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  • encomendero (Spanish policy holder)

    history of Latin America: Indians and Spaniards: …there were indigenous units; the encomendero (holder of the grant) could at least initially receive only what the ruler had received before him. The larger islands were inhabited by the Arawak, a sedentary if modestly developed people with kingdoms, rulers, nobles, and obligatory labour mechanisms. Their ruler was called a…

  • encomiast (Mesopotamian religion)

    Mesopotamian religion: Sumerian literature: …over and over again the encomiast, the official praiser, whose task it was to sing these hymns, closed with the standing phrase: “O [the name of a deity or human hero], thy praise is sweet.” The same phrase is common also at the end of myths and epics, two further…

  • encomienda (Spanish policy)

    Encomienda, in Spain’s American and Philippine colonies, legal system by which the Spanish crown attempted to define the status of the indigenous population. It was based upon the practice of exacting tribute from Muslims and Jews during the Reconquista (“Reconquest”) of Muslim Spain. Although the

  • encomium (literature)

    Encomium, a prose or poetic work in which a person, thing, or abstract idea is glorified. Originally an encomium was a Greek choral song honouring the hero of the Olympic Games and sung at the victory celebration at the end of the Games. The Greek writers Simonides of Ceos and Pindar wrote some of

  • encopresis (bowel movement)

    mental disorder: Other childhood disorders: …during the day or night), encopresis (the repeated voiding of feces into inappropriate places), sleepwalking, and night terror. These symptoms are not necessarily evidence of emotional disturbance or of some other mental illness. Behavioral methods of treatment are usually effective.

  • Encore (album by Eminem [2004])

    Eminem: …D12 World (2004), Eminem released Encore (2004) and a greatest-hits set, Curtain Call: The Hits (2005), both of which sold well but failed to garner as much attention as his previous albums had. He then stepped out of the public eye, resurfacing briefly in 2006 to eulogize friend and D12…

  • Encore, Once Again! (painting by Fedotov)

    Pavel Andreyevich Fedotov: …other hand, in his painting Encore, Once Again!, the flickering candle in the centre of the still life on the table is the only source of light. Genre painting is by definition about life, yet in this ostensible genre painting life has become static, and the time of the action…

  • Encounter (British periodical)

    Irving Kristol: Early life and career: poet Stephen Spender cofounded Encounter, a political and literary journal; Kristol served as coeditor until his return to New York City in 1958. (When it was publicly revealed in 1967 that Encounter had been secretly financed by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency [CIA], Kristol claimed not to have known…

  • encounter group (psychology)

    mental disorder: Group psychotherapy: …suffering from any psychiatric disorder; encounter groups are a well-known example. This discussion, however, is concerned with long-term dynamic group therapy, in which six to 10 psychiatric patients meet with a trained group therapist, or sometimes two therapists, usually for 60 to 90 minutes a week for several months or…

  • Encounters at the End of the World (film by Herzog [2007])

    Werner Herzog: Among Herzog’s later documentaries were Encounters at the End of the World (2007), which highlights the beauty of Antarctica; Cave of Forgotten Dreams (2010), which explores in 3-D the prehistoric paintings at the Chauvet cave in France; Into the Abyss (2011), a sombre examination of a Texas murder case; and…

  • Encouragement of Industry, Law for the (Turkey [1909, 1915])

    Ottoman Empire: Internal developments: …to promote industrialization, with a Law for the Encouragement of Industry (1909, revised 1915). Although they had little success, they did build a framework for later state-directed economic planning. Considerable attention was given to education, especially to the neglected area of the primary level. The process of secularization of the…

  • Encratites (Christian sect)

    Encratite, member of an ascetic Christian sect led by Tatian, a 2nd-century Syrian rhetorician. The name derived from the group’s doctrine of continence (Greek: enkrateia). The sect shunned marriage, the eating of flesh, and the drinking of intoxicating beverages, even substituting water or milk

  • encrusted enamelling (art technique)

    enamelwork: Encrusted enamelling (émail en ronde bosse): Encrusted enamelling is the term used to describe the technique of enamelling the irregular surfaces of objects or figures in the round or in very high relief. Both opaque and translucent enamels are applied to these small-scale sculptural objects,…

  • encryption (cryptology)

