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  • Enfant de sable, L’ (work by Ben Jelloun)

    Tahar Ben Jelloun: …until L’Enfant de sable (1985; The Sand Child), an imaginative, richly drawn novel that critiques gender roles in Arab society through the tale of a girl raised as a boy, that Ben Jelloun was accorded widespread praise and recognition. Its sequel, La Nuit sacrée (1987; The Sacred Night), won France’s…

  • enfant du siècle (French literature)

    French literature: Romanticism: …terms mal du siècle and enfant du siècle (literally “child of the century”) capture their distress. Alfred de Musset took the latter phrase for his autobiography, La Confession d’un enfant du siècle (1836; The Confession of a Child of the Century). Most French Romantics, whether they adopted a liberal or…

  • Enfant et les sortilèges, L’? (work by Ravel)

    Maurice Ravel: …of his best known opera, L’Enfant et les sortilèges. The latter work gave Ravel an opportunity of doing ingenious and amusing things with the animals and inanimate objects that come to life in this tale of bewitchment and magic in which a naughty child is involved. His only other operatic…

  • Enfant noir, L’? (work by Laye)

    Camara Laye: …autobiographical novel L’Enfant noir (1953; The Dark Child) recreates nostalgically his childhood days in Guinea in a flowing, poetic prose. The life he depicts in a traditional African town is an idyllic one in which human values are paramount and the inevitable alienation from the land that accompanies Western technology…

  • Enfant, L’? (film by Jean-Pierre and Luc Dardenne [2005])

    Dardenne brothers: In 2005, with L’Enfant (The Child), the brothers for the second time in six years won the Palme d’Or. Only filmmakers Emir Kusturica and Imamura Shohei had previously won twice. L’Enfant explores life in a poverty-stricken, gritty, industrial region of French-speaking southern Belgium. Its protagonist, Bruno, is a 20-year-old…

  • Enfant, Pierre Charles, L’ (French engineer and architect)

    Pierre Charles L’Enfant, French-born American engineer, architect, and urban designer who designed the basic plan for Washington, D.C., the capital city of the United States. L’Enfant studied art under his father at the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture from 1771 until he enlisted in 1776 as

  • Enfantin, Barthélemy-Prosper (French political scientist)

    Barthélemy-Prosper Enfantin, eccentric French social, political, and economic theorist who was a leading member of the St. Simonian movement. After studies at the école Polytechnique, Enfantin traveled widely and frequented secret societies in Paris. When introduced to the social reformer

  • Enfants de Genève (political organization, Geneva, Switzerland)

    Philibert Berthelier: …a league of patriots, the Enfants de Genève, to resist the Bishop’s encroachments on citizen’s rights. Further opposition to the Bishop and his Savoyard connection led to Berthelier’s arraignment on a charge of lèse-majesté (March 16, 1518); and, although acquitted by the citizens’ committees (syndics), he was nonetheless summarily arrested…

  • Enfants du nouveau monde, Les (work by Djebar)

    Assia Djebar: …Enfants du nouveau monde (1962; Children of the New World) and its sequel, Les Alouettes na?ves (1967; “The Naive Larks”), chronicle the growth of Algerian feminism and describe the contributions of Algerian women to the war for independence (1954–62) from France. Djebar collaborated with Walid Garn, then her husband, on…

  • Enfants du paradis, Les (film by Carné)

    Marcel Carné: Les Enfants du paradis (1945; Children of Paradise), a fictionalized portrait of the mime Jean-Gaspard Deburau, paints a rich and powerfully evocative picture of 19th-century French theatrical society and is regarded as Carné’s masterpiece.

