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  • Ephedraceae (gnetophyte family)

    gnetophyte: Annotated classification: …and brightly coloured; 1 family, Ephedraceae; 1 genus, Ephedra, with 65 species. Order Gnetales Mostly vines, but a few trees; large flat leaves that have reticulate venation; seeds may be brightly coloured; 1 family, Gnetaceae; 1 genus, Gnetum, with about 30 species.

  • Ephedrales (gnetophyte order)

    gnetophyte: Annotated classification: Order Ephedrales Shrubs to small trees; small leaves with 2 or 3 veins; mature cones often become fleshy and brightly coloured; 1 family, Ephedraceae; 1 genus, Ephedra, with 65 species. Order Gnetales Mostly vines, but a few trees; large flat leaves that have reticulate venation; seeds…

  • ephedrine (drug)

    Ephedrine, alkaloid used as a decongestant drug. It is obtainable from plants of the genus Ephedra, particularly the Chinese species E. sinica, and it has been used in China for more than 5,000 years to treat asthma and hay fever. It is effective when administered orally, and its effects persist

  • ephelides (skin pigmentation)

    Freckle, a small, brownish, well-circumscribed, stainlike spot on the skin occurring most frequently in red- or sandy-haired individuals. In genetically predisposed individuals who have been exposed to the ultraviolet radiation of sunlight, production of the pigment melanin increases in the pigment

  • ephelis (skin pigmentation)

    Freckle, a small, brownish, well-circumscribed, stainlike spot on the skin occurring most frequently in red- or sandy-haired individuals. In genetically predisposed individuals who have been exposed to the ultraviolet radiation of sunlight, production of the pigment melanin increases in the pigment

  • ephemeral (plant)

    Ephemeral, in botany, any short-lived plant, usually one that has one or more generations per year, growing only during favourable periods (as when adequate moisture is available) and passing the unfavourable periods in the form of seeds. The seed coats of some species contain a growth inhibitor

  • Ephemeral Art

    The creation of Nimbus NeueHouse, a work of art commissioned by the international shared-working-space firm NeueHouse for the 2015 edition of Frieze New York, reflected years of experimentation, months of planning, and days of preparation. However, Dutch artist Berndnaut Smilde’s simulation of a

  • Ephemeri vita (work by Swammerdam)

    biology: Swammerdam’s innovative techniques: …that he produced his classic Ephemeri vita (“Life of the Ephemera”) in 1675, a book about the life of the mayfly noteworthy for its extremely detailed illustrations. Sometime after his death at age 43, Swammerdam’s works were published collectively as the Bijbel der Natuure (1737; “Bible of Nature”), which is…

  • Ephemerides (work by Regiomontanus)

    navigation: Almanacs and tables: …of the heavenly bodies was Ephemerides, compiled by the German astronomer Regiomontanus and published by him in Nürnberg in 1474. This work also set forth the principle of determining longitude by the method of lunar distances—that is, the angular displacement of the Moon from other celestial objects. This method, which…

  • ephemerides (Roman history)

    commentarii: …system of records known as ephemerides.

  • ephemerides (astronomy)

    Ephemeris, table giving the positions of one or more celestial bodies, often published with supplementary information. Ephemerides were constructed as early as the 4th century bc and are still essential today to the astronomer and navigator. Modern ephemerides are calculated when a theory (

  • ephemeris (astronomy)

    Ephemeris, table giving the positions of one or more celestial bodies, often published with supplementary information. Ephemerides were constructed as early as the 4th century bc and are still essential today to the astronomer and navigator. Modern ephemerides are calculated when a theory (

  • Ephemeris belli Trojani (ancient work)

    Dictys Cretensis: …and this fantastic work, the Ephemeris belli Trojani, together with a similar but pro-Trojan account by Dares Phrygius, was a major sourcebook for medieval handlings of the Trojan story.

