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  • Diégo-Suarez (Madagascar)

    Antsiran?ana, town at the northern tip of Madagascar. Antsiran?ana, which is situated on a promontory at the south end of a bay, developed from a French naval base. The local economy still depends on the naval yards and on the transshipment of cargoes between coasters and larger vessels. The town’s

  • Diegodendron humbertii (plant)

    Malvales: Bixaceae: … consists of a single species, D. humbertii, which is an evergreen tree that grows on Madagascar. The leaves are borne in two ranks on the stem and have pellucid dots; the stipules are large and encircle the stem. The style comes from the bottom of the ovary, and the fruit…

  • Diegue?o (people)

    Diegue?o, a group of Yuman-speaking North American Indians who originally inhabited large areas extending on both sides of what is now the U.S.–Mexican border in California and Baja California. They were named after the mission of San Diego. Traditional Diegue?o culture reflected similarities with

  • Diehl, Geoff (American politician)

    Elizabeth Warren: Geoff Diehl, who had been a cochair of Trump’s 2016 presidential campaign in Massachusetts, and independent Shiva Ayyadurai. Warren then became the first major figure to enter the field for the Democratic presidential nomination in 2020 when she announced her candidacy at the end of…

  • diel rhythm (biology)

    Circadian rhythm, the cyclical 24-hour period of human biological activity. Within the circadian (24-hour) cycle, a person usually sleeps approximately 8 hours and is awake 16. During the wakeful hours, mental and physical functions are most active and tissue cell growth increases. During sleep,

  • Dielasma (fossil brachiopod genus)

    Dielasma, genus of extinct brachiopods, or lamp shells, that occur as fossils in rocks deposited in marine environments of Carboniferous to Permian age (between 359 million and 251 million years old). The two small, rather smooth valves of the shell of Dielasma are slightly convex in profile, but

  • dieldrin (chemical compound)

    Dieldrin, chlorine-containing organic compound used as an insecticide; see

  • Diele (East Friesland architecture)

    East Friesland: …steeply sloping roof shelters the Diele, a large central threshing floor, and the living quarters and stables are grouped around it. The Diele is entered at the gable end of the building.

  • dielectric (physics)

    Dielectric, insulating material or a very poor conductor of electric current. When dielectrics are placed in an electric field, practically no current flows in them because, unlike metals, they have no loosely bound, or free, electrons that may drift through the material. Instead, electric

  • dielectric constant (physics)

    Dielectric constant, property of an electrical insulating material (a dielectric) equal to the ratio of the capacitance of a capacitor filled with the given material to the capacitance of an identical capacitor in a vacuum without the dielectric material. The insertion of a dielectric between the

  • dielectric heating (physics)

    Dielectric heating, method by which the temperature of an electrically nonconducting (insulating) material can be raised by subjecting the material to a high-frequency electromagnetic field. The method is widely employed industrially for heating thermosetting glues, for drying lumber and other

  • dielectric loss (physics)

    Dielectric loss, loss of energy that goes into heating a dielectric material in a varying electric field. For example, a capacitor incorporated in an alternating-current circuit is alternately charged and discharged each half cycle. During the alternation of polarity of the plates, the charges must

  • dielectric polarization (physics)

    liquid: Speed of sound and electric properties: …negligible conductivities, but they are polarized by an electric field; that is, the liquid develops positive and negative poles and also a dipole moment (which is the product of the pole strength and the distance between the poles) that is oriented against the field, from which the liquid acquires energy.…

  • dielectric relaxation (chemistry)

    relaxation phenomenon: Historical survey: …an alternating electric field as dielectric relaxation. Sound absorption by gases was used to investigate energy transfer from translational (or displacement in space) to rotational (spinning and tumbling) and vibrational (oscillations within the molecule) degrees of freedom, the three independent forms of motion for a molecule. The former requires only…

  • Diels, Hermann (German scholar)

    classical scholarship: Developments in the study of ancient history and philosophy: Later Hermann Diels (1848–1922) collected the fragments of pre-Socratic philosophers and of the so-called doxographers who preserved much of the evidence for our knowledge of ancient philosophy. The texts relevant to Epicureanism were edited by Hermann Usener (1834–1905), who employed the new methodology of comparative religion…

