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  • Discovering King Richard III

    On Feb. 4, 2013, the University of Leicester, located in England’s East Midlands, released to the public the results of anthropological and DNA analyses of skeletal remains (discovered in August 2012) thought to be those of King Richard III of England (1452–85), the last king of the long-standing

  • Discovery (album by Daft Punk [2001])

    Daft Punk: For Daft Punk’s next album, Discovery (2001), Bangalter and Homem-Christo took a more expansive and song-oriented approach. A colourful mélange of disco, rhythm-and-blues, and glam rock sounds of the 1970s and ’80s filtered through lustrous electronic production, Discovery was a success both on and off the dance floor. Its highlights…

  • Discovery (British ship [17th century])

    Henry Hudson: The voyage to Hudson Bay: …1610, in the 55-ton vessel Discovery, Hudson stopped briefly in Iceland, then proceeded to the “furious overfall.” Passing through it and entering Hudson Bay in early August, he then followed the east coast southward, rather than striking boldly westward. Finding himself in James Bay at the southernmost extremity of Hudson…

  • discovery (law)

    Discovery, in law, pretrial procedures providing for the exchange of information between the parties involved in the proceedings. Discovery may be made through interrogatories, which consist of written questions sent from one side to the other in an attempt to secure important facts; it also can be

  • Discovery (space shuttle)

    Sultan ibn Salman Al Saud: …flew on the space shuttle Discovery as part of a seven-member international crew. During the seven-day mission, Sultan represented the Arab Satellite Communications Organization (ARABSAT) and took part in the deployment of the organization’s satellite, ARABSAT-1B. While in space, he also carried out a series of experiments that had been…

  • discovery (knowledge achievement)
  • Discovery (British ship [18th century])

    James Cook: Voyages and discoveries: …with another Whitby ship, the Discovery. This search was unsuccessful, for neither a northwest nor a northeast passage usable by sailing ships existed, and the voyage led to Cook’s death. In a brief fracas with Hawaiians over the stealing of a cutter, Cook was slain on the beach at Kealakekua…

  • Discovery Bay (bay, Australia)

    Discovery Bay, wide curved bay indenting the south coast of Australia. An inlet of the Indian Ocean, it is 50 miles (80 km) across and is bounded on the east by Cape Bridgewater (Victoria) and on the west by Cape Northumberland (South Australia). Visited in 1800 by James Augustus Grant of the

  • Discovery Channel (American cable channel)

    Television in the United States: The 1990s: the loss of shared experience: …comedy (Comedy Central), documentaries (Discovery Channel), animals (Animal Planet), and a host of other interests. The Golf Channel and the Game Show Network were perhaps the most emblematic of how far target programming could go during this era. By the end of the decade, almost 80 percent of American…

  • Discovery Day (holiday)

    Guam: Cultural life: …significant local dates such as Discovery Day, March 6, which commemorates the arrival of Ferdinand Magellan in 1521.

  • Discovery Deep (Red Sea)

    Red Sea: Resources: The sediments of the Discovery Deep and of several other deposits also have significant metalliferous content but at lower concentrations than that in the Atlantis II Deep, and thus they have not been of as much economic interest. The recovery of sediment located beneath 5,700 to 6,400 feet of…

  • discovery depletion (finance)

    depletion allowance: …the United States, called the “discovery depletion,” was enacted in 1918 to stimulate oil production for World War I (even though the war had just ended). Discovery value proved too hard to estimate, however, so this was changed in 1926 to the “percentage depletion” for oil and gas property, under…

  • discovery method (education)

    preschool education: History: …in the search for the instruments of their own education—seeking realia (objects from real life) as well as Froebelian symbolic objects to examine.

