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  • Epiphanius of Constantia, Saint (bishop of Salamis)

    Saint Epiphanius of Constantia, ; feast day May 12), bishop noted in the history of the early Christian church for his struggle against beliefs he considered heretical. His chief target was the teachings of Origen, a major theologian in the Eastern church whom he considered more a Greek philosopher

  • Epiphanius the Wise (Russian author)

    Russian literature: The Second South Slavic Influence: …Radonezh”) by Epifany Premudry (Epiphanius the Wise; d. between 1418 and 1422).

  • Epiphany (Christian holiday)

    Epiphany, (from Greek epiphaneia, “manifestation”), Christian holiday commemorating the first manifestation of Jesus Christ to the Gentiles, represented by the Magi, and the manifestation of his divinity, as it occurred at his baptism in the Jordan River and at his first miracle, at Cana in

  • Epiphany Convention (Czechoslovakia [1918])

    Czechoslovak history: Struggle for independence: …lands and of Slovakia” (the Epiphany Declaration; January 1918). An anti-Austrian resolution adopted at the Congress of Oppressed Nationalities, held in Rome in April, helped to disarm conservative circles in Allied countries that had opposed a total reorganization of the Danubian region. Eventually, France recognized the Czechoslovak National Council as…

  • epipharynx (anatomy)

    insect: Head: The epipharynx and hypopharynx are elongated and grooved so that, when apposed, they form a tube for sucking blood. The tonguelike labium is used for imbibing exposed fluids. Dipteran mouthparts have evolved in two directions. In the mosquitoes (Culicidae) the mandibles, maxillae, epipharynx, and hypopharynx have…

  • epiphenomenalism (philosophy)

    Epiphenomenalistic materialism, a philosophical theory, associated with mechanistic materialism, according to which mental states or events are by-products of states or events in the brain, necessarily caused by them but exercising no causality themselves. Thus, a certain thought, belief, desire,

  • epiphenomenalistic materialism (philosophy)

    Epiphenomenalistic materialism, a philosophical theory, associated with mechanistic materialism, according to which mental states or events are by-products of states or events in the brain, necessarily caused by them but exercising no causality themselves. Thus, a certain thought, belief, desire,

  • Epiphyllum (plant)

    Leaf cactus, (genus Epiphyllum), genus of about 15 species of cacti (family Cactaceae), native to tropical and subtropical America, including the West Indies. The plants are mostly epiphytic (grow on other plants) but sometimes grow from the ground. A number of species and hybrids are often grown

  • Epiphyllum truncatum (plant)

    Christmas cactus: …is often confused with the Thanksgiving cactus; however, in the former the margins of the stem joints are crenated (they have rounded indentations), whereas in the latter the margins are sharply saw-toothed. Given that Thanksgiving cacti bloom in late fall, they are often erroneously marketed as Christmas cacti.

  • epiphyseal ischemic necrosis (osteopathology)

    Osteochondrosis, relatively common temporary orthopedic disorder of children in which the epiphysis (growing end) of a bone dies and then is gradually replaced over a period of years. The immediate cause of bone death is loss of blood supply, but why the latter occurs is unclear. The most common

  • epiphyseal plate (anatomy)

    cartilage: …plate of cartilage, called the epiphyseal plate, persists at the ends of growing bones, finally becoming ossified itself only when the bone behind it has completed its growth. At the growing edge of the plate, chondrocytes continue to grow and divide, while on the trailing edge they are replaced by…

  • epiphyses (bone)

    Epiphysis, expanded end of the long bones in animals, which ossifies separately from the bone shaft but becomes fixed to the shaft when full growth is attained. The epiphysis is made of spongy cancellous bone covered by a thin layer of compact bone. It is connected to the bone shaft by the

  • epiphysiodesis (surgery)

    bone disease: Therapeutic and corrective measures: Epiphysiodesis (the fixing of the epiphysis to the bone shaft) is aimed at temporary or permanent cessation of growth in a metaphyseal cartilage. The operation is performed at the knee for compensation of growth in the other leg—for example, because of poliomyelitis—or in one of…