  • Diels, Otto Paul Hermann (German chemist)

    Otto Paul Hermann Diels, German organic chemist who with Kurt Alder was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1950 for their joint work in developing a method of preparing cyclic organic compounds. Diels studied chemistry at the University of Berlin under Emil Fischer and after various

  • Diels-Alder diene reaction (chemical reaction)

    butadiene: …maleic anhydride, butadiene undergoes the Diels-Alder reaction, forming cyclohexene derivatives. Butadiene is attacked by the numerous substances that react with ordinary olefins, but the reactions often involve both double bonds (e.g., addition of chlorine yields both 3,4-dichloro-1-butene and 1,4-dichloro-2-butene).

  • Diels-Alder reaction (chemical reaction)

    butadiene: …maleic anhydride, butadiene undergoes the Diels-Alder reaction, forming cyclohexene derivatives. Butadiene is attacked by the numerous substances that react with ordinary olefins, but the reactions often involve both double bonds (e.g., addition of chlorine yields both 3,4-dichloro-1-butene and 1,4-dichloro-2-butene).

  • Diem, Mike van (Dutch director and writer)
  • Diem, Ngo Dinh (Vietnamese political leader)

    Ngo Dinh Diem, Vietnamese political leader who served as president, with dictatorial powers, of what was then South Vietnam, from 1955 until his assassination. Diem was born into one of the noble families of Vietnam. His ancestors in the 17th century had been among the first Vietnamese converts to

  • Diemen, Anthony van (Dutch colonial administrator)

    Anthony van Diemen, colonial administrator who as governor-general of the Dutch East Indian settlements (1636–45) consolidated the Dutch interests in Southeast Asia. After an unsuccessful business career in Amsterdam, van Diemen joined the Dutch East India Company, serving in Batavia (now Jakarta,

  • Diémer, Louis-Joseph (French pianist)

    Louis-Joseph Diémer, French pianist and teacher who was one of the first advocates of early keyboard music and instruments. He was a student at the Paris Conservatoire from 1855 to 1861, and from 1863 he performed regularly, playing at the Alard, Pasdeloup, Colonne, Lamoureux, and Conservatoire

  • Diemer, Walter E. (American entrepreneur)

    Walter E. Diemer, American businessman who was working as an accountant for the Fleer Chewing Gum Co. when in 1928 he accidentally invented bubble gum while experimenting during his spare time with recipes for a chewing gum base; he later became senior vice president of Fleer (b. 1904?--d. Jan. 8,

  • Diemerbroeck, Isbrand van (Dutch biologist)

    death: Descartes, the pineal soul, and brain-stem death: …Anatome Corporis Humani (1672) of Isbrand van Diemerbroeck, professor at Utrecht, appears to have been the last textbook of anatomy that discussed the soul within a routine description of human parts. Thereafter, the soul disappeared from the scope of anatomy.

  • Dien Bien Phu, Battle of (Vietnamese history)

    Battle of Dien Bien Phu, the decisive engagement in the First Indochina War (1946–54). It consisted of a struggle between French and Viet Minh (Vietnamese Communist and nationalist) forces for control of a small mountain outpost on the Vietnamese border near Laos. The Viet Minh victory in this

  • Dien Cai Dau (book by Komunyakaa)

    Yusef Komunyakaa: …Komunyakaa with the publication of Dien Cai Dau in 1988. The poems in that collection were his first to directly address his experiences in Vietnam. The book’s title, which means “crazy” in Vietnamese, was the description applied to American soldiers by the Vietnamese during the war. He wrote of the…

  • diencephalon (anatomy)

    human nervous system: Brainstem: …collectively referred to as the diencephalon. These structures are the epithalamus, the thalamus, the hypothalamus, and the subthalamus. Directly beneath the diencephalon is the midbrain, or mesencephalon, and beneath the midbrain are the pons and medulla oblongata, often referred to as the hindbrain.

