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  • Djawa (island, Indonesia)

    Java, island of Indonesia lying southeast of Malaysia and Sumatra, south of Borneo (Kalimantan), and west of Bali. Java is only the fourth largest island in Indonesia but contains more than half of the nation’s population and dominates it politically and economically. The capital of Java and of the

  • Djeba (Egypt)

    Idfū, town on the west bank of the Nile River in Aswān mu?āfa?ah (governorate), Upper Egypt. The chief god of the city of ancient times was Horus of the Winged Disk, called the Behdetite. His consort was Hathor of Dandarah, whose statue during the late empire was brought to Idfū annually by boat on

  • Djebar, Assia (Algerian writer and filmmaker)

    Assia Djebar, Algerian writer and filmmaker whose novels, written in French, most often focus on women and their place in Algerian society. Djebar was educated in Algeria and then in France at the Sorbonne (B.A.,1956) and at Paul Valéry University of Montpellier III (Ph.D., 1999). Her career as a

  • Djedar (monument, Algeria)

    Tiaret: …on Mount Hadjar are the Djedar, groups of step pyramids on square foundations, probably monuments to Berber (Amazigh) princes of the 6th and 7th centuries. It was an Arab town of note in the 7th century, known as Tahart (“Lioness”). Taken by ?Abd al-Ra?mān ibn Rustam in 761, it became…

  • Djedefre (king of Egypt)

    Redjedef, third king of the 4th dynasty (c. 2575–c. 2465 bce) of ancient Egypt. Redjedef was a son of Khufu, builder of the Great Pyramid, by a secondary queen. The original crown prince, Kawab, who had married the heiress Hetepheres II, apparently predeceased his father. At Khufu’s death, Redjedef

  • Djedkare Izezi (king of Egypt)

    ancient Egypt: The 5th dynasty (c. 2465–c. 2325 bce): …kings of the dynasty, Menkauhor, Djedkare Izezi, and Unas, did not have personal names compounded with “-Re,” the name of the sun god (Djedkare is a name assumed on accession); and Izezi and Unas did not build solar temples. Thus, there was a slight shift away from the solar cult.…

  • Djeffara (plain, Africa)

    Al-Jifārah, coastal plain of northern Africa, on the Mediterranean coast of extreme northwestern Libya and of southeastern Tunisia. Roughly semicircular, it extends from Qābis (Gabes), Tunisia, to about 12 miles (20 km) east of Tripoli, Libya. Its maximum inland extent is approximately 80 miles

  • Djelfa (Algeria)

    Djelfa, town, north-central Algeria, in the Oulad Na?l Mountains at an elevation of 3,734 feet (1,138 metres). It is situated between the towns of Bou Saada and Laghouat. Djelfa town is at a point of transition between the dry, steppelike High Plateaus of the north, with their chotts (intermittent

  • djellaba (garment)

    dress: The Middle East from the 6th century: …the Arab world is the jellaba, known as the jellabah in Tunisia, a jubbeh in Syria, a gallibiya in Egypt, or a dishdasha in Algeria. The garment generally has wide, long sleeves, and the long skirt may be slit up the sides; some styles are open in front like a…

  • Djember (Indonesia)

    Jember, city, East Java (Jawa Timur) propinsi (or provinsi; province), southeastern Java, Indonesia. It is located at the foot of Mount Argopuro, about 95 miles (150 km) southeast of Surabaya, the provincial capital. Roads and railway link it with Banyuwangi to the east, Probolinggo to the

  • Djenné (Mali)

    Djenné, ancient trading city and centre of Muslim scholarship, southern Mali. It is situated on the Bani River and on floodlands between the Bani and Niger rivers, 220 miles (354 km) southwest of Timbuktu. The city, which sits on hillocks (small hills) known as toguère, becomes an island during the

  • Djénné (Mali)

    Djenné, ancient trading city and centre of Muslim scholarship, southern Mali. It is situated on the Bani River and on floodlands between the Bani and Niger rivers, 220 miles (354 km) southwest of Timbuktu. The city, which sits on hillocks (small hills) known as toguère, becomes an island during the

  • Djenné, Mosque of (mosque, Djenné, Mali)