  • epiphysis (bone)

    Epiphysis, expanded end of the long bones in animals, which ossifies separately from the bone shaft but becomes fixed to the shaft when full growth is attained. The epiphysis is made of spongy cancellous bone covered by a thin layer of compact bone. It is connected to the bone shaft by the

  • epiphysis cerebri (anatomy)

    Pineal gland, endocrine gland found in vertebrates that is the source of melatonin, a hormone derived from tryptophan that plays a central role in the regulation of circadian rhythm (the roughly 24-hour cycle of biological activities associated with natural periods of light and darkness). The

  • epiphyte (plant type)

    Epiphyte, any plant that grows upon another plant or object merely for physical support. Epiphytes have no attachment to the ground or other obvious nutrient source and are not parasitic on the supporting plants. Most epiphytes are found in moist tropical areas, where their ability to grow above

  • epiphytotic disease (botany)

    plant disease: Epiphytotics: When the number of individuals a disease affects increases dramatically, it is said to have become epidemic (meaning “on or among people”). A more precise term when speaking of plants, however, is epiphytotic (“on plants”); for animals, the corresponding term is epizootic. In contrast,…

  • epipodite (anatomy)

    crustacean: The respiratory system: …of appendages, most often the epipodites. These thin-walled, lamellate structures are present on some or all of the thoracic appendages in cephalocarids, fairy shrimps, and many malacostracans. In mantis shrimps (order Stomatopoda), for example, gills are found on the exopodites of the pleopods. In euphausiids the single series of branched…

  • Epipolae (plateau, Italy)

    Epipolae, ancient fortified plateau west of Syracuse, Sicily, which was enclosed with walls some 12 miles (19 km) long by the tyrant Dionysius I (c. 430–367 bc). The southern wall, of which considerable remains exist, was probably often restored. Epipolae narrows to a ridge about 180 feet (55 m)

  • Epipremnum aureum (plant species, Epipremnum aureum)

    Pothos, (Epipremnum aureum), hardy indoor foliage plant of the arum family (Araceae) native to southeastern Asia. It resembles, and thus is often confused with, the common philodendron. Pothos is an evergreen plant with thick, waxy, green, heart-shaped leaves with splashes of yellow. As a

  • Epipsychidion (poem by Shelley)

    Epipsychidion, poem in couplets by Percy Bysshe Shelley, written in 1821 in Pisa (Italy). It is dedicated to Teresa (“Emilia”) Viviani, the teenage daughter of the governor of Pisa, who had been confined in a nunnery by her father. Shelley renamed her Emily and imagined her living in an ideal

  • Epipyropidae (insect family)

    lepidopteran: Annotated classification: Family Epipyropidae (parasitic moths) 40 chiefly Asian species; larvae live as external parasites on plant hoppers; related family: Cyclotornidae (Australian; larvae live similarly when young, then move to ants’ nests). Superfamily Yponomeutoidea More than 1,500 species worldwide; a limited and not

  • Epiros, despotate of (Byzantine principality, Europe)

    Despotate of Epirus, (1204–1337), Byzantine principality in the Balkans that was a centre of resistance for Byzantine Greeks during the western European occupation of Constantinople (1204–61). The despotate was founded in what is now southern Albania and northwestern Greece by Michael Comnenus

  • epirrhema (ancient Greek literature)

    Epirrhema, in ancient Greek Old Comedy, an address usually about public affairs. It was spoken by the leader of one-half of the chorus after that half of the chorus had sung an ode. It was part of the parabasis, or performance by the chorus, during an interlude in the action of the

  • Epirus (region, Greece and Albania)

    Epirus, coastal region of northwestern Greece and southern Albania. It extends from Valona Bay (Albanian: Gjiri i Vlor?s) in Albania (northwest) to the Gulf of árta (southeast); its hinterland extends eastward to the watershed of the Pindus (Modern Greek: Píndos) Mountains. The nomói (departments)

  • Epirus Nova (Roman province, Greece)

