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  • DNA amplification (biochemistry)

    Polymerase chain reaction ( PCR), a technique used to make numerous copies of a specific segment of DNA quickly and accurately. The polymerase chain reaction enables investigators to obtain the large quantities of DNA that are required for various experiments and procedures in molecular biology,

  • DNA computer (computer science)

    DNA computing, the performing of computations using biological molecules, rather than traditional silicon chips. The idea that individual molecules (or even atoms) could be used for computation dates to 1959, when American physicist Richard Feynman presented his ideas on nanotechnology. However,

  • DNA computing (computer science)

    DNA computing, the performing of computations using biological molecules, rather than traditional silicon chips. The idea that individual molecules (or even atoms) could be used for computation dates to 1959, when American physicist Richard Feynman presented his ideas on nanotechnology. However,

  • DNA fingerprinting (genetics)

    DNA fingerprinting, in genetics, method of isolating and identifying variable elements within the base-pair sequence of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). The technique was developed in 1984 by British geneticist Alec Jeffreys, after he noticed that certain sequences of highly variable DNA (known as

  • DNA hybridization (biology)

    plant disease: Technological advances in the identification of pathogenic agents: The DNA hybridization technique is an example. A strand of DNA from a known species (the probe) is radioactively labeled and “mixed” with DNA from an unidentified species. If the probe and the unknown DNA are from identical species, they will have complementary DNA sequences that…

  • DNA library (genetics)

    genetics: Molecular techniques: …DNA molecules is called a genomic library. Such libraries are the starting point for sequencing entire genomes such as the human genome. Today genomes can be scanned for small molecular variants called single nucleotide polymorphisms, or SNPs (“snips”), which act as chromosomal tags to associated specific regions of DNA that…

  • DNA methylation

    cell: The differentiated state: DNA methylation occurs when a methyl group is attached to the exterior, or sugar-phosphate side, of a cytosine (C) residue. Cytosine methylation occurs only on a C nucleotide when it is connected to a G (guanine) nucleotide on the same strand of DNA. These nucleotide…

  • DNA polymerase (enzyme)

    heredity: DNA replication: …replication, a complex enzyme called DNA polymerase moves along the DNA molecule, pairing nucleotides on each template strand with free complementary nucleotides. Because of the antiparallel nature of the DNA strands, new strand synthesis is different on each template. On the 3′ → 5′ template strand, polymerization proceeds in the…

  • DNA profiling (genetics)

    DNA fingerprinting, in genetics, method of isolating and identifying variable elements within the base-pair sequence of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). The technique was developed in 1984 by British geneticist Alec Jeffreys, after he noticed that certain sequences of highly variable DNA (known as

  • DNA provirus hypothesis (virology)

    reverse transcriptase: DNA provirus hypothesis: In the mid-20th century there were many advances in molecular biology, including the description of DNA in 1953 by American geneticist and biophysicist James D. Watson and British biophysicists Francis Crick and Maurice Wilkins. By the 1960s it was understood that sarcomas…

  • DNA repair (biology)

    DNA repair, any of several mechanisms by which a cell maintains the integrity of its genetic code. DNA repair ensures the survival of a species by enabling parental DNA to be inherited as faithfully as possible by offspring. It also preserves the health of an individual. Mutations in the genetic

  • DNA sequencing (genetics)

    DNA sequencing, technique used to determine the nucleotide sequence of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). The nucleotide sequence is the most fundamental level of knowledge of a gene or genome. It is the blueprint that contains the instructions for building an organism, and no understanding of genetic

  • DNA topoisomerase (enzyme)

    heredity: DNA replication: A class of enzymes called DNA topoisomerases removes helical twists by cutting a DNA strand and then resealing the cut. Enzymes called helicases then separate the two strands of the double helix, exposing two template surfaces for the alignment of free nucleotides. Beginning at the origin of replication, a complex…

  • DNA typing (genetics)

    DNA fingerprinting, in genetics, method of isolating and identifying variable elements within the base-pair sequence of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). The technique was developed in 1984 by British geneticist Alec Jeffreys, after he noticed that certain sequences of highly variable DNA (known as