    Mali: Settlement patterns: The Djenné mosque, the epitome of Sudanese architecture, is the largest mud building in the world. Timbuktu (founded about 1100 ce) was a centre of commerce and learning during the time of the Mali (13th–16th century) and Songhai (15th–16th century) empires; later, trans-Saharan trade declined in…

  • Djenné-Jeno (ancient city, Mali)

    Mali: Precolonial history: An important trading centre, Djenné-Jeno, arose about 250 bce in the inland delta of the Niger River and flourished until the 11th century ce. It then declined and eventually was eclipsed by Djenné, a trading centre founded by Muslim Soninke about the 13th century ce. Terra-cotta statues dating to…

  • Djerassi, Carl (Austrian-born American chemist)

    Carl Djerassi, Austrian-born American chemist (born Oct. 29, 1923, Vienna, Austria—died Jan. 30, 2015, San Francisco, Calif.), was one of the first to synthesize norethindrone, a steroid hormone initially produced in 1951 that later became one of the most widely used active ingredients in oral

  • Djerba (island, Tunisia)

    Jerba, island situated in the Gulf of Gabes on the Mediterranean Sea, located off the Tunisian mainland, to which it is connected by a causeway almost 4 miles (6 km) long. Jerba island is about 17 miles (27 km) long by 16 miles (26 km) wide and has an area of 197 square miles (510 square km). The

  • Djerba, Battle of ([1560])

    Battle of Djerba, (May 1560). The Battle of Djerba was fought off the coast of Tunisia between the fleets of the Ottoman Empire and a Spanish-led alliance, commanded by the Genoese admiral, Giovanni Andrea Doria. Victory for the Ottomans marked the pinnacle of their naval superiority in the

  • Djerdap High Dam (dam, Europe)

    Danube River: The economy: …of the largest hydroelectric projects—the Derdap (Djerdap) High Dam and the Iron Gate power station—was built jointly by Yugoslavia and Romania. Not only does the project produce hydroelectricity, but it also makes navigable what was once one of the most difficult stretches on the river.

  • Djerissa, Mount (mountain, Tunisia)

    Atlas Mountains: Resources: …Al-Qal?ah al-Jardā?, iron ore from Mount Djerissa, and lead from Sāqiyat Sīdī Yūsuf. These raw materials are often processed in the coastal towns. The iron ore from Ouenza, for example, supplies the iron-smelting industry of Annaba.

  • Djerma (people)

    Zarma, a people of westernmost Niger and adjacent areas of Burkina Faso and Nigeria. The Zarma speak a dialect of Songhai, a branch of the Nilo-Saharan language family, and are considered to be a branch of the Songhai people. The Zarma live in the arid lands of the Sahel. Many live in the Niger

  • Djerma Ganda (region, Niger)

    Niger: Relief: To the west is the Djerma Ganda region. Its large valleys are filled with sand, while dallol (fossilized valleys of rivers that formed tributaries of the Niger in ancient times) descend from the A?r and the Iforas Massif of neighbouring Mali. The central region consists of the rocky Adar Doutchi…

  • Djerrkura, Gatjil (Australian Aboriginal leader)

    Gatjil Djerrkura, Australian Aboriginal leader (born June 30, 1949, Yirrkala Mission, East Arnhem Land, N.Terr., Australia—died May 26, 2004, Nhulunbuy, East Arnhem Land), was hereditary leader in the Yolngu Wangurri clan. He devoted his life to the economic, social, and political advancement of A

  • Djhuty (Egyptian god)

    Thoth, in Egyptian religion, a god of the moon, of reckoning, of learning, and of writing. He was held to be the inventor of writing, the creator of languages, the scribe, interpreter, and adviser of the gods, and the representative of the sun god, Re. His responsibility for writing was shared with

  • Djibouti

    Djibouti, small strategically located country on the northeast coast of the Horn of Africa. It is situated on the Bab el Mandeb Strait, which lies to the east and separates the Red Sea from the Gulf of Aden. Formerly known as French Somaliland (1896–1967) and the French Territory of the Afars and

  • Djibouti (national capital, Djibouti)

    Djibouti, port city and capital of the Republic of Djibouti. It lies on the southern shore of the Gulf of Tadjoura, which is an inlet of the Gulf of Aden. Built on three level areas (Djibouti, Serpent, Marabout) linked by jetties, the city has a mixture of old and modern architecture. Menilek

  • Djibouti, flag of

    national flag consisting of a horizontal stripe of light blue over one of light green and, at the hoist, a white triangle bearing a red star. The flag’s width-to-length ratio is unspecified. The French seized a small coastal area at the entrance to the Red Sea during the “scramble for Africa” in

  • Djibouti, history of

    Djibouti: History: This discussion focuses on Djibouti since independence. For a more detailed treatment of earlier periods and of the country in its regional context, see eastern Africa, history of.