    Greece: Late Roman administration: Epirus (ípeiros) Nova, Epirus Vetus, Thessaly (Thessalía), Achaea, Crete (Kríti), and the Islands (Insulae). Of the eight provinces, all except Rhodope and the Islands were a part of the larger diocese of

  • Epirus Vetus (Roman province, Greece)

    Greece: Late Roman administration: Epirus Vetus, Thessaly (Thessalía), Achaea, Crete (Kríti), and the Islands (Insulae). Of the eight provinces, all except Rhodope and the Islands were a part of the larger diocese of Moesia, which extended to the

  • Epirus, despotate of (Byzantine principality, Europe)

    Despotate of Epirus, (1204–1337), Byzantine principality in the Balkans that was a centre of resistance for Byzantine Greeks during the western European occupation of Constantinople (1204–61). The despotate was founded in what is now southern Albania and northwestern Greece by Michael Comnenus

  • episches Theater (dramatic genre)

    Epic theatre, form of didactic drama presenting a series of loosely connected scenes that avoid illusion and often interrupt the story line to address the audience directly with analysis, argument, or documentation. Epic theatre is now most often associated with the dramatic theory and practice

  • episcleritis (pathology)

    scleritis: Episcleritis, in contrast to scleritis, is typically a benign, self-limited inflammation of the tissues immediately covering the sclera. It produces redness of the eye with or without mild tenderness. Only in rare cases do patients have any associated underlying disease. Treatment is often not necessary…

  • episcopacy (Christianity)

    Episcopacy, in some Christian churches, the office of a bishop and the concomitant system of church government based on the three orders, or offices, of the ministry: bishops, priests, and deacons. The origins of episcopacy are obscure, but by the 2nd century ad it was becoming established in the

  • Episcopal Academy (college, Hartford, Connecticut, United States)

    Trinity College, private, coeducational institution of higher learning in Hartford, Conn., U.S. It is a nonsectarian liberal arts college that has a historical affiliation with the Episcopal church. It offers B.A. and B.S. degrees in about 35 majors and M.A. and M.S. degrees in five departments.

  • Episcopal Church in Scotland (religion)

    Episcopal Church in Scotland, independent church within the Anglican Communion that developed in Scotland out of the 16th-century Protestant Reformation. The development of Protestantism in Scotland went through confusing periods, with control alternating between the Presbyterian Party (those who

  • Episcopal Church in the United States of America (autonomous church, United States)

    Episcopal Church in the United States of America (ECUSA), autonomous church in the United States. Part of the Anglican Communion, it was formally organized in Philadelphia in 1789 as the successor to the Church of England in the American colonies. In points of doctrine, worship, and ministerial

  • Episcopal Church, The (autonomous church, United States)

    Episcopal Church in the United States of America (ECUSA), autonomous church in the United States. Part of the Anglican Communion, it was formally organized in Philadelphia in 1789 as the successor to the Church of England in the American colonies. In points of doctrine, worship, and ministerial

  • episcopal mitre (marine snail)

    mitre shell: The 10-centimetre (4-inch) episcopal mitre (Mitra mitra), which has an orange-checked shell, is one of the largest members of the family.

  • Episcopal Party (religious party, Scotland)

    Episcopal Church in Scotland: …of church government) and the Episcopal Party (those who believed the church should be governed by bishops). After the Restoration of the monarchy in 1660, the two parties merged into a modified episcopacy, which might have united the church and nation if the two parties had not again separated after…

  • Episcopius, Simon (Dutch theologian)

    Simon Episcopius, Dutch theologian and systematizer of Arminianism, a liberal reaction to the Calvinist doctrine of predestination. He studied theology at Leiden and in 1610 became a pastor at Bleiswyk. He was made a professor at Leiden in 1612, succeeding the strict Calvinist Franciscus Gomarus.