  • DNA vector (genetics)

    recombinant DNA: DNA cloning: …molecule is called a DNA vector (carrier). The most commonly used vectors are plasmids (circular DNA molecules that originated from bacteria), viruses, and yeast cells. Plasmids are not a part of the main cellular genome, but they can carry genes that provide the host cell with useful properties, such as…

  • DNC (American political organization)

    Ron Brown: …became deputy chairman of the Democratic National Committee (DNC). Brown had been made the first black partner in the influential and politically connected law firm of Patton, Boggs & Blow, where he represented many high-profile clients, including Jean-Claude Duvalier of Haiti, and learned the business of corporate lobbying.

  • DNC (technology)

    automation: Numerical control: …of numerical control is called direct numerical control, or DNC.

  • DNDi (international organization)

    Doctors Without Borders: …founding partner in the organization Drugs for Neglected Diseases Initiative (DNDi), which works to create medicines for diseases such as malaria, tuberculosis, and HIV/AIDS. The group has played an important role in caring for the victims of disease outbreaks.

  • Dneper Lowland (region, Europe)

    Ukraine: Resources and power: …brown coal found in the Dnieper River basin (north of Kryvyy Rih) and the bituminous coal deposits of the Lviv-Volyn basin. The coal mines of Ukraine are among the deepest in Europe. Many of them are considered dangerous because their depth contributes to increased levels of methane; methane-related explosions have…

  • Dnepr Lowland (region, Europe)

    Ukraine: Resources and power: …brown coal found in the Dnieper River basin (north of Kryvyy Rih) and the bituminous coal deposits of the Lviv-Volyn basin. The coal mines of Ukraine are among the deepest in Europe. Many of them are considered dangerous because their depth contributes to increased levels of methane; methane-related explosions have…

  • Dnepr River (river, Europe)

    Dnieper River, river of Europe, the fourth longest after the Volga, Danube, and Ural. It is 1,367 miles (2,200 km) in length and drains an area of about 195,000 square miles (505,000 square km). The Dnieper rises at an elevation of about 720 feet (220 metres) in a small peat bog on the southern

  • Dnepr-Bug Canal (canal, Belarus)

    canals and inland waterways: Major inland waterways of Europe: …is the link between the Dnepr and the Bug, a tributary of the Vistula, by way of the Pripyat and Pina rivers, a 127-mile canal connecting with the Mukhavets River, a tributary of the western Bug. This system is the sole wholly inland waterway connection between western Europe and the…

  • Dneprodzerzhinsk (Ukraine)

    Dniprodzerzhynsk, city, southern Ukraine, along the Dnieper River. Founded about 1750 as the Cossack settlement of Kamenskoye (Kamyanske), the town grew after 1889 with the developing metallurgical industry. The Soviets renamed it Dneprodzerzhinsk in 1936 to honour the former Soviet secret police

  • Dnepropetrovsk (Ukraine)

    Dnipro, city, south-central Ukraine. It lies along the Dnieper River, near its confluence with the Samara. The river was considerably widened by the construction of a dam about 50 miles (80 km) downstream. Founded in 1783 as Katerynoslav on the river’s north bank, the settlement was moved to its

  • Dneprovsko-Bugsky Canal (canal, Belarus)

    canals and inland waterways: Major inland waterways of Europe: …is the link between the Dnepr and the Bug, a tributary of the Vistula, by way of the Pripyat and Pina rivers, a 127-mile canal connecting with the Mukhavets River, a tributary of the western Bug. This system is the sole wholly inland waterway connection between western Europe and the…

  • Dnestr River (river, Europe)

    Dniester River, river of southwestern Ukraine and of Moldova, rising on the north side of the Carpathian Mountains and flowing south and east for 840 miles (1,352 km) to the Black Sea near Odessa. It is the second longest river in Ukraine and the main water artery of Moldova. The Dniester and its

  • Dnevnik pisatelya (work by Dostoyevsky)

    Fyodor Dostoyevsky: A Writer’s Diary and other works: In 1873 Dostoyevsky assumed the editorship of the conservative journal Grazhdanin (“The Citizen”), where he published an irregular column entitled “Dnevnik pisatelya” (“The Diary of a Writer”). He left Grazhdanin to write Podrostok (1875; A Raw Youth, also known…

  • Dnevnik Satany (novel by Andreyev)

    Leonid Andreyev: …last novel, Dnevnik Satany (Satan’s Diary), was unfinished at his death. Published in 1921, it paints a world in which boundless evil triumphs. In 1956 his remains were taken to Leningrad (now St. Petersburg).