    Data encryption, the process of disguising information as “ciphertext,” or data unintelligible to an unauthorized person. Conversely, decryption, or decipherment, is the process of converting ciphertext back into its original format. Manual encryption has been used since Roman times, but the term

  • Encuentra Internacional de la Canción Protesta (music festival, Havana, Cuba)

    nueva canción: The formative years: the late 1950s through the ’60s: The first of these, the International Protest Song Meeting (Encuentra Internacional de la Canción Protesta), held in Havana in 1967, drew participants from more than 15 countries and led to the Cuban government’s establishment of a Protest Song Centre (Centro de la Canción Protesta) at the House of the Americas…

  • Encuentro Progresista–Frente Amplio (political party, Uruguay)

    José Mujica: …as a member of the Progressive Encounter–Broad Front (Encuentro Progresista–Frente Amplio; EP-FA) coalition, which captured majorities in both legislative houses and whose presidential candidate, socialist Tabaré Vázquez, also won election. In the process, Mujica was sworn in as Senate leader in February 2005. He also served as minister of agriculture…

  • enculturation (learning process)

    education: Prehistoric and primitive cultures: …only in the sense of enculturation, which is the process of cultural transmission. A primitive person, whose culture is the totality of his universe, has a relatively fixed sense of cultural continuity and timelessness. The model of life is relatively static and absolute, and it is transmitted from one generation…

  • encyclical (papal document)

    Encyclical, pastoral letter written by the pope for the whole Roman Catholic church on matters of doctrine, morals, or discipline. Although formal papal letters for the entire church were issued from the earliest days of the church, the first commonly called an encyclical was Ubi primum, dealing

  • Encyclical of the Patriarchs (letter by Anthimus VI)

    Anthimus VI: …and Antioch, Anthimus wrote the Encyclical of the Patriarchs (1848), an open letter to the Orthodox world criticizing papal ambitions to exercise authority over the universal Catholic Church as represented in Pope Pius IX’s encyclical letter of Jan. 6, 1848, In Suprema Petri Apostoli Sede (“On the Supreme Throne of…

  • encyclopaedia (reference work)

    Encyclopaedia, reference work that contains information on all branches of knowledge or that treats a particular branch of knowledge in a comprehensive manner. For more than 2,000 years encyclopaedias have existed as summaries of extant scholarship in forms comprehensible to their readers. The word

  • Encyclop?dia Britannica (English language reference work)

    Encyclop?dia Britannica, the oldest English-language general encyclopaedia. The Encyclop?dia Britannica was first published in 1768, when it began to appear in Edinburgh, Scotland. Since its founding, the Encyclop?dia Britannica has relied upon both outside experts and its own editors with various

  • Encyclop?dia Britannica (print encyclopaedia)
  • Encyclopaedia Britannica Education Corporation (American company)
  • Encyclopaedia Britannica World Atlas (publication by Britannica [1942-1966])
  • Encyclopaedia Metropolitana (British reference work)

    Encyclopaedia Metropolitana, English-language encyclopaedia published in Great Britain from 1817 to 1845. It is arranged systematically and topically rather than alphabetically. Composed of 25 volumes of text, three of plates, and an alphabetical one-volume index, it was designed to treat

  • Encyclopaedia of Cottage, Farm, and Villa Architecture (work by Loudon)

    John Claudius Loudon: …building types by writing his Encyclopaedia of Cottage, Farm, and Villa Architecture (1833). This work was unprecedented in that it was consciously addressed to the middle class rather than to an aristocratic audience. It thus helped shape Victorian suburban architecture.

  • Encyclopaedia Universalis (French language reference work)

    encyclopaedia: The 20th century and beyond: …interesting new encyclopaedias was the Encyclopaedia Universalis (first issued 1968–74), edited by Claude Grégory and owned by the French Book Club and Encyclop?dia Britannica, Inc. (since 2005 solely by Encyclop?dia Britannica, Inc.). This work, inspired by L’Encyclopédie, eschewed the inclusion of minor items in favour of extensive and very well-illustrated…

  • encyclopaedic dictionary (reference work)

    encyclopaedia: Influence of printing: …a type of dictionary—now called encyclopaedic—that added to the definition and etymology of a word a description of the functions of the thing or idea it named. In some dictionaries, such as those of the Estiennes, a French family of book dealers and printers, this description might in some cases…