  • Enfants du sabbat, Les (novel by Hébert)

    Anne Hébert: Les Enfants du sabbat (1975; Children of the Black Sabbath), which won Hébert a second Governor General’s Award, is a tale of witchcraft and sorcery. The supernatural was a theme to which she would return. In Hélo?se (1980; Eng. trans. Heloise), for example, the protagonist is a vampire. In Les…

  • Enfants sans Souci (French theatre)

    Enfants sans Souci, (French: Carefree Children), one of the largest of the sociétés joyeuses of medieval France, an association of the merchants, craftsmen, and students of Paris, founded for the purpose of staging theatrical entertainments and other amusements. Such societies are thought to be

  • Enfants terribles, Les (novel by Cocteau)

    Jean Cocteau: Influence of Radiguet: The novel Les Enfants terribles, written in the space of three weeks in March 1929, is the study of the inviolability of the character of two adolescents, the brother and sister Paul and Elisabeth. In 1950 Cocteau prepared the screenplay for a film of this work, and…

  • enfeoffment (English law)

    Feoffment, in English law, the granting of a free inheritance of land (fee simple) to a man and his heirs. The delivery of possession (livery of seisin) was done on the site of the land and was made by the feoffor to the feoffee in the presence of witnesses. Written conveyances were often

  • Enfer, L’? (work by Marot)

    French literature: Poetry: …his allegorical satire on justice, L’Enfer (“Hell”), in 1526 after his brief imprisonment on charges of violating Lenten regulations, and he fled into exile in 1534 to avoid persecution after the Affaire des Placards (in which placards attacking the Mass appeared in several cities and on the king’s bedchamber door).…

  • Enfield (borough, London, United Kingdom)

    Enfield, outer borough of London, England, on the northern perimeter of the metropolis. It is in the historic county of Middlesex. The eastern part of the borough lies in the valley of the River Lea. The western part is higher and includes the undulating farmland and parkland of Enfield Chase in

  • Enfield (Connecticut, United States)

    Enfield, town (township), Hartford county, northern Connecticut, U.S., on the Connecticut River at the Massachusetts border. It includes the industrial subdivisions of Thompsonville and Hazardville. The area was settled by a group from Salem, Massachusetts, in 1680 and was named for Enfield,

  • Enfield Falls (Connecticut, United States)

    Windsor Locks, urban town (township), Hartford county, north-central Connecticut, U.S., on the Connecticut River. Originally settled as part of Windsor in 1663, it was known as Pine Meadow and Enfield Falls (for the rapids on its east side). Commercial development began after 1829 with the

  • Enfield rifle (firearm)

    Enfield: …Arms Factory that produced the Enfield series of rifles closed in 1988. The borough is well connected to central London by suburban rail lines and the London Underground (subway).

  • enfleurage (chemistry)

    essential oil: Methods of production: …extraction with cold fat (enfleurage) or hot fat (maceration) is chiefly of historical importance.

  • Enforcer, The (American gangster)

    Frank Nitti, American gangster in Chicago who was Al Capone’s chief enforcer and inherited Capone’s criminal empire when Capone went to prison in 1931. Starting as a barber, Nitti became a fence for stolen goods and about 1920 joined Capone’s gang. He was sent to prison for 18 months after pleading

  • Enfranchisement of Women (essay by Mill)

    John Stuart Mill: Public life and writing: …the essay on the “Enfranchisement of Women” (Dissertations, vol. 2). Nevertheless, Mill’s relations with her have always been something of a puzzle.

  • Enga (province, Papua New Guinea)

    Enga, province, west-central Papua New Guinea, in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. It was separated from the Western Highlands district in 1973 and created as a province in 1978. Located north and east of the Southern Highlands province, Enga comprises the western half of the central plateaus. It is

  • Enga language

    Papuan languages: The complexity of the language group: …most commonly spoken Papuan language, Enga, has some 165,000 speakers, many Papuan languages have fewer than 100 speakers and some fewer than 50.

  • Engadin (valley, Switzerland)

    Engadin, Swiss portion of the upper Inn (Romansh En) River valley, in Graubünden canton, extending about 60 mi (100 km) from the Inn’s source near the Maloja Pass (5,955 ft [1,815 m]) northeast to Finstermünz (3,621 ft), near the Austrian border. It is bounded on the south by the Bernina Alps and

  • Engadina (valley, Switzerland)

    Engadin, Swiss portion of the upper Inn (Romansh En) River valley, in Graubünden canton, extending about 60 mi (100 km) from the Inn’s source near the Maloja Pass (5,955 ft [1,815 m]) northeast to Finstermünz (3,621 ft), near the Austrian border. It is bounded on the south by the Bernina Alps and

  • Engadine (valley, Switzerland)

    Engadin, Swiss portion of the upper Inn (Romansh En) River valley, in Graubünden canton, extending about 60 mi (100 km) from the Inn’s source near the Maloja Pass (5,955 ft [1,815 m]) northeast to Finstermünz (3,621 ft), near the Austrian border. It is bounded on the south by the Bernina Alps and

  • Engadine language

    Rhaetian dialects: Other Rhaetian dialects are Engadine, Ladin, and Friulian.