  • Dnieper Lowland (region, Europe)

    Ukraine: Resources and power: …brown coal found in the Dnieper River basin (north of Kryvyy Rih) and the bituminous coal deposits of the Lviv-Volyn basin. The coal mines of Ukraine are among the deepest in Europe. Many of them are considered dangerous because their depth contributes to increased levels of methane; methane-related explosions have…

  • Dnieper Rapids (rapids, Ukraine)

    Dnieper River: Physiography: The Dnieper Rapids, which for centuries prevented continuous navigation, were once located there. The rapids were flooded by the backwaters of the Dnieper hydroelectric power station dam, above Zaporizhzhya, which raised the level of the river by 130 feet, backed its waters up to Dnipropetrovsk, and…

  • Dnieper River (river, Europe)

    Dnieper River, river of Europe, the fourth longest after the Volga, Danube, and Ural. It is 1,367 miles (2,200 km) in length and drains an area of about 195,000 square miles (505,000 square km). The Dnieper rises at an elevation of about 720 feet (220 metres) in a small peat bog on the southern

  • Dnieper Upland (upland, Eastern Europe)

    Ukraine: Relief: The rolling plain of the Dnieper Upland, which lies between the middle reaches of the Dnieper (Dnipro) and Southern Buh (Pivdennyy Buh, or the Boh) rivers in west-central Ukraine, is the largest highland area; it is dissected by many river valleys, ravines, and gorges, some more than 1,000 feet (300…

  • Dnieper-Bug Canal (canal, Belarus)

    canals and inland waterways: Major inland waterways of Europe: …is the link between the Dnepr and the Bug, a tributary of the Vistula, by way of the Pripyat and Pina rivers, a 127-mile canal connecting with the Mukhavets River, a tributary of the western Bug. This system is the sole wholly inland waterway connection between western Europe and the…

  • Dnieper–Kryvyy Rih Canal (canal, Ukraine)

    Dnieper River: History and economy: …Reservoir by means of the Dnieper–Kryvyy Rih Canal. The North Crimea Canal, which was completed in 1971, originates in the reservoir; the canal, 250 miles (400 km) long, is designed for irrigation of the steppes of the Black Sea Lowland and northern Crimea and for the creation of a water…

  • Dniester River (river, Europe)

    Dniester River, river of southwestern Ukraine and of Moldova, rising on the north side of the Carpathian Mountains and flowing south and east for 840 miles (1,352 km) to the Black Sea near Odessa. It is the second longest river in Ukraine and the main water artery of Moldova. The Dniester and its

  • Dnipro (Ukraine)

    Dnipro, city, south-central Ukraine. It lies along the Dnieper River, near its confluence with the Samara. The river was considerably widened by the construction of a dam about 50 miles (80 km) downstream. Founded in 1783 as Katerynoslav on the river’s north bank, the settlement was moved to its

  • Dnipro River (river, Europe)

    Dnieper River, river of Europe, the fourth longest after the Volga, Danube, and Ural. It is 1,367 miles (2,200 km) in length and drains an area of about 195,000 square miles (505,000 square km). The Dnieper rises at an elevation of about 720 feet (220 metres) in a small peat bog on the southern

  • Dniprodzerzhynsk (Ukraine)

    Dniprodzerzhynsk, city, southern Ukraine, along the Dnieper River. Founded about 1750 as the Cossack settlement of Kamenskoye (Kamyanske), the town grew after 1889 with the developing metallurgical industry. The Soviets renamed it Dneprodzerzhinsk in 1936 to honour the former Soviet secret police

  • Dnipropetrovsk (Ukraine)