  • encyclopedia (reference work)

    Encyclopaedia, reference work that contains information on all branches of knowledge or that treats a particular branch of knowledge in a comprehensive manner. For more than 2,000 years encyclopaedias have existed as summaries of extant scholarship in forms comprehensible to their readers. The word

  • Encyclopedia Americana (American reference work)

    Encyclopedia Americana, general encyclopaedia that was the first major multivolume encyclopaedia to be published in the United States (1829–33). Compiled and edited by Francis Lieber, Americana was first published in 13 volumes. Subsequent editions were published in 1911 (20 volumes) and 1918–20

  • Encyclopedia of Appliqué (work by Brackman)

    Barbara Brackman: …Pieced Quilt Patterns (1979) and Encyclopedia of Applique (1993), twin compendiums of pieced (4,216) and appliquéd (1,795) quilt patterns, based on quilt collections and published sources from roughly 1800 to 1970. Brackman’s pattern compilations were also released in software format under the title BlockBase (1995, DOS; 2000, Windows). Her Clues…

  • Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (data collection project)

    ENCODE, collaborative data-collection project begun in 2003 that aimed to inventory all the functional elements of the human genome. ENCODE was conceived by researchers at the U.S. National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) as a follow-on to the Human Genome Project (HGP; 1990–2003), which

  • Encyclopedia of Jazz, The (work by Feather)

    Leonard Feather: …songwriter whose standard reference work, The Encyclopedia of Jazz, and energetic advocacy placed him among the most influential of jazz critics.

  • Encyclopedia of Pierced Quilt Patterns (work by Brackman)

    Barbara Brackman: …her hobby grew into the Encyclopedia of Pieced Quilt Patterns (1979) and Encyclopedia of Applique (1993), twin compendiums of pieced (4,216) and appliquéd (1,795) quilt patterns, based on quilt collections and published sources from roughly 1800 to 1970. Brackman’s pattern compilations were also released in software format under the title…

  • Encyclopédie (French reference work)

    Encyclopédie, (French: “Encyclopaedia, or Classified Dictionary of Sciences, Arts, and Trades”), the 18th-century French encyclopaedia that was one of the chief works of the Philosophes, men dedicated to the advancement of science and secular thought and the new tolerance and open-mindedness of t

  • Encyclopédie de la Pléiade (French reference work)

    encyclopaedia: The 20th century and beyond: The Encyclopédie de la Pléiade (begun 1955) was an encyclopaedic series, each work (some in more than one volume) being a self-contained treatment of a broad subject field written in narrative form.

  • Encyclopédie fran?aise (French reference work)

    encyclopaedia: The 20th century and beyond: The Encyclopédie fran?aise (begun 1935) was an outstanding collection of monographs by well-known scholars and specialists, arranged in classified form and available in loose-leaf binders, supplemented by a continuously revised index. Its 21 volumes, each under the direction of a different authority, dealt with (1) human…

  • Encyclopédie méthodique ou par ordre de matières (French reference work)

    Encyclopédie: …was begun under the title Encyclopédie méthodique ou par ordre de matières (“Systematic Encyclopaedia or Arranged by Subject”). Work on this topically arranged encyclopaedia continued through the French Revolution and was completed in 1832 with the appearance of the 166th volume, 50 years after the appearance of the first volume.

  • Encyclopédie nouvelle (French reference work)

    Pierre Leroux: …established, with Jean Reynaud, the Encyclopédie nouvelle, of which only eight volumes appeared (1838–41). In 1840 he published the treatise De l’humanité, his major philosophical work.

  • Encyclopédie, ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers (French reference work)

    Encyclopédie, (French: “Encyclopaedia, or Classified Dictionary of Sciences, Arts, and Trades”), the 18th-century French encyclopaedia that was one of the chief works of the Philosophes, men dedicated to the advancement of science and secular thought and the new tolerance and open-mindedness of t

  • Encyklop?die der philosophischen Wissenschaften im Grundrisse (work by Hegel)

    Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel: At Heidelberg: …lectures there, he published his Encyklop?die der philosophischen Wissenschaften im Grundrisse (1817; Encyclopaedia of the Philosophical Sciences in Basic Outline), an exposition of his system as a whole. Hegel’s philosophy is an attempt to comprehend the entire universe as a systematic whole. The system is grounded in faith. In the…

  • encystment (biology)

    amoeba: …periods many amoebas survive by encystment: the amoeba becomes circular, loses most of its water, and secretes a cyst membrane that serves as a protective covering. When the environment is again suitable, the envelope ruptures, and the amoeba emerges.