  • Engaged Buddhism (religion)

    Buddhism: Trends since the 19th century: …been the development of so-called Engaged Buddhism. Those who identify with this cause include Asian Buddhists, such as the Vietnamese-born monk and writer Thich Nhat Hanh, and Western converts who have developed understandings of Buddhist teachings and practice that focus on the implementation of progressive social, political, and economic activity.…

  • engaged column (architecture)

    Western architecture: The Archaic period (c. 750–500 bc): …not freestanding but were half-columns engaged against (that is, partially attached to) a continuous solid wall. An earlier Sicilian variant of this use of the plastically molded wall mass with the orders applied decoratively can be seen in the columnar curtain walls of Temple F at Selinus, begun about 560…

  • Engagement (English treaty)

    John Maitland, duke of Lauderdale: …secret agreement, known as the Engagement, by which Charles promised to impose Presbyterianism on England in exchange for aid against the rebels. Maitland helped the Scottish Engagers mount their ill-fated invasion of England in 1648, and in 1651 he was captured while fighting with Charles II (the late Charles I’s…

  • engagement (marriage custom)

    Betrothal, promise that a marriage will take place. In societies in which premarital sexual relations are condoned or in which consensual union is common, betrothal may be unimportant. In other societies, however, betrothal is a formal part of the marriage process. In such cases a change of

  • Engano Island (island, Indonesia)

    Enggano Island, island in the Indian Ocean, off the southwestern coast of Sumatra, Bengkulu provinsi (“province”), Indonesia. Enggano lies about 110 miles (177 km) south of Bengkulu city. It is about 22 miles (35 km) long east-west and 10 miles (16 km) wide north-south and covers an area of 171

  • Engaruka (archaeological site, Tanzania)

    eastern Africa: The spread of ironworking and the Bantu migrations: At Engaruka, for example, in that same region of the Rift Valley in northern Tanzania, a major Iron Age site, which was both an important and concentrated agricultural settlement using irrigation, seems to have been occupied for over a thousand years. Significantly, its styles of pottery…

  • Engel curve (economics)

    Ernst Engel: …for the “Engel curve,” or Engel’s law, which states that the lower a family’s income, the greater is the proportion of it spent on food. His conclusion was based on a budget study of 153 Belgian families and was later verified by a number of other statistical inquiries into consumer…

  • Engel v. Vitale (law case)

    Engel v. Vitale, case in which the U.S. Supreme Court ruled on June 25, 1962, that voluntary prayer in public schools violated the U.S. Constitution’s First Amendment prohibition of a state establishment of religion. New York state’s Board of Regents wrote and authorized a voluntary

  • Engel’s law (economics)

    Ernst Engel: …for the “Engel curve,” or Engel’s law, which states that the lower a family’s income, the greater is the proportion of it spent on food. His conclusion was based on a budget study of 153 Belgian families and was later verified by a number of other statistical inquiries into consumer…

  • Engel, Carl Ludwig (German architect)

    Helsinki: …the German-born architect Carl Ludwig Engel, who designed a number of impressive public buildings in the Neoclassical style. These include the state council building, the main building of Helsinki University, and the Lutheran cathedral, known as the Great Church, completed in 1852. All of these structures surround the broad expanse…

  • Engel, Ernst (German statistician)

    Ernst Engel, German statistician remembered for the “Engel curve,” or Engel’s law, which states that the lower a family’s income, the greater is the proportion of it spent on food. His conclusion was based on a budget study of 153 Belgian families and was later verified by a number of other

  • Engel, Lehman (American musician)

    theatre music: Stage musicals: Lehman Engel, a leading conductor of stage musicals in the United States, has defined five types of song basic to the stage musical: ballad—usually but not exclusively romantic in feeling; rhythm song—varied in emotional character but primarily propelled by a prominent musical beat; comedy song—enhancing…

  • Engelbart, Douglas (American inventor)