  • Discovery of Heaven, The (novel by Mulisch)

    Harry Mulisch: …ontdekking van de hemel (1992; The Discovery of Heaven; filmed 2001) increased Mulisch’s international presence with its discussion of the theological questions raised by science. De procedure (1998; The Procedure) echoes the Jewish golem myth with the story of a scientist who creates life from crystals found in clay. Siegfried…

  • Discovery of Honey, The (work by Piero di Cosimo)

    Piero di Cosimo: But, while The Discovery of Honey by Bacchus (c. 1499) retains Signorelli’s figure types, its forms are more softly modeled and its light is warmer, showing Piero’s mastery of the new technique of oil painting. In the Liberation of Andromeda (c. 1510–13), Piero adopts Leonardo da Vinci’s sfumato…

  • Discovery of the Great West (work by Parkman)

    Francis Parkman: Literary career.: …persistent Iroquois attacks, and his La Salle and the Discovery of the Great West, first published in 1869 as The Discovery of the Great West but later revised after French documents were made available, is in many respects one of the best one-volume biographies in the English language. René-Robert Cavelier,…

  • Discovery of the Uzbek Tyrannosaur, The

    In March 2016 Stephen Brusatte of the School of GeoSciences at the University of Edinburgh (and the author of this report) led a team of scientists from the U.K., Russia, and the U.S. who described a new species of Dinosaur from Uzbekistan. Called Timurlengia euotica, the 90-million-year-old

  • Discovery Park (park, Seattle, Washington, United States)

    Seattle: Cultural life: The largest is Discovery Park, some 530 acres (214 hectares), which occupies most of the former site of the U.S. Army’s decommissioned Fort Lawton. Situated on a broad bluff overlooking Puget Sound, Discovery Park offers views of nearby beaches and distant mountains, nature preserves, natural meadows, forest groves,…

  • Discovery, Corps of (American exploration group)

    Lewis and Clark Expedition: Expedition from May 14, 1804, to October 16, 1805: …Pacific Ocean and back, the Corps of Discovery, as the expedition company was called, traveled nearly 8,000 miles (13,000 km). The entourage, numbering about four dozen men, covered 10 to 20 miles (16 to 32 km) a day—poling, pushing, and pulling their 10-ton keelboat and two pirogues (dugout boats) up…

  • Discovery, Dome of (building, London, United Kingdom)

    construction: Postwar developments in long-span construction: …& Partners for the Dome Discovery built in London in 1951. Fuller’s own patented forms were used in 1958 to build two large hemispheric domes 115.3 metres (384 feet) in diameter using steel tube members. These are used as workshops for the Union Tank Car Company in Wood River, Illinois,…

  • discovery, tables of (science and philosophy)

    Western philosophy: The empiricism of Francis Bacon: …of what he called “tables of discovery.” He distinguished three kinds: tables of presence, of absence, and of degree (i.e., in the case of any two properties, such as heat and friction, instances in which they appear together, instances in which one appears without the other, and instances in…

  • Discreet Charm of the Bourgeoisie, The (film by Bu?uel [1972])
  • discrepancy principle (behavioural science)

    human behaviour: Determinants of attention: …a second principle, called the discrepancy principle, begins to assume precedence. According to this principle, the infant is most likely to attend to those events that are moderately different from those he has been exposed to in the past. For instance, by the third month, the infant has developed an…

  • discrete communication (information theory)

    information theory: Four types of communication: Discrete signals can represent only a finite number of different, recognizable states. For example, the letters of the English alphabet are commonly thought of as discrete signals. Continuous signals, also known as analog signals, are commonly used to transmit quantities that can vary over an…

  • discrete cosine transform (mathematics)

    data compression: …most common method uses the discrete cosine transform, a mathematical formula related to the Fourier transform, which breaks the image into separate parts of differing levels of importance for image quality. This technique, as well as fractal techniques, can achieve excellent compression ratios. While the performance of lossless compression is…

  • discrete frequency electromagnetic radiation (physics)

    electromagnetic radiation: Discrete-frequency sources and absorbers of electromagnetic radiation: Familiar examples of discrete-frequency electromagnetic radiation include the distinct colours of lamps filled with different fluorescent gases that are characteristic of advertisement signs, the colours of dyes and pigments, the bright yellow of sodium lamps, the blue-green hue of mercury lamps, and the specific colours of lasers.