  • Djibouti, Republic of

    Djibouti, small strategically located country on the northeast coast of the Horn of Africa. It is situated on the Bab el Mandeb Strait, which lies to the east and separates the Red Sea from the Gulf of Aden. Formerly known as French Somaliland (1896–1967) and the French Territory of the Afars and

  • Djibouti, République de

    Djibouti, small strategically located country on the northeast coast of the Horn of Africa. It is situated on the Bab el Mandeb Strait, which lies to the east and separates the Red Sea from the Gulf of Aden. Formerly known as French Somaliland (1896–1967) and the French Territory of the Afars and

  • Djidjelli (Algeria)

    Jijel, town and roadstead port, northeastern Algeria, on the Mediterranean seacoast and the western edge of the Collo Kabylie region. The city of Jijel, originally a Phoenician trading post, passed successively to the Romans (as Igilgili), the Arabs, and, in the 16th century, to the pirate Khayr

  • Djilas, Milovan (Yugoslavian writer and official)

    Milovan Djilas, prolific political writer and former Yugoslav communist official remembered for his disillusionment with communism. Much of his work has been translated into English from Serbo-Croatian. After receiving his law degree in 1933 from the University of Belgrade, Djilas was arrested for

  • Djindji?, Zoran (prime minister of Serbia)

    Zoran Djindjic, Serbian politician (born Aug. 1, 1952, Bosanski Samac, Yugos. [now in Bosnia and Herzegovina]—died March 12, 2003, Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro), was a boldly pragmatic prime minister of Serbia who reformed the economy and brought former strongman Slobodan Milosevic before the U

  • Djokjakarta (Indonesia)

    Yogyakarta, kotamadya (municipality) and capital, Yogyakarta daerah istimewa (special district), Java, Indonesia. It lies 18 miles (29 km) inland from the southern Java coast and near Mount Merapi (9,551 feet [2,911 m]). In the 7th century the locality formed part of the Buddhist kingdom of

  • Djokovic, Novak (Serbian tennis player)

    Novak Djokovic, Serbian tennis player who was one of the game’s premier performers in the early 21st century, when he won 17 Grand Slam titles. Djokovic took up tennis at age four and quickly ascended the junior ranks. Despite the hardships that came with growing up in the war-torn Serbia of the

  • Djoliba Percussions (musical group)

    Oumou Sangaré: …16 Sangaré joined the band Djoliba Percussions and briefly toured Europe with the group as its lead vocalist. Following the tour she set about writing music for her first album. She worked within the framework of wassoulou music, the popular style that had been created and cultivated by the Wassoulou…

  • Djolof (region, Senegal)

    Senegal: Traditional geographic areas: Wolof states of Dianbour, Cayor, Djolof, and Baol. Here the soils are sandy and the winters cool; peanuts are the primary crop. The population is as diverse as the area itself and includes Wolof in the north, Serer in the Thiès region, and Lebu on Cape Verde.

  • Djoser (king of Egypt)

    Djoser, second king of the 3rd dynasty (c. 2650–c. 2575 bce) of ancient Egypt, who undertook the construction of the earliest important stone building in Egypt. His reign, which probably lasted 19 years, was marked by great technological innovation in the use of stone architecture. His minister,

  • Djotodia, Michel (Central African rebel leader)

    Central African Republic: The 21st century: One of the rebel leaders, Michel Djotodia, claimed to be the de facto head of state and initially promised to uphold the terms of the January power-sharing agreement. He then later announced that he was suspending the constitution and dissolving the National Assembly and the government. Djotodia’s first attempt at…