    Dnipro, city, south-central Ukraine. It lies along the Dnieper River, near its confluence with the Samara. The river was considerably widened by the construction of a dam about 50 miles (80 km) downstream. Founded in 1783 as Katerynoslav on the river’s north bank, the settlement was moved to its

  • Dnister River (river, Europe)

    Dniester River, river of southwestern Ukraine and of Moldova, rising on the north side of the Carpathian Mountains and flowing south and east for 840 miles (1,352 km) to the Black Sea near Odessa. It is the second longest river in Ukraine and the main water artery of Moldova. The Dniester and its

  • DNL (acoustics)

    noise pollution: Measuring and perceiving loudness: ) A unit called day-night sound level (DNL or Ldn) accounts for the fact that people are more sensitive to noise during the night, so a 10-dBA penalty is added to SPL values that are measured between 10 pm and 7 am. DNL measurements are very useful for describing…

  • dNMP (chemical compound)

    metabolism: Synthesis of DNA: …[86] the addition of a deoxyribonucleoside monophosphate (dNMP) moiety onto a growing DNA chain (5′-DNA-polymer-3′-ΟΗ) is shown; the other product is inorganic pyrophosphate. The specific nucleotide inserted in the growing chain is dictated by the base in the complementary (template) strand of DNA with which it pairs. The functioning of…

  • DNP (physics)

    magnetic resonance: Combined electron-spin and nuclear magnetic resonances: …NMR, is called DNP (dynamic nuclear polarization).

  • DNR (medicine)

    Do not resuscitate order (DNR order), an advance medical directive that requests that doctors do not attempt cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) if a person’s heart or breathing stops. A do not resuscitate (DNR) order is placed on the individual’s medical chart, and sometimes a coloured “Do Not

  • DNS (network service)

    DNS, network service that converts between World Wide Web “name” addresses and numeric Internet addresses. The concept of a name server came about as a result of the first computer networks in the mid-1970s. Each computer on a network was identified by a unique number, but, as the size of computer

  • DNSF (political party, Romania)

    Romania: The revolution of 1989: …and Iliescu’s supporters formed the Democratic National Salvation Front (DNSF). The party maintained its political dominance, as evidenced by its successes in parliamentary and presidential elections held in September and October 1992, in which Iliescu was reelected and his party emerged as the largest in the parliament. A loose coalition…

  • DNVP (political party, Germany)

    German National People’s Party, right-wing political party active in the Reichstag (assembly) of the Weimar Republic of Germany from 1919 to 1933. Representing chauvinistic opinion hostile to the republic and to the Allies’ reparation demands following World War I, it supported the restoration of

  • Dnyapro River (river, Europe)

    Dnieper River, river of Europe, the fourth longest after the Volga, Danube, and Ural. It is 1,367 miles (2,200 km) in length and drains an area of about 195,000 square miles (505,000 square km). The Dnieper rises at an elevation of about 720 feet (220 metres) in a small peat bog on the southern

  • Do (African religious organization)

    African art: Bwa and Mossi: A religious organization called Do is a major force in Bwa life; Do is incarnated in the leaf mask, in which the masker is entirely covered with vines, grasses, and leaves. Wooden masks embody bush spirits, invoked to benefit humankind and the natural forces on which life depends. Abstract…

  • Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? (novel by Dick)

    Philip K. Dick: …Simulacra (1964) and culminating in Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? (1968; adapted for film as Blade Runner [1982]), the illusion centres on artificial creatures at large and grappling with what is authentic in a real world of the future.

  • Do No Harm (American television series)

    Phylicia Rashad: …disorder in the TV series Do No Harm. She later had a recurring role in Empire. In addition, she continued to appear in movies, notably portraying the widow of boxer Rocky Balboa’s friend (and former opponent) Apollo Creed in the Rocky (1976) sequels Creed (2015) and Creed II (2018).