  • Ephemeris Time (chronology)

    Ephemeris Time, (ET), the first dynamical time scale in history; it was defined by the International Astronomical Union in the 1950s and was superseded by Barycentric Dynamical Time in 1984. (See dynamical time.) Ephemeris Time could be obtained by observing the orbital position of any planet or

  • Ephemeropsis (plant genus)

    bryophyte: Ecology and habitats: …Schistostega), leaf surfaces (the moss Ephemeropsis and the liverwort genus Metzgeria and many species of the liverwort family Lejeuneaceae), salt pans (the liverwort Carrpos), bases of quartz pebbles (the moss Aschisma), and copper-rich substrata (the moss Scopelophila).

  • Ephemeroptera (insect)

    Mayfly, (order Ephemeroptera), any member of a group of insects known for their extremely short life spans and emergence in large numbers in the summer months. Other common names for the winged stages are shadfly, sandfly, dayfly, fishfly, and drake. The aquatic immature stage, called a nymph or

  • Ephemerum (plant genus)

    bryophyte: General features: …mm in size (the moss Ephemerum). Leaflike structures, known as phyllids, are arranged in rows of two or three or more around a shoot or may be irregularly arranged (e.g., the liverwort Takakia). The shoot may or may not appear flattened. The phyllids are usually attached by an expanded base…

  • Ephesians, Letter of Paul to the (work by Saint Paul)

    Letter of Paul to the Ephesians, New Testament writing once thought to have been composed by Paul in prison but more likely the work of one of Paul’s disciples, who probably wrote the text sometime before ad 90 while consulting Paul’s letter to the Colossians. The words “in Ephesus” are lacking in

  • Ephesos (ancient city, Turkey)

    Ephesus, the most important Greek city in Ionian Asia Minor, the ruins of which lie near the modern village of Sel?uk in western Turkey. In Roman times it was situated on the northern slopes of the hills Coressus and Pion and south of the Cayster (Kü?ükmenderes) River, the silt from which has since

  • Ephestia kuehniella (insect)

    Flour moth, (Ephestia kuehniella), species of moth in the subfamily Phycitinae (family Pyralidae, order Lepidoptera) that is a cosmopolitan pest of cereal products and other stored foods. Sometimes also called Anagasta kuehniella, the flour moth requires vitamins A and B and the larvae cannot live

  • Ephesus (ancient city, Turkey)

    Ephesus, the most important Greek city in Ionian Asia Minor, the ruins of which lie near the modern village of Sel?uk in western Turkey. In Roman times it was situated on the northern slopes of the hills Coressus and Pion and south of the Cayster (Kü?ükmenderes) River, the silt from which has since

  • Ephesus, councils of (Christianity)

    Councils of Ephesus, three assemblies held in Asia Minor to resolve problems of the early Christian church. In 190 Polycrates, bishop of Ephesus, convened a synod to establish the 14th of Nisan (the date of the Jewish Passover) as the official date of Easter. Pope Victor I, preferring a Sunday as

  • Ephialtes (Greek politician)

    Ephialtes, leader of the radical democrats at Athens in the 460s, who by his reforms prepared the way for the final development of Athenian democracy. His hostility toward Sparta and his advocacy of power for the Athenian common people made him the enemy of the pro-Spartan politician Cimon, who had

  • Ephialtes (Greek traitor)

    Thermopylae: …pass by the Greek traitor Ephialtes, outflanked them. Sending the majority of his troops to safety, Leonidas remained to delay the Persians with 300 Spartans, their helots, and 1,100 Boeotians, all of whom died in battle. Although the Persians won at Thermopylae and conquered central Greece, they suffered considerable losses…

  • Ephippidae (fish)

    Spadefish, (family Ephippidae), any of about 17 species of marine fishes (order Perciformes), predominantly tropical though also found in temperate regions. In appearance the spadefishes are deep-bodied and laterally compressed, with five or six vertical black bands on a silvery body. The vertical