  • diene (chemical compound)

    hydrocarbon: Nomenclature of alkenes and alkynes: …double bonds are classified as dienes, those with three as trienes, and so forth. Dienes are named by replacing the -ane suffix of the corresponding alkane by -adiene and identifying the positions of the double bonds by numerical locants. Dienes are classified as cumulated, conjugated, or isolated according to whether…

  • diene synthesis (chemical reaction)

    butadiene: …maleic anhydride, butadiene undergoes the Diels-Alder reaction, forming cyclohexene derivatives. Butadiene is attacked by the numerous substances that react with ordinary olefins, but the reactions often involve both double bonds (e.g., addition of chlorine yields both 3,4-dichloro-1-butene and 1,4-dichloro-2-butene).

  • Diener, Ed (American psychologist)

    deindividuation: The role of accountability: The American psychologist Ed Diener provided a theoretical clarification of Zimbardo’s theory by introducing the concept of objective self-awareness. According to Diener, objective self-awareness is high when attention is drawn inward toward the self and people actively monitor their own behaviour; it is low when focus is directed…

  • Dienes Valéria (Hungarian dancer, teacher, and choreographer)

    Valéria Dienes, dancer, teacher, and choreographer, considered the most important exponent of the Hungarian tradition in movement art. In 1905 she received a Ph.D. in philosophy, mathematics, and aesthetics, and not long afterward she married the mathematician Pál Dienes. Her interests soon turned

  • Dienes, Valéria (Hungarian dancer, teacher, and choreographer)

    Valéria Dienes, dancer, teacher, and choreographer, considered the most important exponent of the Hungarian tradition in movement art. In 1905 she received a Ph.D. in philosophy, mathematics, and aesthetics, and not long afterward she married the mathematician Pál Dienes. Her interests soon turned

  • Dienné (Mali)

    Djenné, ancient trading city and centre of Muslim scholarship, southern Mali. It is situated on the Bani River and on floodlands between the Bani and Niger rivers, 220 miles (354 km) southwest of Timbuktu. The city, which sits on hillocks (small hills) known as toguère, becomes an island during the

  • Dienstbier, Jiri (Czech journalist, dissident, and politician)

    Jiri Dienstbier, Czech journalist, dissident, and politician (born April 20, 1937, Kladno, Czech. [now in Czech Republic]—died Jan. 8, 2011, Prague, Cz.Rep.), was a signatory of Charter 77 (a petition by intellectuals in January 1977 urging Czechoslovakia’s government to observe human rights as

  • Diente del Parnaso (poem by Caviedes)

    Latin American literature: The Barroco de Indias: His most important work was Diente del Parnaso (“The Tooth of Parnassus”), a collection of 47 poems not published until 1873. These are given over to ridiculing the hapless doctors of Lima, who killed more often than they cured. Caviedes, as did other poets of the Barroco de Indias, found…

  • Dientzenhofer, Christoph (German architect)

    Christoph Dientzenhofer, German architect who was a leading builder in the Bohemian Baroque style. Dientzenhofer was a member of a large family of German architects and father of Kilian Ignaz Dientzenhofer. The two worked together on the Church of St. Nicholas (1703–11, 1732–52) and the B?evnov

  • Dientzenhofer, Kilian Ignaz (German architect)

    Kilian Ignaz Dientzenhofer, German architect who was one of the leading Bohemian Baroque builders. Dientzenhofer was the son of architect Christoph Dientzenhofer, with whom he worked professionally. Among Dientzenhofer’s individual works are the church of St. Thomas (1725–31; a Gothic structure

  • Dieppe (France)

    Dieppe, town and seaport, northern France, Seine-Maritime département, Normandy région, on the English Channel, north of Rouen and northwest of Paris. It stands at the mouth of the Arques River in a valley bordered on each side by steep white cliffs. In the old town many houses date back to the

  • Dieppe raid (French history)

    Dieppe: The Allies landed in Dieppe in August 1942 and suffered serious losses in a test of German defenses near port facilities.