    Douglas Engelbart, American inventor whose work beginning in the 1950s led to his patent for the computer mouse, the development of the basic graphical user interface (GUI), and groupware. Engelbart won the 1997 A.M. Turing Award, the highest honour in computer science, for his “inspiring vision of

  • Engelberg (work by Meyer)

    Conrad Ferdinand Meyer: The narrative poem Engelberg (1872) was followed by his 11 Novellen, or prose narratives, among which are Das Amulett (1873), Der Heilige (1880; The Saint), Das Leiden eines Knaben (1883), Die Hochzeit des M?nchs (1884; The Monk’s Wedding), Die Versuchung des Pescara (1887), and Angela Borgia (1891). His…

  • Engelberger, Joseph (American engineer)

    Joseph Frederick Engelberger, American engineer (born July 26, 1925, Brooklyn, N.Y.—died Dec. 1, 2015, Newtown, Conn.), founded (1956) the world’s first robot-manufacturing company and earned the sobriquet “father of robotics” for his almost evangelical role in the development and marketing of

  • Engelberger, Joseph Frederick (American engineer)

    Joseph Frederick Engelberger, American engineer (born July 26, 1925, Brooklyn, N.Y.—died Dec. 1, 2015, Newtown, Conn.), founded (1956) the world’s first robot-manufacturing company and earned the sobriquet “father of robotics” for his almost evangelical role in the development and marketing of

  • Engelbrekt Engelbrektsson (Swedish revolutionary)

    Engelbrekt Engelbrektsson, Swedish national hero who led a 15th-century rebellion against Erik of Pomerania, king of the united realms of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. Of German origin, Engelbrektsson was a mine owner of the petty nobility from the Bergslagen area of Sweden. When, in the summer of

  • Engelbrektsson’s Revolt (Swedish history)

    Sweden: The Kalmar Union: …Sweden, and led to a revolt by Bergslagen peasants and miners in 1434. The rebel leader, Engelbrekt Engelbrektsson, formed a coalition with the national council; in 1435 a national meeting in Arboga named Engelbrekt captain of the realm. Erik agreed to change his policies and was again acknowledged as king…

  • Engelbrektsson, Olaf (Norwegian clergyman)

    Norway: The 16th and 17th centuries: Olaf Engelbrektsson, the last Norwegian archbishop and head of the council, left Norway in early 1537 for the Netherlands, taking with him the shrine of St. Olaf.

  • Engelmann prickly pear (cactus)

    prickly pear: Two of the best-known species, Engelmann prickly pear (O. engelmannii) and the beaver tail cactus (O. basilaris), commonly occur in the southwestern United States.

  • Engelmann spruce (tree)

    spruce: Major species: Engelmann spruce (P. engelmannii) of western North America is an important timber source. The blue spruce, or Colorado spruce (P. pungens), has a similar range and is used as an ornamental because of its bluish leaves and symmetrical growth habit. The Norway spruce (P. abies),…

  • Engelmann syndrome (pathology)

    dysplasia: Progressive diaphyseal dysplasia (Engelmann syndrome) is a not-uncommon hereditary (autosomal recessive) disorder that begins in childhood. The shafts of the long bones and the skull vault become thickened; individuals with the disorder may have bone pain, weak muscles, fatigue, and a stiff, waddling gait.

  • Engelmann, George (German botanist and physician)

    George Engelmann, U.S. botanist, physician, and meteorologist who is known primarily for his botanical monographs, especially one on the cactus and also A Monography of North American Cuscutinae (1842). Engelmann studied at the universities of Heidelberg and Berlin and received his M.D. degree from

  • Engels (Russia)

    Engels, city, Saratov oblast (province), western Russia. The city is situated on the left bank of the Volga River, opposite Saratov, to which it is connected by a highway bridge (completed 1965). Founded in 1747 as Pokrovskaya sloboda (military settlement), the city was the capital of the former

  • Engels, Friedrich (German philosopher)

    Friedrich Engels, German socialist philosopher, the closest collaborator of Karl Marx in the foundation of modern communism. They coauthored The Communist Manifesto (1848), and Engels edited the second and third volumes of Das Kapital after Marx’s death. Engels grew up in the environment of a

  • Engelse Oorlogen (European history)

    Anglo-Dutch Wars, (English Wars), the four 17th- and 18th-century naval conflicts between England and the Dutch Republic. The first three wars, stemming from commercial rivalry, established England’s naval might, and the last, arising from Dutch interference in the American Revolution, spelled t

  • Engen, Alf (American skier)

    Alf Engen, Norwegian-born American skier who won eight national ski-jumping and eight combined-competition championships and set a number of world records between 1931 and 1947 after having won the 1931 world pro championship; he went on to teach, coach, and run a ski school that he founded (b.