  • Djoua River (river, Africa)

    Djoua River, river that forms part of the boundary between Gabon and the Republic of the Congo and is included in the Ogooué River drainage

  • Djouab River (river, Africa)

    Djoua River, river that forms part of the boundary between Gabon and the Republic of the Congo and is included in the Ogooué River drainage

  • Djouah River (river, Africa)

    Djoua River, river that forms part of the boundary between Gabon and the Republic of the Congo and is included in the Ogooué River drainage

  • Djoudj National Bird Sanctuary (Senegal)

    Senegal: Plant and animal life: Djoudj National Bird Sanctuary, designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1981, contains more than a million birds, including the African spoonbill, the purple heron, the white pelican, and the cormorant. Niokolo Koba National Park was also named a World Heritage site in 1981. Lower…

  • Djourab Depression (geographical feature, Africa)

    Chad: Relief and drainage: …of the basin is the Djourab Depression, which is 573 feet (175 metres) above sea level.

  • DJP (political party, South Korea)

    Roh Tae-Woo: …Chun’s ruling political party, the Democratic Justice Party (DJP), and in June 1987 Chun chose Roh to be the candidate of the DJP in the upcoming presidential elections. Under the country’s existing constitution, Roh was thus practically guaranteed to win the presidency, and this prospect ignited widespread popular unrest. In…

  • DJUA (stock market)

    Dow Jones average: …on 20 transportation stocks; the Dow Jones Utility Average (DJUA), based on 15 utility stocks; the Dow Jones Composite Average, comprising the stocks of the DJIA, DJTA, and DJUA; and several bond averages. Other popular gauges of the American securities markets are the S&P 500 and the Russell 2000 indexes.

  • djugurba (Australian Aboriginal mythology)

    The Dreaming, mythological period of time that had a beginning but no foreseeable end, during which the natural environment was shaped and humanized by the actions of mythic beings. Many of these beings took the form of human beings or of animals (“totemic”); some changed their forms. They were

  • Djukanovi?, Milorad (president of Montenegro)

    Montenegro: Federation with Serbia: …Momir Bulatovi? was defeated by Milorad Djukanovi? in Montenegro’s presidential elections that October, Djukanovi? began to steer an increasingly independent course of action, and within a year Montenegrin representatives had been withdrawn from most of the federal institutions. Djukanovi? was also critical of the Serbian policy toward Kosovo, fearing that…

  • Djuradj (Serbian leader)

    Montenegro: Medieval South Slav kingdoms: Ivan’s son Djuradj Crnojevi? built a monastery at Cetinje, founding there the see of a bishopric, and imported from Venice a printing press that produced after 1493 some of the earliest books in the Cyrillic script. During the reign of Djuradj, Zeta came to be more widely…

  • Djurdjura (mountain region, Algeria)

    Algeria: Settlement patterns: …the Aurès Mountains and the Great Kabylia, the latter being an Amazigh stronghold renowned for its hilltop villages and traditional way of life.

  • Djurg?rden (island, Stockholm, Sweden)

    Stockholm: …Stan lies the island of Djurg?rden, a cultural-recreational area that has several museums, including the Vasa Museum, which houses a salvaged Swedish warship dating from 1628.

  • Djurhuus, Hans Andrias (Scandinavian author)

    Faroese literature: Development during the 20th century: His brother, Hans Andrias Djurhuus, wrote poems, fairy tales, and plays that were based on native historical traditions and legends.

  • Djurhuus, Jens H. O. (Scandinavian author)

    Faroese literature: Development during the 20th century: Jens H.O. Djurhuus, who created rhetorical poetry, was the first to emerge as a writer of international stature. His brother, Hans Andrias Djurhuus, wrote poems, fairy tales, and plays that were based on native historical traditions and legends.