  • discrete metric (mathematics)

    metric space: …any set of points, the discrete metric specifies that the distance from a point to itself equal 0 while the distance between any two distinct points equal 1. The so-called taxicab metric on the Euclidean plane declares the distance from a point (x, y) to a point (z, w) to…

  • Discrete Music (album by Eno)

    Brian Eno: Albums such as Discrete Music (1975), Music for Films (1978), and Music for Airports (1979) exemplified this approach.

  • discrete random variable (statistics)

    statistics: Random variables and probability distributions: …values is said to be discrete; one that may assume any value in some interval on the real number line is said to be continuous. For instance, a random variable representing the number of automobiles sold at a particular dealership on one day would be discrete, while a random variable…

  • discrete space (mathematics)

    topology: Topological space: …set X is called the discrete topology on X, and the collection consisting only of the empty set and X itself forms the indiscrete, or trivial, topology on X. A given topological space gives rise to other related topological spaces. For example, a subset A of a topological space X…

  • discrete state automaton

    automata theory: Classification of automata: The term discrete state automaton is sometimes used to emphasize the discrete nature of the internal states. The principal classes are transducers and acceptors. In automata theory, a transducer is an automaton with input and output; any Turing machine for computing a partial recursive function, as previously…

  • discrete topology (mathematics)

    topology: Topological space: …set X is called the discrete topology on X, and the collection consisting only of the empty set and X itself forms the indiscrete, or trivial, topology on X. A given topological space gives rise to other related topological spaces. For example, a subset A of a topological space X…

  • discrete translational periodicity (physics)

    liquid crystal: Symmetries of solids and liquids: This property is called discrete translational periodicity. The two-dimensional picture of a crystal displays translational periodicity in two independent directions. Real, three-dimensional crystals display translational periodicity in three independent directions.

  • discrete variable (statistics)

    difference equation: …of a function of a discrete variable. A discrete variable is one that is defined or of interest only for values that differ by some finite amount, usually a constant and often 1; for example, the discrete variable x may have the values x0 = a, x1 = a +…

  • discriminant (mathematics)

    Discriminant, in mathematics, a parameter of an object or system calculated as an aid to its classification or solution. In the case of a quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0, the discriminant is b2 ? 4ac; for a cubic equation x3 + ax2 + bx + c = 0, the discriminant is a2b2 + 18abc ? 4b3 ? 4a3c ?

  • discriminating monopoly (economics)

    monopolistic competition: …small number of large firms; discriminating monopoly, in which a given item is sold at different prices to different customers; and monopsony, in which there is a single (monopolistic) buyer. Because the bulk of business in developed capitalist economies is conducted under conditions of product differentiation or oligopoly, the enthusiasm…

  • discrimination (psychology)

    Discrimination, in psychology, the ability to perceive and respond to differences among stimuli. It is considered a more advanced form of learning than generalization (q.v.), the ability to perceive similarities, although animals can be trained to discriminate as well as to generalize. Application

  • discrimination (society)

    Discrimination, the intended or accomplished differential treatment of persons or social groups for reasons of certain generalized traits. The targets of discrimination are often minorities, but they may also be majorities, as black people were under apartheid in South Africa. For the most part,

  • discrimination reaction timer

    psychomotor learning: Devices and tasks: Another device, a discrimination reaction timer, requires that one of several toggle switches be snapped rapidly in response to designated distinctive spatial patterns of coloured signal lamps. In performing on a manual lever, a blindfolded subject must learn how far to move the handle on the…

  • discrimination reversal (psychology)

    animal learning: Discrimination of relational and abstract stimuli: …studied almost to excess is discrimination reversal. In reversal tasks, an animal is first trained on a simple discriminative problem: for example, to choose the left-hand arm of a T-maze, where it is rewarded, rather than the right arm, where it is not. Once the animal has solved the problem,…

  • Discula destructiva (fungus)

    anthracnose: The causative agent, the fungus Discula destructiva, was not described until 1991.

