the Hungarian national anthem. Erkel’s family was of German descent but regarded itself as Hungarian and lived in Pozsony (now Bratislava, Slvk.). His ancestors included many musicians and

  • Erkel, Ferenc (Hungarian composer)

    Ferenc Erkel, founding father of Hungary’s national opera in the 19th century and composer of the “Hymnusz,” the Hungarian national anthem. Erkel’s family was of German descent but regarded itself as Hungarian and lived in Pozsony (now Bratislava, Slvk.). His ancestors included many musicians and

  • Erkel, Sándor (Hungarian composer and conductor)

    Budapest Philharmonic Orchestra: included Hans Richter (1871–75), Sándor Erkel (1875–1900), and István Kerner (1900–18). Composer-teacher Ernst von Dohnányi became its conductor in 1918 and continued, while fighting Nazi power, until 1943, when he disbanded the orchestra amid the chaos of World War II. The orchestra was rebuilt and grew under János Ferencsik…

  • Erkenntnis (philosophical journal)

    Rudolf Carnap: Career in Vienna and Prague: …Reichenbach, Carnap founded a periodical, Erkenntnis (1930–39; refounded 1975), as a forum for the new “scientific philosophy.”

  • Erkenntnis und Interesse (work by Habermas)

    Jürgen Habermas: Philosophy and social theory: …“Erkenntnis und Interesse” (1965; “Knowledge and Human Interests”), and in the book of the same title published three years later, Habermas set forth the foundations of a normative version of critical social theory, the Marxist social theory developed by Horkheimer, Adorno, and other members of the Frankfurt Institute from…

  • Erkenntnis und Irrtum (work by Mach)

    Ernst Mach: …and write in retirement, publishing Erkenntnis und Irrtum (“Knowledge and Error”) in 1905 and an autobiography in 1910.

  • Erkenntnisproblem in der Philosophie und Wissenschaft der neueren Zeit, Das (work by Cassirer)

    Kantianism: Epistemological Neo-Kantianism: …Wissenschaft der neueren Zeit (1906–20; The Problem of Knowledge: Philosophy, Science, and History since Hegel), transposed this same logisticism into a form that illumines the history of modern philosophy.

  • Erkko, Eero (Finnish publisher)

    Helsingin Sanomat: …was founded in 1889 by Eero Erkko as the P?iv?lehti. In 1904 it was suppressed, but it resumed publication some months later. Its progressive stance and independent-liberal policy attracted writers who gave the paper a vigorous tone even while Finland was ruled by Russia (until 1917). Eljas Erkko, the son…

  • Erkko, Eljas (Finnish publisher)

    Helsingin Sanomat: Eljas Erkko, the son of the founder, assumed directorship of the paper in 1927, and, after his death in 1965, the paper remained in family hands, which has enabled it to maintain its independent stance. The Helsingin Sanomat’s foreign coverage is among the best in…

  • Erkl?rung der Menschen und Bürgerrechte, Die (work by Jellinek)

    Georg Jellinek: …probably his best-known work is The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of Citizens (1895; originally in German), in which he hypothesized that the French Revolutionary declaration (approved by the National Constituent Assembly on August 26, 1789) was derived not so much from the writings of the French Enlightenment…

  • Erkl?rung über das erste Buch Mosis (work by B?hme)

    Jakob B?hme: …known as Mysterium Magnum (1623; The Great Mystery), is his synthesis of Renaissance nature mysticism and biblical doctrine. His Von der Gnadenwahl (On the Election of Grace), written the same year, examines the problem of freedom, made acute at the time by the spread of Calvinism.

  • Erl-King (song by Schubert)

    Erlk?nig, song setting by Franz Schubert, written in 1815 and based on a 1782 poem of the same name by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. “Erlk?nig” is considered by many to be one of the greatest ballads ever penned. The song was written for two performers, a singer and a pianist, and it packs a

  • Erl-King, The (work by Goethe)

    The Erl-King, dramatic ballad by J.W. von Goethe, written in 1782 and published as Der Erlk?nig. The poem is based on the Germanic legend of a malevolent elf who haunts the Black Forest, luring children to destruction. It was translated into English by Sir Walter Scott and set to music in a famous

  • Erl-King, The (novel by Tournier)

    Michel Tournier: title, The Ogre), is about a French prisoner in Germany who assists the Nazis during World War II by searching for boys for a Nazi military camp. Les Météores (1975; Gemini) involves the desperate measures one man takes to be reunited with his identical twin brother,…

  • Erlander, Tage (prime minister of Sweden)

    Tage Erlander, politician and prime minister of Sweden (1946–69). His tenure as prime minister coincided with the years when the Swedish welfare state was most successful and the so-called “Swedish Model” attracted international attention. Erlander, son of a schoolteacher, graduated from the

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