  • episcopus vagans (Christianity)

    Episcopus vagans, in Christianity, a bishop without authority or without recognition in any major Christian church. Such bishops may have been properly consecrated but were not assigned to a diocese or were deprived of their diocese for some reason or were excommunicated by their church; or they m

  • episiotomy (surgery)

    birth: Lacerations: …be avoided by performing an episiotomy—an incision in the vulvar orifice, the external genital opening—before delivery of the infant’s head. Also, attention on the health care provider’s part to the mechanism of labour, manual assistance in delivery of the head and shoulders, avoidance of too rapid delivery, delivery between pains,…

  • episkuros (game)

    ball: …early Greek game known as episkyros involved two teams of equal numbers. Between them a white line was laid out, and, at some distance behind each team, another line was marked. The play consisted in throwing the ball back and forth until one team in the exchange was finally forced…

  • episkyros (game)

    ball: …early Greek game known as episkyros involved two teams of equal numbers. Between them a white line was laid out, and, at some distance behind each team, another line was marked. The play consisted in throwing the ball back and forth until one team in the exchange was finally forced…

  • episode (theatre)

    theatrical production: Preparation of content: …activity, usually termed episodes or scenes, can include many kinds of behaviour—e.g., persuasion of one person by another, delivery of a speech, singing of a song, hand-to-hand combat.

  • Episodes Before Thirty (work by Blackwood)

    Algernon Henry Blackwood: …experiences that he recalled in Episodes Before Thirty (1923), Blackwood returned to England in 1899. Seven years later he published his first book of short stories, The Empty House (1906), and became a full-time fiction writer. Later collections include John Silence (1908), stories about a detective sensitive to extrasensory phenomena,…

  • Episodios nacionales (work by Pérez Galdós)

    Episodios nacionales, (Spanish: “National Episodes”) vast series of short historical novels, comprising 46 volumes, by Benito Pérez Galdós, published between 1873 and 1912. The scope and subject matter of these novels—the history and society of 19th-century Spain—put Pérez Galdós in the company of

  • episome (plasmid)

    Episome, in bacteria, one of a group of extrachromosomal genetic elements called plasmids, consisting of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and capable of conferring a selective advantage upon the bacteria in which they occur. Episomes may be attached to the bacterial cell membrane (such a cell is

  • epispadias (pathology)

    urogenital malformation: Epispadias, an uncommon malformation of the male genital system in which the urethra opens on the upper surface of the penis. In hypospadias, often familial, the urethra opens on the underside of the penis. Plastic surgery can repair both anomalies.

  • epistasis (genetics)

    heredity: Epistatic genes: Examples of epistasis abound in nonhuman organisms. In mice, as in humans, the gene for albinism has two variants: the allele for nonalbino and the allele for albino. The latter allele is unable to synthesize the pigment melanin. Mice, however, have another pair of alleles involved in…

  • epistatēs (ancient Greek public official)

    Epistatēs, public official in ancient Greece, Ptolemaic Egypt, and the Hellenistic world. The 5th-century-bce Athenian epistatēs acted as chairman of the prytaneis, the executive committee of the Boule (council), and, for the 24-hour period of this office, functioned as the head of the government,

  • epistatic gene (genetics)

    Epistatic gene, in genetics, a gene that determines whether or not a trait will be expressed. The system of genes that determines skin colour in man, for example, is independent of the gene responsible for albinism (lack of pigment) or the development of skin colour. This gene is an epistatic

  • epistatic variation (genetics)

    animal breeding: Breeding and variation: Epistatic variation is caused by the joint effects of genes at two or more loci. There has been little deliberate use of this type of genetic variation in breeding because of the complex nature of identifying and controlling the relevant genes.