  • do not resuscitate order (medicine)

    Do not resuscitate order (DNR order), an advance medical directive that requests that doctors do not attempt cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) if a person’s heart or breathing stops. A do not resuscitate (DNR) order is placed on the individual’s medical chart, and sometimes a coloured “Do Not

  • Do Rāh Pass (mountain pass, Asia)

    Hindu Kush: Physiography: …in the east to the Dorāh (Do Rāh) Pass (14,940 feet [4,554 metres]) not far from Mount Tirich Mir; the central Hindu Kush, which then continues to the Shebar (Shībar) Pass (9,800 feet [2,987 metres]) to the northwest of Kabul; and the western Hindu Kush, also known as the Bābā…

  • Do Re Mi (song by Guthrie)

    Dust Bowl: …“Dust Bowl Refugee” and “Do Re Mi” by folksinger Woody Guthrie, an Oklahoman who had joined the parade of those headed west in search of work. That experience was perhaps most famously depicted in John Steinbeck’s novel The Grapes of Wrath (1939).

  • Do the Right Thing (film by Lee [1989])

    Spike Lee: …inspiration for Lee’s third feature, Do the Right Thing (1989), an impassioned but evenhanded work that neither blamed any specific group for racial violence nor absolved any from it. Most of his subsequent films dealt head-on with issues of race and racism in the United States—for instance, with interracial relationships…

  • Do They Know It’s Christmas? (song by Geldof and Ure)

    Live Aid: …wrote the lyrics for “Do They Know It’s Christmas?” Ure crafted the melody of the song, and Geldof recruited some of the biggest names in the British new wave scene to contribute vocals. The single, recorded in November 1984 and marketed under the name Band Aid, sold over three…

  • Do Unto Others (novel by Lattany)

    Kristin Hunter Lattany: Do Unto Others (2000) investigates the cultural differences between African Americans and recent African immigrants through the story of a hair salon owner who shelters a young Nigerian woman. Lattany delved into campus race relations in Breaking Away (2003), which centres on a black professor…

  • Do You Know the Way to San Jose? (song by Bacharach and David)

    Burt Bacharach: …a Little Prayer,” and “Do You Know the Way to San Jose?” He and David created the successful musical Promises, Promises (1968), and their score for the film Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid (1969) won an Academy Award, as did the movie’s song “Raindrops Keep Fallin’ on My…

  • Do You Remember Dolly Bell? (film by Kusturica [1981])

    Emir Kusturica: Films of the 1980s: …li se Dolly Bell? (1981; Do You Remember Dolly Bell?), is a tale of an adolescent growing up in a poor family dominated by his despotic father in the 1960s. Poetic and nostalgic, the movie, which was written by the Bosnian author Abdulah Sidran, won the Golden Lion award at…

  • Do-17 (German aircraft)

    air warfare: Strategic bombing: …of German He-111, Ju-88, and Do-17 bombers would cross the English Channel at about 15,000 feet. Close escort would be provided by Bf-109s and Bf-110s weaving in and out of the formation. The Germans quickly learned that the twin-engined Bf-110s could not hold their own against the humbler Spitfires and…

  • Do-217 (German aircraft)

    military aircraft: Bombers: The later Do 217 had a range of 2,400 km (1,500 miles) and could carry a bombload of 4,000 kg (8,800 pounds), but it was built only in small numbers. The Germans never built a successful four-engined bomber.

  • Do-Aklin (African leader)

    Dahomey: The other, Do-Aklin, went north to found the kingdom of Abomey, core of the future Dahomey. They all paid tribute to the powerful Yoruba kingdom of Oyo to the east.

  • do-it-yourself (rock music)

    rock: The global market and fragmentation: The regeneration of DIY paralleled the development of new means of global music marketing. The 1985 Live Aid event, in which live television broadcasts of charity concerts taking place on both sides of the Atlantic were shown worldwide, not only put on public display the rock establishment and…

  • doab (geography)

    Pakistan: The Indus River plain: …of interfluves, known locally as doabs, in Punjab province (Persian panj āb, “five waters,” in reference to the five rivers). In the lower plain the Indus River has a Nilotic character; i.e., it forms a single large river with no significant tributaries. The plain narrows to form a corridor near…

  • Doak, Annie (American writer)

    Annie Dillard, American writer best known for her meditative essays on the natural world. Dillard attended Hollins College in Virginia (B.A., 1967; M.A., 1968). She was a scholar-in-residence at Western Washington University in Bellingham from 1975 to 1978 and on the faculty of Wesleyan University

  • Doane, Thomas (American engineer)

    Hoosac Tunnel: …along with electric firing, by Thomas Doane, the resident engineer. Even more important, the development of compressed-air drilling machinery on the Hoosac helped launch the American pneumatic-tool industry, which assumed immense significance in mining and construction. These innovations greatly accelerated progress in excavating the tunnel, which entered service in 1875.