  • Ephippiorhynchus senegalensis (bird)

    stork: The saddle-billed stork (Ephippiorhynchus senegalensis), or saddlebill, is a colourful stork of tropical Africa. More than 120 cm (4 feet) tall, its legs and neck are exceptionally long and thin. The slightly upturned bill is red, crossed by a broad black band surmounted in front of…

  • ephod (religious dress)

    Ephod, part of the ceremonial dress of the high priest of ancient Israel described in the Old Testament (Ex. 28:6–8; 39:2–5). It was worn outside the robe and probably kept in place by a girdle and by shoulder pieces, from which hung the breast piece (or pouch) containing the sacred lots (

  • ephor (Spartan magistrate)

    Ephor, (Greek ephoros), title of the highest Spartan magistrates, five in number, who with the kings formed the main executive wing of the state. In antiquity, time periods were recorded by the names of the ephors on a list that dated back to 754 bc. The origins of the ephorate are uncertain,

  • ephoros (Spartan magistrate)

    Ephor, (Greek ephoros), title of the highest Spartan magistrates, five in number, who with the kings formed the main executive wing of the state. In antiquity, time periods were recorded by the names of the ephors on a list that dated back to 754 bc. The origins of the ephorate are uncertain,

  • Ephorus (Greek historian)

    Ephorus, Greek historian, the author of the first universal history, who, despite his defects, was esteemed in Classical times and is considered the best of the historians writing in his period. According to uncertain tradition, Ephorus was the pupil of Isocrates, whose school rivaled Plato’s

  • Ephraem Syrus, Saint (Christian theologian)

    Saint Ephraem Syrus, ; Western feast day June 9, Eastern feast day January 28), Christian theologian, poet, hymnist, and doctor of the church who, as doctrinal consultant to Eastern churchmen, composed numerous theological-biblical commentaries and polemical works that, in witnessing to the common

  • Ephraim (Jewish tribe)

    Ephraim, one of the 12 tribes of Israel that in biblical times comprised the people of Israel who later became the Jewish people. The tribe was named after one of the younger sons of Joseph, himself a son of Jacob. After the death of Moses, Joshua, an Ephraimite, led the Israelites into the

  • Ephraim the Syrian (Christian theologian)

    Saint Ephraem Syrus, ; Western feast day June 9, Eastern feast day January 28), Christian theologian, poet, hymnist, and doctor of the church who, as doctrinal consultant to Eastern churchmen, composed numerous theological-biblical commentaries and polemical works that, in witnessing to the common

  • Ephrata (Washington, United States)

    Ephrata, city, seat (1909) of Grant county, central Washington, U.S., near the south end of Grand Coulee Dam. Settled in 1882 by ranchers who raised horses, the community was named in 1892, probably for the biblical city. The surrounding farmland was developed by irrigation, first with water from

  • Ephrata Community (American religious group)

    Ephrata Community, U.S. Protestant monastic settlement, an offshoot of the Germantown Dunkers, founded in 1732 by Johann Conrad Beissel on Cocalico Creek in Lancaster County, Pa.; the present town of Ephrata grew up around it. Beissel and his followers observed the sabbath on the seventh day and

  • Ephron, Nora (American author, screenwriter, and director)

    Nora Ephron, American author, playwright, screenwriter, and film director who was known for creating romantic comedies that feature biting wit and strong female characters. Ephron was the eldest daughter of Hollywood screenwriters Henry and Phoebe Ephron, who based two of their Broadway plays,

  • Ephron, Nora Louise (American author, screenwriter, and director)

    Nora Ephron, American author, playwright, screenwriter, and film director who was known for creating romantic comedies that feature biting wit and strong female characters. Ephron was the eldest daughter of Hollywood screenwriters Henry and Phoebe Ephron, who based two of their Broadway plays,

  • Ephthalite (people)