  • epistaxis (medical disorder)

    Nosebleed, an attack of bleeding from the nose. It is a common and usually unimportant disorder but may also result from local conditions of inflammation, small ulcers or polypoid growths, or severe injuries to the skull. Vascular disease, such as high blood pressure, may provoke it, and such d

  • epistemic community (international relations)

    Epistemic community, in international relations, a network of professionals with recognized expertise and authoritative claims to policy-relevant knowledge in a particular issue area. Such professionals may have different backgrounds and may be located in different countries, but they share a set

  • epistemic logic

    applied logic: Epistemic logic: The application of logical techniques to the study of knowledge or knowledge claims is called epistemic logic. The field encompasses epistemological concepts such as knowledge, belief, memory, information, and perception. It also turns out that a logic of questions and answers, sometimes called…

  • epistemic risk (philosophy)

    Christianity: Evidentialist approach: Such belief inevitably involves epistemic risk—the risk of error versus the risk of missing the truth. But perhaps the right to believe that was defended by William James applies in this situation.

  • epistemological argument (philosophy of mathematics)

    philosophy of mathematics: The epistemological argument against Platonism: The epistemological argument is very simple. It is based on the idea that, according to Platonism, mathematical knowledge is knowledge of abstract objects, but there does not seem to be any way for humans to acquire knowledge of abstract objects. The…

  • epistemological behaviourism (philosophy)

    Richard Rorty: According to his “epistemological behaviourism,” Rorty held that no statement is epistemologically more basic than any other, and no statement is ever justified “finally” but only relative to some circumscribed and contextually determined set of additional statements. In the philosophy of language, Rorty rejected the idea that sentences…

  • epistemological rationalism (philosophy)

    rationalism: Epistemological rationalism in ancient philosophies: The first Western philosopher to stress rationalist insight was Pythagoras, a shadowy figure of the 6th century bce. Noticing that, for a right triangle, a square built on its hypotenuse equals the sum of those on its sides and that…

  • epistemological realism (philosophy)

    objectivism: …or thought about), epistemological (or direct) realism (things in the world are perceived immediately or directly rather than inferred on the basis of perceptual evidence), ethical egoism (an action is morally right if it promotes the self-interest of the agent), individualism (a political system is just if it properly respects…

  • epistemology (philosophy)

    Epistemology, the philosophical study of the nature, origin, and limits of human knowledge. The term is derived from the Greek epistēmē (“knowledge”) and logos (“reason”), and accordingly the field is sometimes referred to as the theory of knowledge. Epistemology has a long history within Western

  • episternum (anatomy)

    skeleton: Pectoral girdle: …in the midline by the interclavicle. Carinate birds (those with a keeled sternum) possess a sabre-shaped scapula and a stout coracoid process, joined by ligaments at the point at which is found the glenoid cavity for articulation with the humerus. The coracoid process is joined to the sternum; at its…

  • epistilbite (mineral)

    Epistilbite, hydrated sodium and calcium aluminosilicate mineral in the zeolite family. It forms piezoelectric crystals of monoclinic symmetry and platy habit; the latter property has caused epistilbite to be assigned to a group typified by heulandite (q.v.). More recently, X-ray diffraction

  • epistle (literature)

    Epistle, a composition in prose or poetry written in the form of a letter to a particular person or group. In literature there are two basic traditions of verse epistles, one derived from Horace’s Epistles and the other from Ovid’s Epistulae heroidum (better known as Heroides). The tradition based

  • Epistle of Jeremias, The (Old Testament)

    The Letter of Jeremiah, apocryphal book of the Old Testament, in the Roman canon appended as a sixth chapter to the book of Baruch (itself apocryphal in the Jewish and Protestant canons). The work is supposedly a letter sent by Jeremiah to Jews exiled to Babylon by King Nebuchadrezzar in 597 bc,

  • Epistle of Saint Paul the Apostle to Philemon, The (epistle by Saint Paul)

    The Letter of Paul to Philemon, brief New Testament letter written by Paul the Apostle to a wealthy Christian of Colossae, Asia Minor, on behalf of Onesimus, Philemon’s former slave. Paul, writing from prison, expresses affection for the newly converted Onesimus and asks that he be received in the

  • Epistle of St. James the Apostle, The (New Testament)

    The Letter of James, New Testament writing addressed to the early Christian churches (“to the twelve tribes in the dispersion”) and attributed to James, a Christian Jew, whose identity is disputed. There is also wide disagreement as to the date of composition. The letter is moralistic rather than