  • Doar, John Michael (American civil rights lawyer)

    John Michael Doar, American civil rights lawyer (born Dec. 3, 1921, Minneapolis, Minn.—died Nov. 11, 2014, New York, N.Y.), helped to combat segregation in the South while working on a number of significant civil rights cases—serving as first assistant and then assistant attorney general in the

  • Doassansiales (order of fungi)

    fungus: Annotated classification: Order Doassansiales Parasitic on plants; holobasidia (single-celled, may be club-shaped); teliosporic; example genera include Doassansia, Rhamphospora, and Nannfeldtiomyces. Order Entylomatales Parasitic and pathogenic on plants, causing rice leaf smut and dahlia smut; ballistospore-forming; example genera include Entyloma and

  • DOB (American organization)

    Daughters of Bilitis (DOB), one of the first lesbian organizations to be established. Founded in San Francisco in 1955, the organization took its name from a collection of poems written by Pierre Lou?s called Songs of Bilitis. Bilitis was a female character who was romantically associated with

  • Dob’s Linn (Scotland, United Kingdom)

    Silurian Period: Ordovician-Silurian boundary: …fixed at a horizon in Dob’s Linn near Moff in the Southern Uplands of Scotland. The effect on sea level of Late Ordovician glaciation, combined with increasing deglaciation during the early Silurian, accounts for widespread stratigraphic unconformities at the Ordovician-Silurian boundary that usually omit the P. acuminatus biozone. In earliest…

  • dobby weave (textile)

    weaving: Dobby weaves, requiring a special loom attachment, have small, geometric, textured, frequently repeated woven-in designs, as seen in bird’s-eye piqué. Leno weaves, also made with a special attachment, are usually lightweight and open, giving a lacelike appearance, and are made by twisting adjacent warp yarns…

  • Dobe (breed of dog)

    Doberman Pinscher, breed of working dog developed in Apolda, Germany, by Karl Friedrich Louis Dobermann, a tax collector, night watchman, dogcatcher, and keeper of a dog pound, about 1890. The Doberman Pinscher is a sleek, agile, and powerful dog standing 24 to 28 inches (61 to 71 cm) and weighing

  • Dobell, Sydney Thompson (British poet)

    Sydney Thompson Dobell, English poet of the so-called Spasmodic school. The long dramatic poem The Roman (1850), which Dobell published under the name Sydney Yendys, celebrated the cause of Italian liberation. Another long poem, Balder (1853), is concerned with the inner life of a poet who kills

  • Dobeneck, Hannes (German humanist)

    Johannes Cochlaeus, German Humanist and a leading Roman Catholic opponent of Martin Luther. Educated at the University of Cologne (1504–10), Cochlaeus became rector of the Latin School of St. Lawrence, Nürnberg (1510–15), where he published several textbooks that notably improved instructional

  • D?bereiner, Johann Wolfgang (German chemist)

    Johann Wolfgang D?bereiner, German chemist whose observation of similarities among certain elements anticipated the development of the periodic system of elements. As a coachman’s son, D?bereiner had little opportunity for formal schooling, but he was apprenticed to an apothecary, read widely, and

  • Doberman (breed of dog)

    Doberman Pinscher, breed of working dog developed in Apolda, Germany, by Karl Friedrich Louis Dobermann, a tax collector, night watchman, dogcatcher, and keeper of a dog pound, about 1890. The Doberman Pinscher is a sleek, agile, and powerful dog standing 24 to 28 inches (61 to 71 cm) and weighing

  • Doberman Pinscher (breed of dog)