    Hephthalite, member of a people important in the history of India and Persia during the 5th and 6th centuries ce. According to Chinese chronicles, they were originally a tribe living to the north of the Great Wall and were known as Hoa or Hoadun. Elsewhere they were called White Huns or Hunas. They

  • Ephydridae (insect)

    Shore fly, (family Ephydridae), any member of a family of insects in the fly order, Diptera, that are small, dark coloured, and commonly found in great numbers around ponds, streams, and the seashore. Most larvae are aquatic, and some species can tolerate highly saline or alkaline waters—such as

  • ephyra (invertebrate zoology)

    jellyfish: …upper end, with each such ephyra growing into an adult. The adults are either male or female, but in some species they change their sex as they age. In many species, normal fusion of egg and sperm results in an embryo that is brooded in the gut of the adult…

  • ephyrae (invertebrate zoology)

    jellyfish: …upper end, with each such ephyra growing into an adult. The adults are either male or female, but in some species they change their sex as they age. In many species, normal fusion of egg and sperm results in an embryo that is brooded in the gut of the adult…

  • épi (island, Vanuatu)

    épi, island of Vanuatu, in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. It is volcanic in origin and is 27 miles (43 km) long and 11 miles (18 km) wide, with an area of 171 square miles (444 square km). It rises to 2,733 feet (833 metres). Although épi is fertile, its copra plantations have deteriorated through

  • Epialtus (crab genus)

    spider crab: >Epialtus.

  • epiblast (embryology)

    animal development: Reptiles, birds, and mammals: …into an upper layer, the epiblast, and a lower layer, the hypoblast. These layers do not represent ectoderm and endoderm, respectively, since almost all the cells that form the embryo are contained in the epiblast. Future mesodermal and endodermal cells sink down into the interior, leaving only the ectodermal material…

  • epiboly (anatomy)

    animal development: Amphioxus, echinoderms, and amphibians: …in a movement known as epiboly.

  • epibyssate shell (mollusk morphology)

    bivalve: Ecology and habitats: …of their older representatives are endobyssate (that is, anchored to material within a burrow or dugout), exposing their evolutionary history. Most of these two classes occupy a wide diversity of subhabitats, with simple reproductive strategies, external fertilization, and planktonic larvae to effect wide dispersion. They apportion the shallow-water marine domain…

  • EPIC (American movement)

    Upton Sinclair: …the 1930s, Sinclair organized the EPIC (End Poverty in California) socialist reform movement and registered as a Democrat. His 1934 bid for the governorship of California—he ran on the EPIC platform, which featured proposals for state-administered economic relief and reforms throughout a number of societal institutions—was his most successful political…

  • epic (literary genre)

    Epic, long narrative poem recounting heroic deeds, although the term has also been loosely used to describe novels, such as Leo Tolstoy’s War and Peace, and motion pictures, such as Sergey Eisenstein’s Ivan the Terrible. In literary usage, the term encompasses both oral and written compositions.

  • Epic and Romance (work by Ker)

    romance: Developing psychological awareness: …and romance, observed in his Epic and Romance (1897), the advent of romance is “something as momentous and as far-reaching as that to which the name Renaissance is generally applied.” The Old French poets who composed the chansons de geste (as the Old French epics are called) had been content…

  • epic caesura (prosody)

    caesura: An epic caesura is a feminine caesura that follows an extra unstressed syllable that has been inserted in accentual iambic metre. An epic caesura occurs in these lines from Shakespeare’s Macbeth: “but how of Cawdor? / The Thane of Cawdor lives.” The lyric caesura is a…

  • epic formula (poetic device)

    Epic formula, convention of language and theme peculiar to oral epic poetry that is often carried over to the written form. The most obvious epic formulas are the “fixed epithets,” stereotyped descriptive phrases that can be varied in different places in the poetic line to suit the demands of the

  • epic measure (literature)