  • Epistle of St. Paul the Apostle to the Colossians, The (work by Saint Paul)

    The Letter of Paul to the Colossians, New Testament writing addressed to Christians at Colossae, Asia Minor, whose congregation was founded by Paul’s colleague Epaphras. The developed theology of the letter, many believe, indicates that it was composed by Paul in Rome about ad 62 rather than during

  • Epistle of St. Paul the Apostle to the Corinthians, The (works by Saint Paul)

    The Letter of Paul to the Corinthians, either of two New Testament letters, or epistles, addressed from the apostle Paul to the Christian community that he had founded at Corinth, Greece. The First Letter of Paul to the Corinthians and The Second Letter of Paul to the Corinthians are now

  • Epistle of St. Paul the Apostle to the Galatians, The (work by Saint Paul)

    The Letter of Paul to the Galatians, New Testament writing addressed to Christian churches (exact location uncertain) that were disturbed by a Judaizing faction within the early Christian church. The members of this faction taught that Christian converts were obliged to observe circumcision and

  • Epistle of St. Paul the Apostle to Timothy, The (New Testament)

    The Letter of Paul to Timothy, either of two New Testament writings addressed to Timothy, one of Paul’s most faithful coworkers. They (and the Letter of Paul to Titus) have been called Pastoral Epistles since the end of the 18th century, because all three deal principally with church administration

  • Epistle of St. Paul the Apostle to Titus, The

    The Letter of Paul to Titus, a New Testament writing addressed to one of Paul’s close companions, Titus, who was the organizer of the churches in Crete. It, and the two letters of Paul to Timothy, have been called Pastoral Letters because they deal principally with heresies and church discipline.

  • Epistle to Augusta (work by Byron)

    John Byron: …Lord Byron alludes in his “Epistle to Augusta”:

  • Epistle to Curio, An (work by Akenside)

    Mark Akenside: …Akenside turned to satire in An Epistle to Curio, occasioned by the political about-face of William Pulteney, who professed Whig sympathies for years but then accepted the earldom of Bath from a Tory ministry. The following year Akenside published Odes on Several Subjects. He had, meanwhile, been unsuccessful in attempts…

  • Epistle to Dr. Arbuthnot, An (poem by Pope)

    An Epistle to Dr. Arbuthnot, poem by Alexander Pope, completed in 1734 and published in January 1735. Addressed to Pope’s friend John Arbuthnot, the epistle is an apology in which Pope defends his works against the attacks of his detractors, particularly the writers Lady Mary Wortley Montagu,

  • Epistle to Maister Gilbert Mont-Crief (work by Hume)

    Alexander Hume: ” “Epistle to Maister Gilbert Mont-Crief” is an interesting early example of autobiography.

  • Epistle to Rheginos (Gnostic work)

    patristic literature: The gnostic writers: …by Irenaeus to Valentinus; the Epistle to Rheginos, a Valentinian work, possibly by Valentinus himself, on the Resurrection; and a Tripartite Treatise, probably written by Heracleon, of the school of Valentinianism. The other documents from the Naj? ?ammādī library include the Gospel of Thomas, a collection of sayings and parables…

  • Epistle to the Clergy of the Southern States, An (work by Sarah Grimké)

    Grimké sisters: Sarah followed with An Epistle to the Clergy of the Southern States. The sisters’ public identification with the abolitionist cause rendered them anathema in their native city and state and even strained their Quaker friendships.

  • Epistle to the Right Honourable Richard Earl of Burlington (work by Pope)

    Alexander Pope: Life at Twickenham: …principles, formulated in his “Epistle to the Right Honourable Richard Earl of Burlington” (1731). This poem, one of the most characteristic works of his maturity, is a rambling discussion in the manner of Horace on false taste in architecture and design, with some suggestions for the worthier employment of…

  • Epistle to the Romans, The (work by Barth)

    Karl Barth: Years in Germany: …major work, Der R?merbrief (1919; The Epistle to the Romans), established his position as a notable theologian with a new and arresting message about the sheer Godness of God and the unlimited range of his grace. Barth’s style was vividly lit up by brilliant similes and turns of phrase and…