  • Dierdorf, Dan (American football player)

    Arizona Cardinals: …Hall of Famers, offensive lineman Dan Dierdorf and tight end Jackie Smith, won 10 games and made the first of two consecutive trips to the play-offs, where they lost each time. The Cardinals returned to the play-offs again during the strike-shortened 1982 season, but a general lack of fan support—combined…

  • dieresis (prosody)

    Diaeresis, (from Greek diairein, “to divide”), the resolution of one syllable into two, especially by separating the vowel elements of a diphthong and, by extension, two adjacent vowels. It is also the mark placed over a vowel to indicate that it is pronounced as a separate syllable. (For example,

  • Diergaarde Blijdorp (zoo, Rotterdam, Netherlands)

    Royal Rotterdam Zoological Garden Foundation, zoological garden in Rotterdam, Neth., that was opened in 1887 by a private zoological society. It was essentially the outgrowth of the private collection of two railway workers who kept exotic animals as a hobby. Because of the need for additional

  • Diergaarde voor kinderen van nu (work by Ostaijen)

    Paul van Ostaijen: …in Vogelvrij (1927; “Outlawed”) and Diergaarde voor kinderen van nu (1932; “Zoo for Today’s Children”), consists mainly of grotesque sketches that demonstrate his keen imagination. Its lucidity, stubborn analysis of a theme, and underlying restlessness sometimes recall the prose of the Austrian writer Franz Kafka. Not surprisingly, van Ostaijen had…

  • Diervilla (plant)

    Bush honeysuckle, (genus Diervilla), genus of three species of low shrubs belonging to the family Caprifoliaceae (formerly Diervillaceae), native to eastern North America. They are frequently confused with the closely related Tatarian honeysuckle (Lonicera tatarica) and other cultivated members of

  • Diervilla (plant clade)

    Dipsacales: Diervilla clade: The Diervilla clade contains 16 species in two genera—Diervilla, with North American species, and Weigela, with East Asian species. Many of these are cultivated as ornamental shrubs in temperate areas for their colourful flowers.

  • Diervilla lonicera (plant)

    bush honeysuckle: The northern bush honeysuckle (D. lonicera) and the mountain bush honeysuckle (D. rivularis) are similar except for the smaller size and more-pointed leaves of D. lonicera. The southern bush honeysuckle (D. sessilifolia) has stalkless leaves and angled branches.

  • Diervilla rivularis (plant)

    bush honeysuckle: lonicera) and the mountain bush honeysuckle (D. rivularis) are similar except for the smaller size and more-pointed leaves of D. lonicera. The southern bush honeysuckle (D. sessilifolia) has stalkless leaves and angled branches.

  • Diervilla sessilifolia (plant)

    bush honeysuckle: The southern bush honeysuckle (D. sessilifolia) has stalkless leaves and angled branches.

  • Dies Committee (United States history)

    House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC), committee of the U.S. House of Representatives, established in 1938 under Martin Dies as chairman, that conducted investigations through the 1940s and ’50s into alleged communist activities. Those investigated included many artists and entertainers,

  • Dies irae (hymn)

    Dies irae, (Latin: “Day of Wrath”), the opening words of a Latin hymn on the Last Judgment, ascribed to Thomas of Celano (d. c. 1256) and once forming part of the office for the dead and requiem mass. The hymn ascribed to Thomas of Celano contains 18 rhymed stanzas (17 tercets, 1 quatrain), to

  • Dies, Martin, Jr. (American politician)

    Martin Dies, Jr., American politician, the sponsor and first chairman (1938–45) of the House Committee on Un-American Activities. A graduate of the University of Texas (1919) and the law school of National University in Washington, D.C. (1920), Dies opened a law practice in Texas but quickly turned

  • diesel (railroad locomotive)

    railroad: Diesel-electric locomotion and electronic systems: …far-reaching was the perfection of diesel traction as a more efficient alternative to steam and as a more cost-effective option than electrification where train movements were not intensive. Another was the move from mechanical signaling and telephonic traffic-control methods to electrical systems that enabled centralized control of considerable traffic areas.…