    Doberman Pinscher, breed of working dog developed in Apolda, Germany, by Karl Friedrich Louis Dobermann, a tax collector, night watchman, dogcatcher, and keeper of a dog pound, about 1890. The Doberman Pinscher is a sleek, agile, and powerful dog standing 24 to 28 inches (61 to 71 cm) and weighing

  • Doberman, Karl Friedrich Louis (German dog breeder)

    Doberman Pinscher: … developed in Apolda, Germany, by Karl Friedrich Louis Dobermann, a tax collector, night watchman, dogcatcher, and keeper of a dog pound, about 1890. The Doberman Pinscher is a sleek, agile, and powerful dog standing 24 to 28 inches (61 to 71 cm) and weighing 60 to 88 pounds (27 to…

  • Dobie, J. Frank (American author)

    Texas: The arts: …the novel Lonesome Dove (1986); J. Frank Dobie (1888–1964), who captured the essence of “old Texas” in stories of cowboys and gold mines as well as in folktales of the region’s unique physical features and animals; Pulitzer Prize-winning dramatist and screenwriter Horton Foote of Wharton, who set dozens of plays…

  • doble historia del doctor Valmy, La (work by Buero)

    Spanish literature: Theatre: Written in the 1960s, La doble historia del doctor Valmy (“The Double Case History of Doctor Valmy”) was performed in Spain for the first time in 1976; the play’s political content made it too controversial to stage there during Franco’s rule. Alfonso Sastre rejected Buero’s formula, preferring more-direct Marxist…

  • Dobles, Fabián (Costa Rican author)

    Costa Rica: The arts: Fabián Dobles and Carlos Luis Fallas have attracted international attention as writers of novels with social protest themes. Carmen Naranjo is one of several noted female writers. Among the folk arts, Costa Rica is most famous for its highly decorated oxcarts and wood carvings.

  • Doblhoff WNF 342 (helicopter)

    history of flight: Turbine-powered helicopters: …turbine) helicopter was the German Doblhoff WNF 342, which flew in 1943 using three hollow rotors through which a mixture of fuel and air was compressed to burn through nozzles at the blade tips for vertical takeoffs and landings. A conventional piston engine was used for horizontal flight. In 1947…

  • D?blin, Alfred (German writer)

    Alfred D?blin, German novelist and essayist, the most talented narrative writer of the German Expressionist movement. D?blin studied medicine and became a doctor, practicing psychiatry in the workers’ district of the Alexanderplatz in Berlin. His Jewish ancestry and socialist views obliged him to

  • Dobneck, Hannes (German humanist)

    Johannes Cochlaeus, German Humanist and a leading Roman Catholic opponent of Martin Luther. Educated at the University of Cologne (1504–10), Cochlaeus became rector of the Latin School of St. Lawrence, Nürnberg (1510–15), where he published several textbooks that notably improved instructional

  • Dobo (Indonesia)

    Aru Islands: Dobo, the main town, on small Wamar Island, is the site of the principal harbour and a minor airport. All the islands are low, covered with dense forest, and edged by swampy coastal areas. Vegetation includes screw pines, palm trees, kanari (Java almond), and tree…

  • Dobó István (Hungarian landowner)

    István Dobó, Hungarian landowner and captain of the fortress of Eger, where in 1552 he scored a historic victory over the besieging Ottoman army. On Sept. 11, 1552, led by Grand Vizier Ahmed and Ali, pasha of Buda, some 150,000 well-equipped Turkish troops laid siege to Eger, defended by just 2,000

  • Dobó, István (Hungarian landowner)

    István Dobó, Hungarian landowner and captain of the fortress of Eger, where in 1552 he scored a historic victory over the besieging Ottoman army. On Sept. 11, 1552, led by Grand Vizier Ahmed and Ali, pasha of Buda, some 150,000 well-equipped Turkish troops laid siege to Eger, defended by just 2,000

  • Dobri? (Bulgaria)

    Dobrich, town, northeastern Bulgaria. It lies on the road and railway line between Varna and Constan?a, Rom., and is a long-established market town. Under Turkish rule from the 15th century until 1878, the town was called Bazardzhik; after liberation it became Dobrich. While part of Romania from