  • Engerer, Brigitte (French pianist)

    Brigitte Engerer, (Brigitte-Marie-Raymonde Engerer), French pianist (born Oct. 27, 1952, Tunis, Tun.—died June 23, 2012, Paris, France), blended the ordered clarity of French musical tradition and the sonorous exuberance of the Russian style in virtuoso renditions of works by such composers as

  • Engerer, Brigitte-Marie-Raymonde (French pianist)

    Brigitte Engerer, (Brigitte-Marie-Raymonde Engerer), French pianist (born Oct. 27, 1952, Tunis, Tun.—died June 23, 2012, Paris, France), blended the ordered clarity of French musical tradition and the sonorous exuberance of the Russian style in virtuoso renditions of works by such composers as

  • Engestr?m, Lars (Swedish foreign minister)

    Sweden: Royalist reaction: …the Francophile Swedish foreign minister, Lars Engestr?m, managed to persuade the Diet to set aside the Danish alternative and to name Bernadotte as crown prince of Sweden in August 1810.

  • Enggano Island (island, Indonesia)

    Enggano Island, island in the Indian Ocean, off the southwestern coast of Sumatra, Bengkulu provinsi (“province”), Indonesia. Enggano lies about 110 miles (177 km) south of Bengkulu city. It is about 22 miles (35 km) long east-west and 10 miles (16 km) wide north-south and covers an area of 171

  • Enggano language

    Austronesian languages: Aberrant languages: …languages of this category are Enggano, spoken on a small island of the same name situated off the southwest coast of Sumatra, and a number of Melanesian languages. In the most extreme cases the classification of a language as Austronesian or non-Austronesian has shifted back and forth repeatedly, as with…

  • Enggano, Pulau (island, Indonesia)

    Enggano Island, island in the Indian Ocean, off the southwestern coast of Sumatra, Bengkulu provinsi (“province”), Indonesia. Enggano lies about 110 miles (177 km) south of Bengkulu city. It is about 22 miles (35 km) long east-west and 10 miles (16 km) wide north-south and covers an area of 171

  • Enghalskrug (ceramic jug)

    Enghalskrug, German faience ewer with an ovoid body and a long narrow neck, which has a hinged pewter lid, a slight lip, and a broad foot, usually bound with a ring of pewter. After having been developed as a specialty at Hanau, Enghalskrüge were made at a number of German factories in the 17th

  • Enghien, duc d’ (French general and prince)

    Louis II de Bourbon, 4e prince de Condé, leader of the last of the series of aristocratic uprisings in France known as the Fronde (1648–53). He later became one of King Louis XIV’s greatest generals. The princes de Condé were the heads of an important French branch of the House of Bourbon. The

  • Enghien, duc d’ (French prince)

    Henri-Jules de Bourbon, 5e prince de Condé, the eldest son of the Great Condé (the 4th prince), whom he accompanied on military campaigns. Known from 1646 as the Duc d’Enghien, he was taken to and fro by his mother during the Fronde and eventually into exile with his father, returning to France in

  • Enghien, Louis II de Bourbon, duc d’ (French general and prince)

    Louis II de Bourbon, 4e prince de Condé, leader of the last of the series of aristocratic uprisings in France known as the Fronde (1648–53). He later became one of King Louis XIV’s greatest generals. The princes de Condé were the heads of an important French branch of the House of Bourbon. The

  • Enghien, Louis-Antoine-Henri de Bourbon-Condé, duc d’ (French prince)

    Louis-Antoine-Henri de Bourbon-Condé, duke d’Enghien, French prince whose execution, widely proclaimed as an atrocity, ended all hope of reconciliation between Napoleon and the royal house of Bourbon. The only son of Louis-Henri-Joseph, Duke de Bourbon, and Louise-Marie-Thérèse-Bathilde d’Orléans,

  • Engholm, Bj?rn (German politician)

    Bj?rn Engholm, German politician who served as leader of the Social Democratic Party (SPD) from 1991 to 1993. Although born in Germany, Engholm was of Swedish descent. He was educated at the University of Hamburg and worked as a printer before becoming a freelance journalist and lecturer in 1964.