  • Epistle to the Whigs (satire by Dryden)

    John Dryden: Verse satires: …vigorous and plainspoken prose “Epistle to the Whigs.” In the same year, anonymously and apparently without Dryden’s authority, there also appeared in print his famous extended lampoon, Mac Flecknoe, written about four years earlier. What triggered this devastating attack on the Whig playwright Thomas Shadwell has never been satisfactorily…

  • Epistles (work by Horace)

    Horace: Life: …encouraged Horace to write his Epistles. Book I may have been published in 20 bc, and Book II probably appeared in 14 bc. These two books are very different in theme and content. Although similar to the Satires in style and content, the Epistles lack the earlier poems’ aggressiveness and…

  • Epistles (works by Plato)

    Plato: Life: … in Sicily (many of the Letters concern these, though their authenticity is controversial) led to a deep personal attachment to Dion (408–354 bce), brother-in-law of Dionysius the Elder (430–367 bce), the tyrant of Syracuse. Plato, at Dion’s urging, apparently undertook to put into practice the ideal of the “philosopher-king” (described…

  • Epistles of the Brethren of Purity and Loyal Friends, The (Islamic philosophical encyclopaedia)

    encyclopaedia: The Arab world: …the 10th century, published the Rasā?il Ikhwān al-?afā? wa khillān al-wafā? (“Epistles of the Brethren of Purity and Loyal Friends”), a remarkable work that consisted of 52 pamphlets written by five authors, comprising all the knowledge available in their milieu. The work included (1) mathematics, geography, music, logic, and ethics;…

  • Epistles of the Heroines (work by Ovid)

    Ovid: Life: …Epistolae Heroidum, or Heroides (Epistles of the Heroines), the Medicamina faciei (“Cosmetics”; Eng. trans. The Art of Beauty), the Ars amatoria (The Art of Love), and the Remedia amoris (Remedies for Love), all reflecting the brilliant, sophisticated, pleasure-seeking society in which he moved. The common theme of those early…

  • Epistles of the Sincere Brethren, The (Islamic book)

    Baghdad school: …frontispiece to a book, “The Epistles of the Sincere Brethren,” dated 1287, demonstrates that the main stylistic elements of the Baghdad school survived to the last. This illustration, in the Mosque of Süleyman in Istanbul, again shows realism in detail while maintaining an overall decorative quality. The authors of the…

  • Epistles to the Pisos (work by Horace)

    Ars poetica, (Latin: “Art of Poetry”) work by Horace, written about 19–18 bce for Piso and his sons and originally known as Epistula ad Pisones (Epistle to the Pisos). The work is an urbane, unsystematic amplification of Aristotle’s discussion of the decorum or internal propriety of each literary

  • Epistola ad Gerbergam reginam de ortu et tempore Antichristi (treatise by Adso of Montier-en-Der)

    Christianity: The Middle Ages: …in his popular and influential Epistola ad Gerbergam reginam de ortu et tempore Antichristi (“Letter to Queen Gerberga on the Place and Time of Antichrist”), a mirror image in the negative of the lives of Jesus and the saints. Adso’s treatise became the standard account of the life of the…

  • Epistola ad Joannem Millium (work by Bentley)

    classical scholarship: The 18th century: the age of Bentley: …new era began with the Epistola ad Joannum Millium (1691) of Richard Bentley (1662–1742). This collection of brilliant miscellaneous observations, prompted by the editio princeps of the 6th-century Byzantine chronicle of John Malalas, displayed already the comprehensive learning and rare power of divination that were to enable Bentley to lay…

  • Epistola Alberici de Novo Mundo (work by Vespucci)

    Amerigo Vespucci: Vespucci’s voyages: …under the titles of “Quattuor Americi navigationes” and “Mundus Novus,” or “Epistola Alberici de Novo Mundo.” The second series consists of three private letters addressed to the Medici. In the first series of documents, four voyages by Vespucci are mentioned; in the second, only two. Until the 1930s the…