  • discus fish

    Discus fish, two species of the genus Symphysodon of fishes in the family Cichlidae (order Perciformes), characterized by a compressed, disk-shaped body. The two species (S. discus and S. aequifasciata) occur naturally in tributaries of the Amazon River in South America. Discus fish have an unusual

  • discus throw (athletics)

    Discus throw, sport in athletics (track and field) in which a disk-shaped object, known as a discus, is thrown for distance. In modern competition the discus must be thrown from a circle 2.5 metres (8.2 feet) in diameter and fall within a 40° sector marked on the ground from the centre of the

  • Discus Thrower (statue by Myron)

    Myron: …Acropolis of Athens, and the Discobolus (“Discus Thrower”), both in marble copies made in Roman times.

  • discusfish

    Discus fish, two species of the genus Symphysodon of fishes in the family Cichlidae (order Perciformes), characterized by a compressed, disk-shaped body. The two species (S. discus and S. aequifasciata) occur naturally in tributaries of the Amazon River in South America. Discus fish have an unusual

  • Discussion Between the Christian and the Pagan, The (work by Gqoba)

    William Wellington Gqoba: …two long didactic poems, “The Discussion Between the Christian and the Pagan” and “The Great Discussion on Education,” both influenced in style by his fellow South African Tiyo Soga’s translation of Pilgrim’s Progress into Xhosa. In the first poem the traditional conflict is set up between the pleasures and riches…

  • Discussion of Heaven, A (essay by Xunzi)

    Xunzi: Another celebrated essay is “A Discussion of Heaven,” in which he attacks superstitious and supernatural beliefs. One of the work’s main themes is that unusual natural phenomena (eclipses, etc.) are no less natural for their irregularity—hence are not evil omens—and therefore men should not be concerned at their occurrence.…

  • Discussion of Music, A (essay by Xunzi)

    Xunzi: …his other famous essays, “A Discussion of Music” became the classic work on the subject in China. Here, too, social issues are under consideration as Xunzi discusses the importance of music as a vehicle for expressing human emotions without generating interpersonal conflict.

  • Discussion of Ritual, A (essay by Xunzi)

    Xunzi: In the essay “A Discussion of Ritual,” Xunzi attempts to answer this question and in the process elaborates the concept central to his entire philosophy. Xunzi asserts that man differs from other creatures in one vital respect: besides his instinctual drives, he also possesses an intelligence which enables him…

  • Discussion with Heracleides (work by Origen)

    Origen: Life: During this period falls the “Discussion with Heracleides,” a papyrus partially transcribing a debate at a church council (probably in Arabia) where a local bishop was suspected of denying the preexistence of the divine Word and where obscure controversies raged over Christological issues and whether the soul is, in actuality,…

  • Discworld series (literature series by Pratchett)

    The Colour of Magic: Summary: …of four stories set on Discworld, a flat planet that is carried by four huge elephants that stand on the back of the giant turtle Great A’Tuin. The stories pivot on the hapless failed wizard Rincewind. In the first adventure, Rincewind is required to act as guide and protector to…

  • Disdéri, André-Adolphe-Eugène (French photographer)

    André-Adolphe-Eugène Disdéri, French photographer noted for his popularization of the carte-de-visite, a small albumen print mounted on a 212 × 4 inch (6 × 10.2 cm) card and used as a calling card. Although Disdéri sought a career in the arts, the death of his father obligated him to turn to the

  • disease

    Disease, any harmful deviation from the normal structural or functional state of an organism, generally associated with certain signs and symptoms and differing in nature from physical injury. A diseased organism commonly exhibits signs or symptoms indicative of its abnormal state. Thus, the normal

  • disease control (public health)
  • disease control (agriculture)

    plant disease: Principles of disease control: Successful disease control requires thorough knowledge of the causal agent and the disease cycle, host-pathogen interactions in relation to environmental factors, and cost. Disease control starts with the best variety, seed, or planting stock available and continues throughout the life of the plant.…

  • disease devil mask (Sinhalese art)

    mask: Therapeutic uses: …Sri Lanka, where 19 distinct sickness demon masks have been devised. These masks are of ferocious aspect, fanged, and with fiendish eyes. Gaudily coloured and sometimes having articulating jaws, they present a dragonlike appearance.

  • disease elimination

    leprosy: Disease elimination was defined as a reduction of prevalence to less than 1 case per 10,000 persons. Most countries targeted for leprosy elimination had achieved this goal by the early 21st century.