  • Engi shiki (Japanese literature)

    Fujiwara Tokihira: Tokihira began work on the Engi-shiki (“Institutes of the Engi Period”), a compilation of administrative regulations; after his death it was completed by others and was presented at court in 927. Upon Tokihira’s death, his brother Tadahira succeeded him and in 941 assumed the office of kampaku.

  • Engiadina (valley, Switzerland)

    Engadin, Swiss portion of the upper Inn (Romansh En) River valley, in Graubünden canton, extending about 60 mi (100 km) from the Inn’s source near the Maloja Pass (5,955 ft [1,815 m]) northeast to Finstermünz (3,621 ft), near the Austrian border. It is bounded on the south by the Bernina Alps and

  • Engil’chek Glacier (glacier, Asia)

    Tien Shan: Glaciation: …in the Tien Shan is Engil’chek (Inylchek) Glacier, which is approximately 37 miles (60 km) long; it descends from the western slopes of the Khan T?ngiri massif and branches into numerous tributaries. Other large glaciers in this area include North Engil’chek (24 miles [39 km]) and one at Muzat Pass…

  • engine (ancient warfare)

    military technology: Mechanical artillery: …in 399 bce directed his engineers to construct military engines in preparation for war with Carthage. Dionysius’s engineers surely drew on existing practice. The earliest of the Greek engines was the gastrophetes, or “belly shooter.” In effect a large crossbow, it received its name because the user braced the stock…

  • engine (technology)

    history of flight: The generation and application of power: the problem of propulsion: …19th century approached, the internal-combustion engine emerged as an even more promising aeronautical power plant. The process had begun in 1860, when étienne Lenoir of Belgium built the first internal-combustion engine, fueled with illuminating gas. In Germany, Nikolaus A. Otto took the next step in 1876, producing a four-stroke engine…

  • engine block (engine)

    gasoline engine: Cylinder block: The main structural member of all automotive engines is a cylinder block that usually extends upward from the centre line of the main support for the crankshaft to the junction with the cylinder head. The block serves as the structural framework of the engine…

  • engine department (shipping)

    ship: Crewing: …and nonmachinery components, (2) the engine department, which operated machinery and performed at-sea maintenance, and (3) the stewards department, which did the work of a hotel staff for the crew and passengers. The total number of crew varied widely with the function of the ship and with changes in technology.…

  • engine lathe (machine tool)

    lathe: On an engine lathe the tool is clamped onto a cross slide that is power driven on straight paths parallel or perpendicular to the work axis. On a screwcutting lathe the motion of the cutting tool is accurately related to the rotation of the spindle by means…

  • engine oil (lubricant)

    gasoline engine: Lubrication system: …for each engine, and the oil must be suitable for the severity of the operating conditions. Oils are improved with additives that reduce oxidation, inhibit corrosion, and act as detergents to disperse deposit-forming gums and solid contaminants. Motor oils also include an antifoaming agent. Various systems of numbers are used…

  • Engineer Ordnance Disposal (United States Army unit)

    improvised explosive device: Tactical use: Engineer Ordnance Disposal (EOD) experts disable or destroy IEDs through a variety of means, including the use of robotic ground vehicles and explosives.