  • Djursland (peninsula, Denmark)

    Djursland, eastward projection of Jutland, Denmark, northeast of ?rhus. Water bounds it on three sides: ?rhus Bay to the south, the Kattegat (strait) to the east, and ?lborg Bay to the north. Ancient burial places, dolmens, and stone circles dot the low, forested landscape. Old churches, castles,

  • DKNY (American fashion house)

    Donna Karan: After the bridge line DKNY debuted in 1988, Karan’s company diversified and sold blue jeans, men’s wear, and a children’s line in addition to accessories, hosiery, and perfume. Karan won rave reviews for her mix-and-match clothing in soft fabrics and neutral colours. She was especially noted for her signature…

  • Dkon-mchog rgyal-po (Tibetan scholar)

    Tibet: Disunity, 9th to 14th century: The Tibetan scholar Dkon-mchog rgyal-po established the monastery of Sa-skya (1073), and a series of lamas (Tibetan priests) founded several monasteries of what is generally called the Bka’-brgyud-pa sect.

  • DKP (political party, Germany)

    Friedrich Ebert: …the SPD to form the Communist Party of Germany (KPD). The leftists who had withdrawn from the SPD sought a social revolution, while Ebert and his party wanted to establish a German parliamentary democracy. Even in the midst of the war, the Catholic Centre Party, the Democratic Party (previously the…

  • DL (political party, Northern Ireland and Ireland)

    Democratic Left (DL), short-lived socialist party, organized in both Northern Ireland and the Irish republic, that broke away from the Workers’ Party in 1992 and went on to serve in the government of the Irish republic between 1994 and 1997. In 1999 the party was incorporated into the Labour Party,

  • Dlamini (people)

    Eswatini: Ethnic groups: …of the largest clan, the Dlamini. The amalgamation brought together clans already living in the area that is now Eswatini, many of whom were of Sotho origin, and clans of Nguni origin who entered the country with the Dlamini in the early 19th century. Traditional administration and culture are regulated…

  • Dlamini-Zuma, Nkosazana (South African politician)

    African National Congress: Internal dissent: The two front-runner candidates were Nkosazana Dlamini-Zuma, a physician, veteran politician, and former chairperson of the African Union Commission who also happened to be the president’s former wife, and Cyril Ramaphosa, a successful businessman and party stalwart who served as deputy president of both the ANC and the country. Dlamini-Zuma…

  • Dlatego zyjemy (poetry by Szymborska)

    Wis?awa Szymborska: Dlatego ?yjemy (1952; “That’s Why We Are Alive”), her first volume of poetry, was an attempt to conform to Socialist Realism, the officially approved literary style of Poland’s communist regime. In 1953 she joined the editorial staff of ?ycie Literackie (“Literary Life”), a weekly magazine…

  • DLF (Indian company)

    Kushal Pal Singh: …India), Indian businessman who transformed Delhi Land & Finance Limited (DLF) into one of India’s largest real-estate development firms.

  • DLH (German airline)

    Lufthansa: It was the successor to Deutsche Luft Hansa, or DLH, which was founded in 1926, suspended service at war’s end in 1945, and was formally liquidated in 1951. The new airline, initially called Aktiengesellschaft für Luftverkehrsbedarf, or Luftag, adopted the old name, run together, in 1954; but, whereas the old…

  • DLL (computer code file)

    DLL, a file containing code for commonly used program functions on personal computers (PCs) that run the Microsoft Corporation’s Windows operating system. Linking is part of the process of creating a computer program in which programmers combine their new program codes with preexisting code

  • DLP (political party, South Korea)

    Kim Young-Sam: …a centre-right party, called the Democratic Liberal Party (DLP), that dominated Korean politics. As the candidate of the DLP, Kim won election to the presidency in December 1992, defeating Kim Dae-Jung and another opposition candidate, Chung Joo-Youn, chairman of the Hyundai chaeb?l (conglomerate).

  • DLP (political party, Barbados)

    Barbados: Barbados since independence: The Democratic Labour Party (DLP) led the country into independence and continued in office until 1976. Thereafter, in free and fair elections held at regular intervals, the DLP and the Barbados Labour Party (BLP) have alternated in leading the government.

  • DLP (technology)

    Texas Instruments Incorporated: Digital signal processors: A related semiconductor product, the digital light processor (DLP), was invented by Larry Hornbeck at TI in 1987. In 1993 the company formed its Digital Imaging division to commercialize the invention. The first DLP-based projection systems soon followed, and in 2001 Mitsubishi introduced the first DLP HDTV (high-definition television).