  • Epistola Critica ad G. Hermannum (work by Sauppe)

    textual criticism: Reaction against the genealogical method: Sauppe in his Epistola Critica ad G. Hermannum had emphasized the diversity of transmissional situations and the difficulty or actual impossibility of classifying the manuscripts in all cases. In 1843 Lachmann’s pupil O. Jahn, in his edition of Persius, had repudiated the strict application of the genealogical method…

  • Epistola de anima ad Alcherum (work of Isaac of Stella)

    Isaac Of Stella: …composed his principal work, the Epistola de anima ad Alcherum (“Letter to Alcher on the Soul”), a compendium of psychology in the Cistercian tradition of providing a logical basis for theories of mysticism, done in 1162 at the request of the monk-philosopher Alcher of Clairvaux. This treatise served as the…

  • Epistola de magnete (work by Peregrinus of Maricourt)

    electromagnetism: Early observations and applications: In his oft-cited Epistola de magnete (1269; “Letter on the Magnet”), Peregrinus described having placed a thin iron rectangle on different parts of a spherically shaped piece of magnetite (or lodestone) and marked the lines along which it set itself. The lines formed a set of meridians of…

  • Epistola de Tolerantia (work by Locke)

    John Locke: An Essay Concerning Human Understanding: He also wrote his first Letter on Toleration, published anonymously in Latin in 1689, and completed An Essay Concerning Human Understanding.

  • Epistola Petri Peregrini de Maricourt ad Sygerum de Foucaucourt, militem, de magnete (work by Peregrinus of Maricourt)

    electromagnetism: Early observations and applications: In his oft-cited Epistola de magnete (1269; “Letter on the Magnet”), Peregrinus described having placed a thin iron rectangle on different parts of a spherically shaped piece of magnetite (or lodestone) and marked the lines along which it set itself. The lines formed a set of meridians of…

  • Epistolae familiares (work by Cereta)

    feminism: The ancient world: …15th-century Venetian woman who published Epistolae familiares (1488; “Personal Letters”; Eng. trans. Collected Letters of a Renaissance Feminist), a volume of letters dealing with a panoply of women’s complaints, from denial of education and marital oppression to the frivolity of women’s attire.

  • Epistolae Heroidum (work by Ovid)

    Ovid: Life: …Epistolae Heroidum, or Heroides (Epistles of the Heroines), the Medicamina faciei (“Cosmetics”; Eng. trans. The Art of Beauty), the Ars amatoria (The Art of Love), and the Remedia amoris (Remedies for Love), all reflecting the brilliant, sophisticated, pleasure-seeking society in which he moved. The common theme of those early…

  • Epistolae metricae (poems by Petrarch)

    Petrarch: Classical studies and career (1330–40): …was to include in the Epistolae metricae (66 “letters” in Latin hexameter verses) and some of the vernacular Rime inspired by his love for Laura. At Vaucluse he began to work on Africa, an epic poem on the subject of the Second Punic War. He also began work on De…

  • Epistolae obscurorum virorum (work by Rubeanus and von Hutten)

    German literature: Reformation: Epistolae obscurorum virorum (1515–17; The Letters of Obscure Men), a witty satire written in large part by the humanists Crotus Rubeanus (Johannes J?ger) and Ulrich von Hutten against the anti-Semitic and antihumanistic forces at work in the German universities, opened a gap between humanists and conservative scholastic intellectuals that…

  • epistolary literature (literature)

    Epistle, a composition in prose or poetry written in the form of a letter to a particular person or group. In literature there are two basic traditions of verse epistles, one derived from Horace’s Epistles and the other from Ovid’s Epistulae heroidum (better known as Heroides). The tradition based

  • epistolary novel (literature)

    Epistolary novel, a novel told through the medium of letters written by one or more of the characters. Originating with Samuel Richardson’s Pamela; or, Virtue Rewarded (1740), the story of a servant girl’s victorious struggle against her master’s attempts to seduce her, it was one of the earliest

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