    Icelandic literature: The Eddaic verse forms: …distinguished in Eddaic poetry: the epic measure, the speech measure, and the song measure. Most narrative poems are in the first measure, which consists of short lines of two beats joined in pairs by alliteration. The number of weakly stressed syllables might vary, but the total number of syllables in…

  • Epic of Creation (Assyro-Babylonian epic)

    history of Mesopotamia: The Kassites in Babylonia: …the creation of the world, Enuma elish. Composed by an unknown poet, probably in the 14th century, it tells the story of the god Marduk. He began as the god of Babylon and was elevated to be king over all other gods after having successfully accomplished the destruction of the…

  • Epic of Greater America, The (work by Bolton)

    Herbert Eugene Bolton: …Historical Association in 1932, “The Epic of Greater America,” a critique of the purely national and Anglo-Saxon definitions of American institutions. His chief works are: The Spanish Borderlands (1921); Outpost of Empire (1931); Rim of Christendom: A Biography of Eusebio Francisco Kino (1936); and Coronado on the Turquoise Trail (1949).

  • Epic of the Kings, The (work by Ferdowsī)

    Shāh-nāmeh, (Persian: “Book of Kings”) celebrated work of the epic poet Ferdowsī, in which the Persian national epic found its final and enduring form. Written for Sultan Ma?mūd of Ghazna and completed in 1010, the Shāh-nāmeh is a poem of nearly 60,000 verses, mainly based on the Khvatay-nāmak, a

  • Epic of the Wheat, The (work by Norris)

    Frank Norris: …novel of a projected trilogy, The Epic of the Wheat, dealing with the economic and social forces involved in the production, distribution, and consumption of wheat. The Octopus pictures with bold symbolism the raising of wheat in California and the struggle of the wheat growers there against a monopolistic railway…

  • epic simile (figure of speech)

    Epic simile, an extended simile often running to several lines, used typically in epic poetry to intensify the heroic stature of the subject and to serve as decoration. An example from the Iliad follows:

  • epic theatre (dramatic genre)

    Epic theatre, form of didactic drama presenting a series of loosely connected scenes that avoid illusion and often interrupt the story line to address the audience directly with analysis, argument, or documentation. Epic theatre is now most often associated with the dramatic theory and practice

  • epicanthal fold (anatomy)

    Epicanthic fold, fold of skin across the inner corner of the eye (canthus). The epicanthic fold produces the eye shape characteristic of persons from central and eastern Asia; it is also seen in some Native American peoples and occasionally in Europeans (e.g., Scandinavians and

  • epicanthic fold (anatomy)

    Epicanthic fold, fold of skin across the inner corner of the eye (canthus). The epicanthic fold produces the eye shape characteristic of persons from central and eastern Asia; it is also seen in some Native American peoples and occasionally in Europeans (e.g., Scandinavians and

  • epicardium (anatomy)

    human cardiovascular system: Pericardium: …serous layer (visceral pericardium or epicardium).

  • Epicaste (Greek mythology)

    Martha Graham: Maturity: …about the Greek legendary figure Jocasta, the whole dance-drama takes place in the instant when Jocasta learns that she has mated with Oedipus, her own son, and has borne him children. The work treats Jocasta rather than Oedipus as the tragic victim, and shows her reliving the events of her…

  • epicentre (seismology)

    Epicentre, point on the surface of the Earth that is directly above the underground point (called the focus) where fault rupture commences, producing an earthquake. The effects of the earthquake may not be most severe in the vicinity of the epicentre. The epicentre can be located by computing arcs

  • Epicharmus (Greek poet)

    Epicharmus, Greek poet who, according to the Suda lexicon of the 10th century ad, was the originator of Sicilian (or Dorian) comedy. He was born in a Dorian colony, either Megara Hybaea or Syracuse, both on Sicily, or Cos, one of the Dodecanese islands. He has been credited with more than 50 plays

  • Epicharmus (poem by Ennius)