  • diesel engine

    Diesel engine, any internal-combustion engine in which air is compressed to a sufficiently high temperature to ignite diesel fuel injected into the cylinder, where combustion and expansion actuate a piston. It converts the chemical energy stored in the fuel into mechanical energy, which can be used

  • diesel fuel

    Diesel fuel, combustible liquid used as fuel for diesel engines, ordinarily obtained from fractions of crude oil that are less volatile than the fractions used in gasoline. In diesel engines the fuel is ignited not by a spark, as in gasoline engines, but by the heat of air compressed in the

  • diesel oil

    Diesel fuel, combustible liquid used as fuel for diesel engines, ordinarily obtained from fractions of crude oil that are less volatile than the fractions used in gasoline. In diesel engines the fuel is ignited not by a spark, as in gasoline engines, but by the heat of air compressed in the

  • Diesel, Rudolf (French-German engineer)

    Rudolf Diesel, German thermal engineer who invented the internal-combustion engine that bears his name. He was also a distinguished connoisseur of the arts, a linguist, and a social theorist. Diesel, the son of German-born parents, grew up in Paris until the family was deported to England in 1870

  • Diesel, Rudolf Christian Karl (French-German engineer)

    Rudolf Diesel, German thermal engineer who invented the internal-combustion engine that bears his name. He was also a distinguished connoisseur of the arts, a linguist, and a social theorist. Diesel, the son of German-born parents, grew up in Paris until the family was deported to England in 1870

  • Diesel, Vin (American actor and producer)

    Vin Diesel, American actor and producer who was best known for his action films, most notably The Fast and Furious series. Sinclair grew up in New York City with his mother, fraternal twin brother, and African American stepfather, Irving Vincent, a theatre manager who provided him with some of his

  • diesinking (metallurgy)

    Diesinking, process of machining a cavity in a steel block to be used for molding plastics, or for hot and cold forging, die-casting, and coining. The die block is mounted on a table while a vertical-spindle milling machine with end cutters is used to shape the die. In most simple machines the

  • Diespiter (Roman god)

    Jupiter, the chief ancient Roman and Italian god. Like Zeus, the Greek god with whom he is etymologically identical (root diu, “bright”), Jupiter was a sky god. One of his most ancient epithets is Lucetius (“Light-Bringer”); and later literature has preserved the same idea in such phrases as sub

  • diestrus (reproductive cycle)

    dog: Reproductive cycle: …begins; this stage is called diestrus. The discharge becomes redder, the vulva returns to its normal size, and the bitch will no longer accept the male for mating. When all signs of discharge and swelling are absent, the heat is complete. The diestrus stage lasts 60 to 90 days (if…

  • diet (nutrition)

    human disease: Classifications of diseases: …it clear, for example, that diet is an important consideration in the possible causation of atherosclerosis. The statistical analyses drew attention to the role of high levels of fats and carbohydrates in the diet in the possible causation of atherosclerosis. The analyses further drew attention to the fact that certain…

  • Diet (German government)

    Diet, legislature of the German empire, or Holy Roman Empire, from the 12th century to 1806. In the Carolingian empire, meetings of the nobility and higher clergy were held during the royal progresses, or court journeys, as occasion arose, to make decisions affecting the good of the state. After

  • Diet (Japanese government)

    Diet, the national legislature of Japan. Under the Meiji Constitution of 1889, the Imperial Diet was established on the basis of two houses with coequal powers. The upper house, the House of Peers (Kizokuin), was almost wholly appointive. Initially, its membership was slightly less than 300, but it

  • Diet (Swedish government)

    Sweden: The 18th century: …Eleonora had to convene the Diet in order to be elected. In 1720 she abdicated in favour of her husband, Frederick of Hessen (ruled 1720–51).