  • end (philosophy)

    John Dewey: Ends and goods: Since at least the time of Aristotle (384–322 bce), many Western philosophers have made use of the notion of end, or final cause—i.e., a cause conceived of as a natural purpose or goal (see teleology). In ethics, ends are the natural or…

  • End and Other Beginnings: Stories from the Future, The (short stories by Roth)

    Veronica Roth: The next year Roth published The End and Other Beginnings: Stories from the Future, a book of short stories. Chosen Ones (2020), her first novel for adults, follows a group of people who defeated an evil overlord years earlier.

  • end block (musical instrument)

    stringed instrument: Morphology: Other blocks, called end blocks, are mounted top and bottom centre to provide firm bearings for the neck and the tailpin, which between them have to resist the tension of the strings. The ribs are slightly inset from the outline of the belly and back, so that the…

  • end cam (machine component)

    cam: …cut in the end (end cam); (5) a reciprocating wedge of the required shape.

  • end correction (measurement)

    sound: Measuring techniques: …small distance known as the end correction. The end correction depends primarily on the radius of the tube: it is approximately equal to 0.6 times the radius of an unflanged tube and 0.82 times the radius of a flanged tube. The effective length of the tube, which must be assumed…

  • end game (chess)

    chess: Computer extension of chess theory: …series of discoveries in basic endgames. By working backward from positions of checkmate, Thompson was able to build up an enormous number of variations showing every possible way of reaching the final ones. This has been possible with only the most elementary endgames, with no more than five pieces on…

  • end moraine (geology)

    moraine: A terminal, or end, moraine consists of a ridgelike accumulation of glacial debris pushed forward by the leading glacial snout and dumped at the outermost edge of any given ice advance. It curves convexly down the valley and may extend up the sides as lateral moraines.…

  • End of a Family Story, The (novel by Nádas)

    Péter Nádas: …novel, Egy családregény vége (The End of a Family Story)—told from the point of view of a young boy growing up in a communist society—though, because of censorship issues, the book was not published until five years later. Soon after the novel’s completion, Nádas traveled to East Berlin on…

  • End of Alice, The (novel by Homes)

    A.M. Homes: …of the pedophiliac mind in The End of Alice (1996), which polarized critics with its depictions of sexual violence. The novel was accompanied by an art book, Appendix A:, ostensibly a catalog of items amassed by its disturbed narrator. Music for Torching (1999) features the disaffected protagonists from “Adults Alone”…

  • End of Beauty, The (poetry by Graham)

    Jorie Graham: ” In The End of Beauty (1987), Graham experimented with form, constructing subtle, sometimes inaccessible poems divided into series of short, numbered stanzas with missing words and lively enjambment. Region of Unlikeness (1991), which is annotated to explain its textual obscurities, furthers her exploration of philosophy and…

  • End of Eating Everything, The (animated film by Mutu [2013])

    Wangechi Mutu: …including her first animated film, The End of Eating Everything (2013), for which she collaged the head of recording artist Santigold on an enormous amorphous body to create a glorious but voracious beast that devoured everything in its path. Mutu also designed fabric in 2014; two printed textiles she created…

  • End of Education: Redefining the Value of School, The (work by Postman)

    Neil Postman: In The End of Education: Redefining the Value of School (1995), he rejected the growing emphasis on economic utility, training for consumership, and faith in technology that characterize modern education. He held that the purpose of education is to forge a coherent unified culture out of…

  • End of History and the Last Man, The (work by Fukuyama)

    Francis Fukuyama: Fukuyama’s first major work, The End of History and the Last Man (1992), earned international acclaim and was widely read by both the mainstream public and academics. His thesis—introduced as a magazine article in 1989, when communism in eastern Europe was collapsing—posited that Western-style liberal democracy not only was…