    Latin literature: Didactic poetry: …essayed didactic poetry in his Epicharmus, a work on the nature of the physical universe. Lucretius’ De rerum natura is an account of Epicurus’ atomic theory of matter, its aim being to free men from superstition and the fear of death. Its combination of moral urgency, intellectual force, and precise…

  • epichile (plant anatomy)

    orchid: Natural history: …the mesochile; and a bucket-shaped epichile. The epichile is partially filled with water during the last few hours before the flower opens and for a short time afterward by two faucetlike organs located at the base of the column, which drip water. Male euglossine bees are attracted by the strong…

  • epiclastic breccia (geology)

    sedimentary rock: Epiclastic conglomerates and breccias: …types of epiclastic conglomerates and breccias: intraformational, derived penecontemporaneously by eroding, transporting, and depositing material from within the depositional basin itself; and extraformational, derived from source rocks that lie outside the area in which the deposit occurs. Epiclastic conglomerates and breccias together probably make up no more than 1 or…

  • epiclastic conglomerate (geology)

    sedimentary rock: Epiclastic conglomerates and breccias: There are two principal types of epiclastic conglomerates and breccias: intraformational, derived penecontemporaneously by eroding, transporting, and depositing material from within the depositional basin itself; and extraformational, derived from source rocks that lie outside the area

  • epiclesis (Christianity)

    Epiclesis, (Greek: “invocation”), in the Christian eucharistic prayer (anaphora), the special invocation of the Holy Spirit; in most Eastern Christian liturgies it follows the words of institution—the words used, according to the New Testament, by Jesus himself at the Last Supper—“This is my body .

  • Epic?ne; or, The Silent Woman (play by Jonson)

    fable, parable, and allegory: Diversity of media: …affect personality: in Jonson’s play Epicoene; or, The Silent Woman (1609), the character Morose is possessed by the demon of ill humour. Comic allegory of this kind evolved into the Restoration comedy of manners and through that channel entered modern drama with Wilde, Shaw, and Pirandello. Ibsen, the master of…

  • epicontinental sea (geology)

    Cretaceous Period: Paleogeography: …the continents, creating relatively shallow epicontinental seas in North America, South America, Europe, Russia, Africa, and Australia. In addition, all continents shrank somewhat as their margins flooded. At its maximum, land covered only about 18 percent of Earth’s surface, compared with approximately 28 percent today. At times, Arctic waters were…

  • epicopeiid moth

    lepidopteran: Annotated classification: Family Epicopeiidae (epicopeiid moths) 25 species in Arctic and tropical Asia; colourful day-flying moths that often mimic butterflies and other colourful moths such as the Arctiidae; larvae feed on foliage of woody plants. Superfamily Gelechioidea More than 16,000 species worldwide; adults mostly larger and broader winged than…

  • Epicopeiidae

    lepidopteran: Annotated classification: Family Epicopeiidae (epicopeiid moths) 25 species in Arctic and tropical Asia; colourful day-flying moths that often mimic butterflies and other colourful moths such as the Arctiidae; larvae feed on foliage of woody plants. Superfamily Gelechioidea More than 16,000 species worldwide; adults mostly larger and broader winged than…

  • epicormic bud (plant anatomy)

    tree: Tree height growth: …to light, new buds, called epicormic buds, may be initiated. Epicormic buds may be adventitious in origin or formed from dormant axillary trace buds. In many cases, buds may grow out that were formed by or outside the shoot meristem but became dormant until induced by environmental factors. Rather unique…

  • epicotyl (plant anatomy)

    angiosperm: Fertilization and embryogenesis: An epicotyl, which extends above the cotyledon(s), is composed of the shoot apex and leaf primordia; a hypocotyl, which is the transition zone between the shoot and root; and the radicle. Angiosperm seed development spans three distinct generations, plus a new entity: the parent sporophyte, the…