  • D?ugosz, Jan (Polish historian)

    Jan D?ugosz, Polish diplomat and historian whose monumental history of Poland, the first of its kind, inspired Poles with pride in their past and helped to favourably change the attitude of educated Europeans toward Poland. D?ugosz entered the service of Zbigniew Ole?nicki, bishop of Kraków, and

  • Dluzhnevska, Felizata (Russian ballerina)

    Felia Doubrovska, Russian ballerina who gave critically acclaimed performances as the bride in Igor Stravinsky’s Les Noces (1923; “The Wedding”) and as the siren in Sergey Prokofiev’s The Prodigal Son (1929) while dancing with Serge Diaghilev’s Ballets Russes. After she graduated from the Imperial

  • Dlya golosa (work by Mayakovsky)

    graphic design: Modernist experiments between the world wars: …Vladimir Mayakovsky’s Dlya golosa (For the Voice) is a seminal work of graphic design. The title spread for each poem is constructed into a dynamic visual composition, with geometric elements having symbolic meaning. In the title page to one poem, Lissitzky used a large red circle to signify the…

  • DM (German currency)

    Mark, former monetary unit of Germany. The early history of the term can be traced back at least to the 11th century, when the mark was mentioned in Germany as a unit of weight (approximately eight ounces) most commonly used for gold and silver. As a unit of account, it was employed during the

  • Dmanisi (archaeological site, Georgia)

    Dmanisi, site of paleoanthropological excavations in southern Georgia, where in 1991 a human jaw and teeth showing anatomical similarities to Homo erectus were unearthed. Dmanisi is the site of a medieval village located about 85 km (53 miles) southwest of Tbilisi on a promontory at the confluence

  • DMAPP (chemical compound)

    isoprenoid: Biosynthesis of isoprenoids: …of them be transformed to dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP). In the equations below, only the covalent bonds of the carbon skeletons are shown, and PP stands for the pyrophosphate group.

  • DMD

    muscle disease: The muscular dystrophies: …that are relatively benign, the Duchenne type, which predominately affects boys, is severe. It causes difficulty in walking at about the age of four years, loss of the ability to walk at about the age of 11, and death before the age of 20, usually because of respiratory failure or…

  • DME (instrument)

    Distance-measuring equipment (DME), in aerial navigation, equipment for measuring distance by converting the time a special electronic pulse takes to travel from an aircraft to a ground station and for an answering pulse to return. The airborne equipment displays the information to the pilot. When

  • dMEC (anatomy)

    Edvard I. Moser: …of cells specifically in the dorsocaudal medial entorhinal cortex (dMEC) of the rat brain via electrodes that had been positioned precisely within the region. The activity of the cells in the dMEC turned out to be related to the position of the rat in its enclosure, similar to O’Keefe’s finding…

  • DMF (chemical compound)

    Frances Arnold: …would work in the solvent dimethylformamide (DMF) instead of in the watery environment of a cell. She introduced many random mutations into the genetic code of bacteria that made subtilisin E, and she introduced her mutated enzymes into an environment that contained both DMF and casein. She selected the new…

  • Dmitriyevsk (Ukraine)

    Makiyivka, city, eastern Ukraine. The city was founded as Dmitriyevsk (Dmytriyivsk) in 1899 with the establishment of a metallurgical works; the nearby small village of Makiyivka was later absorbed into the city. Dmitriyevsk subsequently developed as one of the largest coal-mining and industrial

  • Dmitriyevsk (Russia)

    Kamyshin, city, Volgograd oblast (region), western Russia. The city lies along the Volga River and the Volgograd reservoir. In 1697 Peter I the Great built a fort, Petrovsk, to protect workmen attempting to construct a canal between the Volga and Don rivers. Renamed Dmitriyevsk in 1710 and Kamyshin

  • Dmitry II Donskoy (prince of Moscow)

    Dmitry (II) Donskoy, prince of Moscow, or Muscovy (1359–89), and grand prince of Vladimir (1362–89), who won a victory over the Golden Horde (Mongols who had controlled Russian lands since 1240) at the Battle of Kulikovo (Sept. 8, 1380). Son of Ivan II the Meek of Moscow (reigned 1353–59), Dmitry b

  • Dmitry Ivanovich (prince of Moscow)