  • End of St. Petersburg, The (film by Pudovkin [1927])

    history of the motion picture: The Soviet Union: …films include Konets Sankt-Peterburga (The End of St. Petersburg, 1927), which, like Eisenstein’s October, was commissioned to celebrate the 10th anniversary of the Bolshevik Revolution, and Potomok Chingis-Khana (The Heir to Genghis Khan, or Storm over Asia, 1928), which is set in Central Asia during the Russian Civil War.…

  • End of the Affair, The (novel by Greene)

    The End of the Affair, novel of psychological realism by Graham Greene, published in 1951. The novel is set in wartime London. The narrator, Maurice Bendrix, a bitter, sardonic novelist, has a five-year affair with a married woman, Sarah Miles. When a V-1 bomb explodes in front of Bendrix’s

  • End of the Affair, The (film by Jordan [1999])

    Julianne Moore: Rise to stardom: …adaptation (1999) of Graham Greene’s The End of the Affair and Anderson’s Magnolia (1999), Moore’s characters dealt with the ramifications of adultery. The former film earned her an Oscar nomination for best actress. In 2001 she assumed the role of FBI agent Clarice Starling—originated by Jodie Foster in The Silence…

  • End of the Alphabet, The (poetry by Rankine)

    Claudia Rankine: Her second collection, The End of the Alphabet, appeared in 1998, followed by Plot (2001), a book-length poem that narrated the experience of pregnancy and childbirth. Don’t Let Me Be Lonely: An American Lyric (2004) was an experimental multigenre project that blended poems, essays, and visual imagery in…

  • End of the End of the Earth, The (essays by Franzen)

    Jonathan Franzen: The End of the End of the Earth (2018) is an essay collection.

  • End of the House of Alard, The (novel by Kaye-Smith)

    Sheila Kaye-Smith: …seen in such works as The End of the House of Alard (1923) and The History of Susan Spray, the Female Preacher (1931). In all, she wrote more than 40 books, including collections of short stories, three volumes of autobiography, two biographical studies (in collaboration with G.B. Stern) of novelist…

  • End of the Road, The (novel by Barth)

    American literature: Realism and metafiction: …The Floating Opera (1956) and The End of the Road (1958), fell partly within the realistic tradition, but in later, more-ambitious works he simultaneously imitated and parodied conventional forms—the historical novel in The Sot-Weed Factor (1960), Greek and Christian myths in Giles Goat-Boy (1966), and the epistolary novel in LETTERS…

  • End of the Story, The (novel by Davis)

    Lydia Davis: …stories, she published a novel, The End of the Story (1995), in which a writer tries to make sense of a breakup with a boyfriend by writing a novel about it. The narrative incorporates elements from Davis’s short story “Story.” Essays One (2019) is a collection of her nonfiction.

  • End of the World, The (work by Signorelli)

    Luca Signorelli: …masterpiece, the frescoes of “The End of the World” and the “Last Judgment” (1499–1502), is in the chapel of S. Brizio in Orvieto cathedral. Those frescoes, which greatly influenced Michelangelo, are crowded with powerful nudes painted in many postures that accentuate their musculature. Signorelli had little sense of colour,…

  • end office (telephone communications)

    telephone: Manual switching: …a central switching point, or telephone exchange, than it was to run wires between all the instruments. In 1878 the first telephone exchange was installed in New Haven, Connecticut, permitting up to 21 customers to reach one another by means of a manually operated central switchboard. The manual switchboard was…

  • end pin (music)

    stringed instrument: Playing positions: …long steel rod called the end pin. Cello players hold the instrument between their knees while seated. For the double bass the player stands or rests on a high stool. As is done with every other necked stringed instrument, the player’s left hand fingers the instrument, the bow being held…

  • end plate (anatomy)

    nervous system disease: Motor end plate: Where fatigue and weakness are the symptoms, the underlying cause of disease may be a failure of motor nerve impulses to cross to the muscle end plate at the neuromuscular junction.