  • Epicrates cenchria (snake)

    boa: The rainbow boa (Epicrates cenchria) of Costa Rica to Argentina is not strongly patterned but is markedly iridescent. Except for the anacondas, most boines are terrestrial to strongly arboreal. The young often move from the trees to the ground as they get older and larger. Most…

  • Epictetus (Greek artist)

    Epictetus, Greek potter and painter who worked in Athens. His work is praised for its care, grace, vitality, delicate line, and fine draftsmanship. He signed his works as both maker and decorator. Epictetus is most frequently mentioned in connection with a series of medallions on plates in the

  • Epictetus (Greek philosopher)

    Epictetus, Greek philosopher associated with the Stoics, remembered for the religious tone of his teachings, which commended him to numerous early Christian thinkers. His original name is not known; epiktētos is the Greek word meaning “acquired.” As a boy he was a slave but managed to attend

  • Epicureanism

    Epicureanism, in a strict sense, the philosophy taught by Epicurus (341–270 bce). In a broad sense, it is a system of ethics embracing every conception or form of life that can be traced to the principles of his philosophy. In ancient polemics, as often since, the term was employed with an even

  • Epicurus (Greek philosopher)

    Epicurus, Greek philosopher, author of an ethical philosophy of simple pleasure, friendship, and retirement. He founded schools of philosophy that survived directly from the 4th century bc until the 4th century ad. Epicurus was born on the island of Samos of Athenian parents who had gone there as

  • epicuticle (anatomy)

    arthropod: The exoskeleton and molting: …thin, outer protein layer, the epicuticle, and a thick, inner, chitin–protein layer, the procuticle. In most terrestrial arthropods, such as insects and spiders, the epicuticle contains waxes that aid in reducing evaporative water loss. The procuticle consists of an outer exocuticle and an inner endocuticle. In the exocuticle there is…

  • epicycle (astronomy)

    mechanics: History: …emerged of circular orbits, called epicycles, on top of circular orbits. This system of astronomy culminated with the Almagest of Ptolemy, who worked in Alexandria in the 2nd century ad. The Copernican innovation simplified the system somewhat, but Copernicus’s astronomical tables were still based on circular orbits and epicycles. Kepler…

  • Epidamnus (Albania)

    Durr?s, primary seaport of Albania. It lies on the Adriatic Sea coast, west of Tirana. Founded as Epidamnus by Greeks from Corcyra and Corinth in the 7th century bce, it was seized by the Illyrian king Glaucias in 312 bce. It later passed to the Romans, who called it Dyrrhachium and made it the

  • Epidaurus (ancient city, Greece)

    Epidaurus, in ancient Greece, important commercial centre on the eastern coast of the Argolid in the northeastern Peloponnese; it is famed for its 4th-century-bce temple of Asclepius, the god of healing. Excavations of the sacred precinct reveal that it contained temples to Asclepius and Artemis, a

  • epideictic oratory (rhetoric)

    Epideictic oratory, according to Aristotle, a type of suasive speech designed primarily for rhetorical effect. Epideictic oratory was panegyrical, declamatory, and demonstrative. Its aim was to condemn or to eulogize an individual, cause, occasion, movement, city, or state. An outstanding example

  • epidemic (pathology)

    Epidemic, an occurrence of disease that is temporarily of high prevalence. An epidemic occurring over a wide geographical area (e.g., worldwide) is called a pandemic. The rise and decline in epidemic prevalence of an infectious disease is a probability phenomenon dependent upon transfer of an

  • epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (eye disorder)

    conjunctivitis: …the conjunctiva and cornea, causing epidemic keratoconjunctivitis. This condition is highly contagious and is rapidly spread through direct and indirect contact with infected individuals. Typically, a person is contagious for at least a week following onset of symptoms. Treatment is mainly supportive, with emphasis on strict hygiene to minimize spread…