  • Dobrich (Bulgaria)

    Dobrich, town, northeastern Bulgaria. It lies on the road and railway line between Varna and Constan?a, Rom., and is a long-established market town. Under Turkish rule from the 15th century until 1878, the town was called Bazardzhik; after liberation it became Dobrich. While part of Romania from

  • dobro (Slavic religion)

    Slavic religion: Folk conceptions: …of abundance; ray (“paradise”); and dobro (“the good”). The word bog is an Indo-Iranian word signifying riches, abundance, and good fortune. Sporysh symbolizes the same concept. In Iranian ray has a similar meaning, which it probably also had in Slavic languages before it acquired the Christian meaning of paradise. Bog,…

  • Dobroflot (Russian airline)

    Aeroflot, Russian airline that was formerly the national airline of the Soviet Union. The Soviet state airline was founded in 1928 under the name Dobroflot and was reorganized under the name Aeroflot in 1932. Dobroflot, or Dobrovolny Flot, grew out of two former airlines: Dobrolyot, founded in

  • Dobrogea (region, Europe)

    Dobruja, a region of the Balkan Peninsula, situated between the lower Danube River and the Black Sea. The larger, northern part belongs to Romania, the smaller, southern part to Bulgaria. It is a tableland of some 8,970 square miles (23,000 square km) in area, resembling a steppe with maximum

  • Dobrolyubov, Nikolay Aleksandrovich (Russian literary critic)

    Nikolay Aleksandrovich Dobrolyubov, radical Russian utilitarian critic who rejected traditional and Romantic literature. Dobrolyubov, the son of a priest, was educated at a seminary and a pedagogical institute. Early in his life he rejected traditionalism and found his ideal in progress as

  • Dobrotoliubie (translation by Velitchkovsky)

    Philokalia: Petersburg under the title of Dobrotoliubie. It was translated by the starets (spiritual leader) Paissy Velitchkovsky, who introduced a neo-Hesychast spiritual renewal into Russian and Moldavian monasticism. Whereas in Greece the Philokalia apparently had little influence outside certain schools of monasticism (although attempts were made to reach a wider public…

  • Dobrovolny Flot (Russian airline)

    Aeroflot, Russian airline that was formerly the national airline of the Soviet Union. The Soviet state airline was founded in 1928 under the name Dobroflot and was reorganized under the name Aeroflot in 1932. Dobroflot, or Dobrovolny Flot, grew out of two former airlines: Dobrolyot, founded in

  • Dobrovolsky, Georgy Timofeyevich (Soviet cosmonaut)

    Georgy Timofeyevich Dobrovolsky, Soviet cosmonaut, mission commander on the Soyuz 11 mission in which he, along with design engineer Viktor Ivanovich Patsayev and flight engineer Vladislav Nikolayevich Volkov, remained in space a record 24 days. They created the first manned orbital scientific

  • Dobrovsky, Josef (Czech scholar)

    Josef Dobrovsky, scholar of the Czech language, antiquary, and a principal founder of comparative Slavic linguistics. Educated for the Roman Catholic priesthood, Dobrovsky devoted himself to scholarship after the temporary dissolution of the Jesuit order in 1773. He was tireless in his research on

  • Dobrudja (region, Europe)

    Dobruja, a region of the Balkan Peninsula, situated between the lower Danube River and the Black Sea. The larger, northern part belongs to Romania, the smaller, southern part to Bulgaria. It is a tableland of some 8,970 square miles (23,000 square km) in area, resembling a steppe with maximum

  • Dobrudzha (region, Europe)

    Dobruja, a region of the Balkan Peninsula, situated between the lower Danube River and the Black Sea. The larger, northern part belongs to Romania, the smaller, southern part to Bulgaria. It is a tableland of some 8,970 square miles (23,000 square km) in area, resembling a steppe with maximum

  • Dobruja (region, Europe)

    Dobruja, a region of the Balkan Peninsula, situated between the lower Danube River and the Black Sea. The larger, northern part belongs to Romania, the smaller, southern part to Bulgaria. It is a tableland of some 8,970 square miles (23,000 square km) in area, resembling a steppe with maximum

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