  • disease eradication

    plant disease: Exclusion and avoidance: …areas currently free of the disease. More than 150 countries now have established quarantine regulations.

  • disease-targeted research

    Translational medicine, area of research that aims to improve human health and longevity by determining the relevance to human disease of novel discoveries in the biological sciences. Translational medicine seeks to coordinate the use of new knowledge in clinical practice and to incorporate

  • Diseases (works attributed to Hippocrates)

    Hippocrates: Life and works: Treatises called Diseases deal with serious illnesses, proceeding from the head to the feet, giving symptoms, prognoses, and treatments. There are works on diseases of women, childbirth, and pediatrics. Prescribed medications, other than foods and local salves, are generally purgatives to rid the body of the noxious…

  • Diseases of Memory (work by Ribot)

    Théodule-Armand Ribot: …Maladies de la mémoire (1881; Diseases of Memory), constitutes the most influential early attempt to analyze abnormalities of memory in terms of physiology.

  • Diseases of the Heart (work by Mackenzie)

    Sir James Mackenzie: In his ambitious text Diseases of the Heart (1908), Mackenzie summarized his diagnostic work on pulsation and cardiovascular disease. He also convincingly demonstrated the efficacy of the drug digitalis in the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias. During World War I he served as a consultant to the Military Heart Hospital,…

  • Diseases of the Heart and Aorta, The (work by Stokes)

    William Stokes: …Chest, published in 1837, and The Diseases of the Heart and Aorta, published in 1854. He was also the author of one of the first works in English on the use of the stethoscope. Stokes also gave his name to a type of breathing characteristic of advanced myocardial degeneration, called…

  • Diseases of Workers (work by Ramazzini)

    Bernardino Ramazzini: …De Morbis Artificum Diatriba (1760; Diseases of Workers), the first comprehensive work on occupational diseases, outlining the health hazards of irritating chemicals, dust, metals, and other abrasive agents encountered by workers in 52 occupations. He served as professor of medicine at the University of Padua from 1700 until his death.

  • diseconomy of scale (economics)

    economy of scale: Conversely, diseconomy of scale can result when an increase in output causes the average cost to increase.

  • Disegno, Accademia del (art institution, Florence, Italy)

    academy of art: …instruction, the Accademia del Disegno (“Academy of Design”), was established in 1563 in Florence by the grand duke Cosimo I de’ Medici at the instigation of the painter and art historian Giorgio Vasari. The two nominal heads of the institution were Cosimo himself and Michelangelo. In contrast to the guilds,…

  • Disenchanted, The (play by Schulberg and Breit)

    Jason Robards: …his performance in Budd Schulberg’s The Disenchanted (1958). He received further acclaim for his work in Lillian Hellman’s Toys in the Attic (1960). He also played leading roles in the original Broadway productions of A Thousand Clowns (1962) and Arthur Miller’s After the Fall (1964) as well as in

  • Disenchanted, The (novel by Schulberg)

    Budd Schulberg: His 1950 novel, The Disenchanted, won an American Library Award for fiction. That book was made into a play, which opened on Broadway in 1958. In 1955 his screenplay for the widely acclaimed On the Waterfront won him an Academy Award for best story and screenplay. Schulberg also…

  • Disenchantment (animated television series)

    Matt Groening: …developed a third animated series, Disenchantment, which premiered on Netflix in 2018. The show followed the escapades of the hard-drinking Princess Bean and her friends, an elf fittingly named Elfo and the demon Luci, in the medieval kingdom Dreamland.