  • end point (measurement)

    titration: …some signal is called the end point. This signal can be the colour change of an indicator or a change in some electrical property that is measured during the titration. The difference between the end point and the equivalence point is the titration error, which is kept as small as…

  • End Poverty in California (American movement)

    Upton Sinclair: …the 1930s, Sinclair organized the EPIC (End Poverty in California) socialist reform movement and registered as a Democrat. His 1934 bid for the governorship of California—he ran on the EPIC platform, which featured proposals for state-administered economic relief and reforms throughout a number of societal institutions—was his most successful political…

  • End Result Hospital (hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States)

    Ernest Amory Codman: …created his own proprietary “End Result Hospital” nearby, where he could pursue his ideas about hospital efficiency. His hospital existed from 1911 until 1918. All patients treated at the hospital were followed up after discharge, with the results reported, patient by patient, and published at Codman’s own expense for…

  • end rhyme (poetry)

    End rhyme, in poetry, a rhyme that occurs in the last syllables of verses, as in stanza one of Robert Frost’s “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening”: End rhyme is the most common type of rhyme in English poetry. Compare beginning rhyme; internal

  • end stage theatre (theatre)

    theatre design: Theatre forms: End stage theatres are those that have an audience on only one side. Such stages are most often rectangular or square, but they can be triangular (in which case they are called corner stage theatres) or take a variety of irregular shapes that can include…

  • end stop (literature)

    End stop, in prosody, a grammatical pause at the end of a line of verse, as in these lines from Alexander Pope’s An Essay on Criticism: Compare

  • End, The (song by the Doors)

    the Doors: …was songs such as “The End”—an 11-minute Oedipal drama with sexually explicit lyrics and a swirling ebb-and-flow arrangement—that established the Doors’ reputation as one of rock’s most potent, controversial, and theatrical acts. Indeed, the group was banned from the Whisky-a-Go-Go in Los Angeles after an early performance of the…

  • end-bearing pile (construction)

    soil mechanics: Deep foundations may be end-bearing piles (which convey all the weight put on them end-to-end, from the building above to the bedrock on which they are set), friction piles (which transfer some of the pressure put on them to the soil around them, through friction or adhesion along the…

  • end-blown flute (musical instrument)

    flute: In vertical, end-vibrated flutes—such as the Balkan kaval, the Arabic nāy, and panpipes—the player holds the pipe end to his mouth, directing his breath against the opposite edge. In China, South America, Africa, and elsewhere, a notch may be cut in the edge to facilitate sound…

  • end-member (mineralogy)

    garnet: Chemical composition: …the general formula for an end-member hydrogarnet would be A3B2(H4O4)3.

  • end-of-life care (medicine)

    Hospice, a home or hospital established to relieve the physical and emotional suffering of the dying. The term hospice dates back to the European Middle Ages, when it denoted places of charitable refuge offering rest and refreshment to pilgrims and travelers. Such homes were often provided by

  • end-Permian extinction (mass extinction)

    Permian extinction, a series of extinction pulses that contributed to the greatest mass extinction in Earth’s history. Many geologists and paleontologists contend that the Permian extinction occurred over the course of 15 million years during the latter part of the Permian Period (299 million to

  • end-plate potential (physiology)

    End-plate potential (EPP), chemically induced change in electric potential of the motor end plate, the portion of the muscle-cell membrane that lies opposite the terminal of a nerve fibre at the neuromuscular junction. The end-plate membrane is electrically polarized, the inside being negative with

  • end-product inhibition (biochemistry)

    metabolism: End-product inhibition: This phenomenon, called end-product inhibition, is illustrated by the multienzyme, branched pathway for the formation from oxaloacetate of the aspartate family of amino acids. As mentioned previously in this article, only plants and microorganisms can synthesize many of these amino acids, most animals requiring such amino acids to…

  • end-stage renal disease (pathology)

    diabetic nephropathy: …is a leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), which is characterized by kidney failure, with the organ’s function reduced to less than one-tenth of normal capacity or lost completely.

  • end-Triassic extinction (mass extinction)

    End-Triassic extinction, global extinction event occurring at the end of the Triassic Period (252 million to 201 million years ago) that resulted in the demise of some 76 percent of all marine and terrestrial species and about 20 percent of all taxonomic families. It is thought that the

  • Endamoeba (protozoan genus)

    Endamoeba, protozoan genus of the rhizopodan order Amoebida that inhabits the intestines of invertebrates. It had been considered the same genus as Entamoeba (q.v.; the genus of the dysentery organism Entamoeba histolytica), but the two were recognized as separate genera in 1954 by the

  • Endangered (IUCN species status)

    endangered species: IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: …generation times, or isolated habitats) Endangered (EN), species that possess a very high risk of extinction as a result of rapid population declines of 50 to more than 70 percent over the previous 10 years (or three generations), a current population size of fewer than 250 individuals, or other factors…