    Dmitry (II) Donskoy, prince of Moscow, or Muscovy (1359–89), and grand prince of Vladimir (1362–89), who won a victory over the Golden Horde (Mongols who had controlled Russian lands since 1240) at the Battle of Kulikovo (Sept. 8, 1380). Son of Ivan II the Meek of Moscow (reigned 1353–59), Dmitry b

  • Dmitry Ivanovich (heir to Russian throne)

    Dmitry Ivanovich, youngest son of Ivan IV (the Terrible), whose death cast suspicion on imperial adviser Boris Godunov. A series of pretenders claiming to be Dmitry later contended for the Muscovite throne. Dmitry was the only son of Ivan IV and Maria Fedrorovna Nagaya, the tsar’s seventh wife.

  • Dmitry Samozvanets (Russian pretender)

    False Dmitry: …Boris Godunov succeeded him, the first False Dmitry appeared and challenged Godunov’s right to the throne. The first pretender is considered by many historians to have been Grigory (Yury) Bogdanovich Otrepyev, a member of the gentry who had frequented the house of the Romanovs before becoming the monk Grigory and…

  • Dmitry Samozvanets (Russian pretender)

    False Dmitry: In March 1611 a third False Dmitry, who has been identified as a deacon called Sidorka, appeared at Ivangorod. He gained the allegiance of the Cossacks (March 1612), who were ravaging the environs of Moscow, and of the inhabitants of Pskov, thus acquiring the nickname Thief of Pskov. In…

  • Dmitry Samozvanets (Russian pretender)

    False Dmitry: Although the second False Dmitry bore no physical resemblance to the first, he gathered a large following among Cossacks, Poles, Lithuanians, and rebels who had already risen against Shuysky. He gained control of southern Russia, marched toward Moscow, and established his headquarters (including a full court and…

  • Dmitry, First False (Russian pretender)

    False Dmitry: …Boris Godunov succeeded him, the first False Dmitry appeared and challenged Godunov’s right to the throne. The first pretender is considered by many historians to have been Grigory (Yury) Bogdanovich Otrepyev, a member of the gentry who had frequented the house of the Romanovs before becoming the monk Grigory and…

  • Dmitry, Second False (Russian pretender)

    False Dmitry: Although the second False Dmitry bore no physical resemblance to the first, he gathered a large following among Cossacks, Poles, Lithuanians, and rebels who had already risen against Shuysky. He gained control of southern Russia, marched toward Moscow, and established his headquarters (including a full court and…

  • Dmitry, Third False (Russian pretender)

    False Dmitry: In March 1611 a third False Dmitry, who has been identified as a deacon called Sidorka, appeared at Ivangorod. He gained the allegiance of the Cossacks (March 1612), who were ravaging the environs of Moscow, and of the inhabitants of Pskov, thus acquiring the nickname Thief of Pskov. In…

  • DMK (political party, India)

    Dravidian Progressive Federation, regional political party principally in the state of Tamil Nadu, southeastern India. The party traces its origins to the pro-Tamil activities of E.V. Ramaswami Naicker and others in the first half of the 20th century. The DMK itself was founded in 1949 in Madras

  • DMLS (manufacturing)

    3D printing: …steps can be minimized in direct metal laser sintering (DMLS), in which a high-power laser fuses a fine metal powder into a more-solid and finished part without the use of binder material. Yet another variation is electron beam melting (EBM); here the laser apparatus is replaced by an electron gun,…

  • Dmowski, Roman (Polish statesman)

    Roman Dmowski, Polish statesman, a leader of Poland’s struggle for national liberation, and the foremost supporter of cooperation with Russia as a means toward achieving that goal. As a student in Warsaw, Dmowski involved himself in the movement for Polish liberation and in 1895 helped found the

  • DMSO (chemical compound)

    Dimethyl sulfoxide, simplest member of the sulfoxide family of organic compounds; see

  • DMT (hallucinogen)

    DMT, powerful, naturally occurring hallucinogenic compound structurally related to the drug LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide). DMT blocks the action of serotonin (a transmitter of nerve impulses) in brain tissue. It is inactive when taken by mouth and produces effects only when injected, sniffed, o

  • Dmytriyivsk (Ukraine)

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