  • Disenchantment (work by Montague)

    Charles Edward Montague: …experiences in World War I—Disenchantment (1922), an essay drawn from wartime diaries and articles that expresses the bitterness of the survivors, and Fiery Particles (1923), comic and tragic stories of life in the trenches. In 1925 Montague retired from the Manchester Guardian to Oxfordshire and produced Rough Justice (1926),…

  • disenchantment (philosophy and sociology)

    Disenchantment, in philosophy and sociology, the supposed condition of the world once science and the Enlightenment have eroded the sway of religion and superstition. The concept of disenchantment, so defined, emphasizes the opposed roles of science and religion in modern society. The German

  • disequilibrium (economics)

    international payment and exchange: Disequilibrating capital movements: Whatever its merits from a long-term point of view, the idea that it is quite respectable for a country to alter the par value of its currency in certain circumstances had disturbing effects on the movements of short-term funds—effects that may not…

  • disequilibrium dating (geology)

    dating: Origin of radioactive elements used: …type of dating, known as disequilibrium dating, will be explored below in the section Uranium-series disequilibrium dating.

  • Disgaea (electronic game)

    Disgaea, electronic game released by the Japanese video-game company Nippon Ichi Software for the Sony Corporation’s PlayStation 2 console in 2003 under the title Netherworld Battle Chronicle: Disgaea. The game was released in the United States the same year under the title Disgaea: The Hour of

  • Disgaea: The Hour of Darkness (electronic game)

    Disgaea, electronic game released by the Japanese video-game company Nippon Ichi Software for the Sony Corporation’s PlayStation 2 console in 2003 under the title Netherworld Battle Chronicle: Disgaea. The game was released in the United States the same year under the title Disgaea: The Hour of

  • disgorging (wine making)

    champagne: …removed in a process called dégorgement. In this process, the cork is carefully pried off, allowing the internal pressure in the bottle to shoot the sediment out; this is sometimes done after the neck of the bottle and the deposits have been frozen. After dégorgement, a small amount of syrup…

  • Disgrace (novel by Coetzee)

    J.M. Coetzee: In 1999, with his novel Disgrace, Coetzee became the first writer to win the Booker Prize twice. After the novel’s publication and an outcry in South Africa, he moved to Australia, where he was granted citizenship in 2006.

  • disguised unemployment (economics)

    economic development: Surplus resources and disguised unemployment: Two theories emphasized the existence of surplus resources in developing countries as the central challenge for economic policy. The first concentrated on the countries with relatively abundant natural resources and low population densities and argued that a considerable amount of both surplus land…

  • disguising (architecture)

    architecture: Expression of technique: …materials and methods have been disguised by decorative forms or surfacing such as veneers, stucco, or paint, because of emphasis on the expression of content or of form. Most early stone architecture in Egypt, Greece, and India retained as decoration the forms developed in wooden forerunners. The precious marble of…

  • disguising (drama)

    Mumming play, traditional dramatic entertainment, still performed in a few villages in England and Northern Ireland, in which a champion is killed in a fight and is then brought to life by a doctor. It is thought likely that the play has links with primitive ceremonies held to mark important stages

  • disgust (emotion)
  • dish (cookery)
  • dish (electronics)

    radar: Antennas: …of radar antenna is the parabolic reflector, the principle of which is shown in cross section in part A of the figure. A horn antenna (not shown) or other small antenna is placed at the focus of the parabola to illuminate the parabolic surface of the reflector. After being reflected…

  • dish antenna (electronics)

    radar: Antennas: …of radar antenna is the parabolic reflector, the principle of which is shown in cross section in part A of the figure. A horn antenna (not shown) or other small antenna is placed at the focus of the parabola to illuminate the parabolic surface of the reflector. After being reflected…

  • dishdasha (garment)

    dress: The Middle East from the 6th century: …the Arab world is the jellaba, known as the jellabah in Tunisia, a jubbeh in Syria, a gallibiya in Egypt, or a dishdasha in Algeria. The garment generally has wide, long sleeves, and the long skirt may be slit up the sides; some styles are open in front like a…

  • dishdashah (garment)

    dress: The Middle East from the 6th century: …the Arab world is the jellaba, known as the jellabah in Tunisia, a jubbeh in Syria, a gallibiya in Egypt, or a dishdasha in Algeria. The garment generally has wide, long sleeves, and the long skirt may be slit up the sides; some styles are open in front like a…

  • Dishom Guru (Indian politician)

    Shibu Soren, Indian politician and government official who was a cofounder and then longtime president of the Jharkhand Mukti Morcha (JMM; Jharkhand Liberation Front). He also served three terms as the chief minister (head of government) of Jharkhand (2005; 2008–09; and 2009–10) state in