  • epidemic meningitis (pathology)

    meningococcus: …bacterium Neisseria meningitidis, which causes meningococcal meningitis in humans, who are the only natural hosts in which it causes disease. The bacteria are spherical, ranging in diameter from 0.6 to 1.0 μm (micrometre; 1 μm = 10-6 metre); they frequently occur in pairs, with adjacent sides flattened. They are strongly…

  • epidemic MRSA (bacterium)

    MRSA: Mechanisms of resistance: …strains of epidemic MRSA (EMRSA), which first appeared in the early 1990s—their emergence corresponding to the dramatic increase in MRSA infections in the following years. The mechanism of MRSA resistance to glycopeptide antibiotics remains unclear. It is suspected that, in people simultaneously infected with MRSA and vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE),…

  • epidemic myalgia (viral disease)

    Pleurodynia, viral (coxsackie B) epidemic disease with an incubation period of two to four days, marked by a brief fever, severe chest and lower back pain aggravated by deep breathing and movement, and a tendency to recur at intervals of a few days. The disease is usually self-limiting,

  • epidemic parotitis (disease)

    Mumps , acute contagious disease caused by a virus and characterized by inflammatory swelling of the salivary glands. It frequently occurs as an epidemic and most commonly affects young persons who are between 5 and 15 years of age. The incubation period is about 17 to 21 days after contact; danger

  • epidemic pleurodynia (viral disease)

    Pleurodynia, viral (coxsackie B) epidemic disease with an incubation period of two to four days, marked by a brief fever, severe chest and lower back pain aggravated by deep breathing and movement, and a tendency to recur at intervals of a few days. The disease is usually self-limiting,

  • epidemic typhus (pathology)

    typhus: Epidemic typhus: Epidemic typhus has also been called camp fever, jail fever, and war fever, names that suggest overcrowding, underwashing, and lowered standards of living. It is caused by the bacterium Rickettsia prowazekii and is conveyed from person to person by the body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus.…

  • Epidemics (work attributed to Hippocrates)

    Hippocrates: Life and works: …these attractive works are the Epidemics, which give annual records of weather and associated diseases, along with individual case histories and records of treatment, collected from cities in northern Greece. Diagnosis and prognosis are frequent subjects. Other treatises explain how to set fractures and treat wounds, feed and comfort patients,…

  • epidemiologic transition (sociology)

    population: The epidemiologic transition: The epidemiologic transition is that process by which the pattern of mortality and disease is transformed from one of high mortality among infants and children and episodic famine and epidemic affecting all age groups to one of degenerative and man-made diseases (such as…

  • epidemiology (medicine)

    Epidemiology, branch of medical science that studies the distribution of disease in human populations and the factors determining that distribution, chiefly by the use of statistics. Unlike other medical disciplines, epidemiology concerns itself with groups of people rather than individual patients

  • Epidemiorum (work by Baillou)

    Guillaume de Baillou: …and works on epidemiology, especially Epidemiorum, 2 vol. (1640; “Of Epidemics”), may have influenced the great 17th-century Hippocratic physician Thomas Sydenham.

  • Epidendrum (plant genus)

    Epidendrum, genus of more than 1,000 species of tropical and semitropical orchids (family Orchidaceae). Epidendrum orchids are distributed from southeastern North America to central South America and are primarily epiphytic, though some grow on rocks or in soil. The only species native to

  • Epidendrum conopseum (plant)

    Epidendrum: …nontropical North America is the greenfly orchid (E. conopseum), which has clusters of small purplish green flowers. Several species have large attractive flowers and are grown as ornamentals.

  • Epidendrum secundum (plant species)

    orchid: Natural history: …as in the case of Epidendrum secundum, birds and butterflies act as copollinators. In such cases, orchid flowers already adapted to butterflies are not greatly changed morphologically. On the other hand, orchids that have adapted directly to hummingbirds from bee-pollinated ancestors have changed fundamentally. The genera Cochlioda, Sophronitis, Elleanthus, Isochilus,…

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