  • engineering (science)

    Engineering, the application of science to the optimum conversion of the resources of nature to the uses of humankind. The field has been defined by the Engineers Council for Professional Development, in the United States, as the creative application of “scientific principles to design or develop

  • Engineering and Iron Trades Association (Indian trade association)

    Confederation of Indian Industry (CII), trade association representing the interests of Indian businesses in various sectors, chiefly including engineering, manufacturing, consulting, and services. The organization was founded as the Engineering and Iron Trades Association (EITA) in 1895. It

  • engineering ceramics (ceramics)

    Advanced ceramics, substances and processes used in the development and manufacture of ceramic materials that exhibit special properties. Ceramics, as is pointed out in the article ceramic composition and properties, are traditionally described as inorganic, nonmetallic solids that are prepared

  • engineering drawing (graphics)

    Drafting, graphical representation of structures, machines, and their component parts that communicates the engineering intent of a technical design to the craftsman or worker who makes the product. At the design stage, both freehand and mechanical drawings serve the functions of inspiring and

  • Engineering for Earthquakes

    Major earthquakes in Haiti and in Chile made the headlines in 2010. Though both caused significant damage to buildings and other infrastructure, the degree of destruction and disruption was extremely severe in Haiti but was held to a modest level in Chile. The reason for this was not so much a

  • engineering geology

    Engineering geology, the scientific discipline concerned with the application of geological knowledge to engineering problems—e.g., to reservoir design and location, determination of slope stability for construction purposes, and determination of earthquake, flood, or subsidence danger in areas

  • engineering graphics (graphics)

    Drafting, graphical representation of structures, machines, and their component parts that communicates the engineering intent of a technical design to the craftsman or worker who makes the product. At the design stage, both freehand and mechanical drawings serve the functions of inspiring and

  • engineering plastic (plastic)

    plastic: The composition, structure, and properties of plastics: …this group are the so-called engineering plastics, or engineering resins, which are plastics that can compete with die-cast metals in plumbing, hardware, and automotive applications. Important engineering plastics, less familiar to consumers than the commodity plastics listed above, are polyacetal, polyamide (particularly those known by the trade name nylon), polytetrafluoroethylene…

  • engineering psychology (bioengineering)

    Human-factors engineering, science dealing with the application of information on physical and psychological characteristics to the design of devices and systems for human use. The term human-factors engineering is used to designate equally a body of knowledge, a process, and a profession. As a

  • engineering resin (plastic)

    plastic: The composition, structure, and properties of plastics: …this group are the so-called engineering plastics, or engineering resins, which are plastics that can compete with die-cast metals in plumbing, hardware, and automotive applications. Important engineering plastics, less familiar to consumers than the commodity plastics listed above, are polyacetal, polyamide (particularly those known by the trade name nylon), polytetrafluoroethylene…

  • engineering studies

    Engineering studies, multidisciplinary branch of engineering that examines the relationships between technical and nontechnical aspects of engineering practices. Engineering studies encompasses a wide range of scholarly work that seeks to understand what it means to be an engineer and what is

  • England (constituent unit, United Kingdom)

    England, predominant constituent unit of the United Kingdom, occupying more than half of the island of Great Britain. Outside the British Isles, England is often erroneously considered synonymous with the island of Great Britain (England, Scotland, and Wales) and even with the entire United

  • England and America (work by Wakefield)

    Edward Gibbon Wakefield: Further, Wakefield’s anonymous England and America . . ., 2 vol. (1833), an elaboration of his theories, influenced the South Australian Act of 1834, which forbade the organization of South Australia as a convict settlement and incorporated the notion of the “sufficient price” for subsidizing immigration. The colony…

  • England and Wales Cricket Board (sports organization)

    cricket: The Cricket Council and the ECB: A reorganization of English cricket took place in 1969, resulting in the end of the MCC’s long reign as the controlling body of the game, though the organization still retains responsibility for the laws. With the establishment of the Sports Council (a government agency…

  • England for All (work by Hyndman)

    Henry Mayers Hyndman: …conference (June 1881) he wrote England for All, the first socialist book published in England since the decline of Robert Owen’s reform movement in the 1830s. In this work he expounded the theories of Marx, who was offended, however, because in his view Hyndman did not make the necessary acknowledgment…

  • England in Australia, Church of (church, Australia)

    Anglican Church of Australia, independent Australian church within the Anglican Communion. It developed from the churches established by the English settlers in Australia in the 18th century. The first settlers, convicts sent from England to settle the country in 1788, were accompanied by one

  • England’s Treasure by Forraign Trade (work by Mun)

    Thomas Mun: …of Mun’s ideas appears in England’s Treasure by Forraign Trade, a book that was not published until 1664—decades after his death.

  • England, Bank of (central bank of United Kingdom)

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