  • Dishonored (film by Sternberg [1931])

    Marlene Dietrich: …Sternberg vehicles that followed—Morocco (1930), Dishonored (1931), Shanghai Express (1932), Blonde Venus (1932), The Scarlet Empress (1934), and The Devil Is a Woman (1935). She showed a lighter side in Desire (1936), directed by Frank Borzage, and Destry Rides Again

  • Dishonored Lady (film by Stevenson [1947])

    Robert Stevenson: Early films: In the mystery Dishonored Lady (1947), Hedy Lamarr portrayed a magazine editor accused of murder. To the Ends of the Earth (1948), an especially good Dick Powell opus about the international opium trade, ranks with the best hard-boiled films of that time. Stevenson closed out the decade with…

  • disilicate (mineral)

    Phyllosilicate, compound with a structure in which silicate tetrahedrons (each consisting of a central silicon atom surrounded by four oxygen atoms at the corners of a tetrahedron) are arranged in sheets. Examples are talc and mica. Three of the oxygen atoms of each tetrahedron are shared with

  • disinfectant (cleaning agent)

    Disinfectant, any substance, such as creosote or alcohol, applied to inanimate objects to kill microorganisms. Disinfectants and antiseptics are alike in that both are germicidal, but antiseptics are applied primarily to living tissue. The ideal disinfectant would rapidly destroy bacteria, fungi,

  • disinfection (public health)

    antimicrobial agent: Antiseptics and germicides: …is most valuable in the disinfection of contaminated wounds or skin surfaces when there is a wide margin between its bactericidal and toxic concentrations. When, however, an antiseptic is to be used to disinfect contaminated instruments or other inanimate objects, its toxic properties are not important, and many compounds (called…

  • disinfection by-product (public health)

    water purification: Pretreatment: …result in the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs), such as trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids, chlorite, and bromate. Exposure to DBPs in drinking water can lead to health issues. Worries stem from the practice’s possible association with stomach and bladder cancer and the hazards of releasing chlorine into the

  • disinformation

    Propaganda, dissemination of information—facts, arguments, rumours, half-truths, or lies—to influence public opinion. Propaganda is the more or less systematic effort to manipulate other people’s beliefs, attitudes, or actions by means of symbols (words, gestures, banners, monuments, music,

  • disinheritance (law)

    inheritance: Limits on freedom of testation: …used to provide protection against disinheritance. Under the French system, a testator who is survived by descendants, parents, or (in some countries) brothers, sisters, or even other close relatives, cannot dispose at all of the “reserved portion” of his estate, the size of which depends upon the number and the…

  • Disinherited, The (work by Castillo)

    Michel del Castillo: … and Le Colleur d’affiches (1958; The Disinherited) deal with these two traumatic experiences. They show the disarray of a young mind prematurely falling prey to political skepticism and religious doubt, without losing faith in humankind. Both novels reflect his anguish at social injustice and his need for solace in fellowship…

  • disintegration

    Radioactivity, property exhibited by certain types of matter of emitting energy and subatomic particles spontaneously. It is, in essence, an attribute of individual atomic nuclei. An unstable nucleus will decompose spontaneously, or decay, into a more stable configuration but will do so only in a

  • disintegration constant (nuclear physics)

    Decay constant, proportionality between the size of a population of radioactive atoms and the rate at which the population decreases because of radioactive decay. Suppose N is the size of a population of radioactive atoms at a given time t, and dN is the amount by which the population decreases in

  • disintegration energy (nuclear physics)

    radiation measurement: Modes of operation: …a certain amount of charge Q as a result of depositing its energy in the detector material. For example, in a gas, Q represents the total positive charge carried by the many positive ions that are produced along the track of the particle. (An equal charge of opposite sign is…

  • disintegration, nuclear

    Radioactivity, property exhibited by certain types of matter of emitting energy and subatomic particles spontaneously. It is, in essence, an attribute of individual atomic nuclei. An unstable nucleus will decompose spontaneously, or decay, into a more stable configuration but will do so only in a

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