  • endangered reefs

    Because they harbour great concentrations of biodiversity, coral reefs have been called the rain forests of the sea. With hundreds of species of corals and fishes frequently found on a single reef, metre for metre these undersea Ecosystems may even exceed tropical rain forests as the most

  • endangered species

    Endangered species, any species that is at risk of extinction because of a sudden rapid decrease in its population or a loss of its critical habitat. Previously, any species of plant or animal that was threatened with extinction could be called an endangered species. The need for separate

  • Endangered Species Act (United States [1973])

    Endangered Species Act, U.S. federal law passed in 1973 that obligates federal and state governments to protect all species threatened with extinction that fall within the borders of the United States and its outlying territories. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) of the Department of the

  • Endara Galimany, Guillermo (president of Panama)

    Guillermo Endara, (Guillermo David Endara Galimany), Panamanian politician (born May 12, 1936, Panama City, Pan.—died Sept. 28, 2009, Panama City), served (1989–94) as Panama’s president after the United States deposed the military strongman Manuel Noriega; he was credited with leading the country

  • endbee (word game)

    Ghosts, word game in which each player in turn presents a letter that must contribute to the eventual formation of a word but not complete it. The player whose letter completes a word loses the round and becomes one-third of a ghost. Three losses make a player a full ghost, putting him out of the

  • endbrain (anatomy)

    forebrain: …vertebrate brain; it includes the telencephalon, which contains the cerebral hemispheres, and, under these, the diencephalon, which contains the thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus, and subthalamus. The forebrain plays a central role in the processing of information related to complex cognitive activities, sensory and

  • endbulb (anatomy)

    automata theory: The finite automata of McCulloch and Pitts: …a solid dot (suggesting an endbulb of a neuron). A neuron may be assumed to have either an excitatory or an inhibitory effect on a succeeding one; and it may possess a threshold, or minimum number of unit messages, so to speak, that must be received from other neurons before…

  • Ende (Indonesia)

    Flores: Near Ende, historically the main city and once a mission centre, is Mount Kelimutu, the “mountain of the three coloured lakes.” In May 1974 a volcanic eruption on nearby Mount Iya caused one of the lakes—the blue-white one—to change to a reddish colour, similar to the…

  • Ende, Hans am (German artist)

    Worpswede school: …Becker (who later married Modersohn), Hans am Ende, Fritz Overbeck, and Heinrich Vogeler. Clara Westoff, a talented sculptor, also worked at Worpswede, where she met the German poet Rainer Maria Rilke, whom she married in 1901. Two years later Rilke published a book, Worpswede, discussing the artists and the landscape.

  • Ende, Hermann (German architect)

    Japanese architecture: The modern period: The German architects Hermann Ende and Wilhelm B?ckmann were active in Japan from the late 1880s. Their expertise in the construction of government ministry buildings was applied to the growing complex of such structures in the Kasumigaseki area of Tokyo. The now much-altered Ministry of Justice building (1895)…

  • Ende, Michael Andreas Helmuth (German author)

    Michael Andreas Helmuth Ende, German children’s writer who was best known for his fantasy stories Jim Button and Luke the Engine Driver, Momo, and The Neverending Story (b. Nov. 12, 1929--d. Aug. 28,

  • Endeavour (United States space shuttle)

    space shuttle: In 1992, Endeavour, a replacement orbiter for the destroyed Challenger, flew its first mission.

  • Endeavour (British ship)

    James Cook: Voyages and discoveries: …Whitby coal-hauling bark renamed HMS Endeavour, then four years old, of just 368 tons and less than 98 feet (30 metres) long. Cook’s orders were to convey gentlemen of the Royal Society and their assistants to Tahiti to observe the transit of the planet Venus across the Sun. That done,…

  • Endeavour (crater, Mars)

    Mars Exploration Rover: …km [14 miles] in diameter) Endeavour crater.

  • Endecott, John (British colonial governor)

    John Endecott, colonial governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony and cofounder of Salem, Mass., under whose leadership the new colony made rapid progress. Little is known of Endecott before 1628, when, as one of the six grantees of the New England Company for a Plantation in Massachusetts, he was

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