  • diet beer (alcoholic beverage)

    beer: Types of beer: Diet beers or light beers are fully fermented, low-carbohydrate beers in which enzymes are used to convert normally unfermentable (and high-calorie) carbohydrates to fermentable form. In low-alcohol beers (0.5 to 2.0 percent alcohol) and “alcohol-free” beers (less than 0.1 percent alcohol), alcohol is removed after fermentation by low-temperature…

  • Diet Coca-Cola (beverage)

    The Coca-Cola Company: …its low-calorie sugar-free soft drink Diet Coke (originally named Diet Coca-Cola). In an effort to address its decline in market share, the company adopted a new flavour of Coca-Cola in April 1985, using a formula it developed through taste tests. New Coke was not well received, however. Owing to the…

  • Diet Coke (beverage)

    The Coca-Cola Company: …its low-calorie sugar-free soft drink Diet Coke (originally named Diet Coca-Cola). In an effort to address its decline in market share, the company adopted a new flavour of Coca-Cola in April 1985, using a formula it developed through taste tests. New Coke was not well received, however. Owing to the…

  • Diet of Worms (Germany [1521])

    Diet of Worms, meeting of the Diet (assembly) of the Holy Roman Empire held at Worms, Germany, in 1521, made famous by Martin Luther’s appearance before it to respond to charges of heresy. Because of the confused political and religious situation of the time, Luther was called before the political

  • diet, therapeutic (nutrition)

    history of medicine: India: Dietetic treatment was important and preceded any medicinal treatment. Fats were much used, internally and externally. The most important methods of active treatment were referred to as the “five procedures”: the administration of emetics, purgatives, water enemas, oil enemas, and sneezing powders. Inhalations were frequently…

  • diet-induced thermogenesis (physiology)

    human nutrition: BMR and REE: energy balance: This phenomenon, known as the thermic effect of food (or diet-induced thermogenesis), accounts for about 10 percent of daily energy expenditure, varying somewhat with the composition of the diet and prior dietary practices. Adaptive thermogenesis, another small but important component of energy expenditure, reflects alterations in metabolism due to changes…

  • Dieta (German government)

    Diet, legislature of the German empire, or Holy Roman Empire, from the 12th century to 1806. In the Carolingian empire, meetings of the nobility and higher clergy were held during the royal progresses, or court journeys, as occasion arose, to make decisions affecting the good of the state. After

  • dietary guideline (nutrition)

    human nutrition: Dietary guidelines: Following the publication of dietary goals for the Nordic countries in 1968 and for the United States in 1977, dietary goals and guidelines have been set forth by a number of countries and revised periodically as a way of translating scientific recommendations into…

  • dietary law (religion)

    Dietary law, any of the rules and customs concerning what may or may not be eaten under particular conditions. These prescriptions and proscriptions are sometimes religious, often they are secular, and frequently they are both. This article surveys the variety of laws and customs pertaining to food

  • Dietary Reference Intake

    human nutrition: Dietary Reference Intakes: During the 1990s a paradigm shift took place as scientists from the United States and Canada joined forces in an ambitious multiyear project to reframe dietary standards for the two countries. In the revised approach, known as the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs),…

  • dietary supplement

    Dietary supplement, any vitamin, mineral, herbal product, or other ingestible preparation that is added to the diet to benefit health. Dietary supplements are used worldwide and represent a broad category of ingestible products that are distinguishable from conventional foods and drugs. In the

  • Dietenberger, Johann (German Bible editor)

    biblical literature: German versions: Johann Dietenberger issued a revision of Emser (Mainz, 1534) and used Luther’s Old Testament in conjunction with an Anabaptist (radical Protestant group) version and the Zürich version of 1529. It became the standard Catholic version. Of the 20th-century translations, the Grünewald Bible, which reached a…

  • Dieterle, Wilhelm (German-born film director)

    William Dieterle, German-born filmmaker who directed a diverse range of movies but was perhaps best known for a series of acclaimed biopics, one of which won the Warner Brothers studio its first-ever Academy Award for best picture. Dieterle was born into a poor family, the youngest of nine

  • Dieterle, William (German-born film director)

    William Dieterle, German-born filmmaker who directed a diverse range of movies but was perhaps best known for a series of acclaimed biopics, one of which won the Warner Brothers studio its first-ever Academy Award for best picture. Dieterle was born into a poor family, the youngest of nine

  • diethyl ether (chemical compound)

    Ethyl ether, well-known anesthetic, commonly called simply ether, an organic compound belonging to a large group of compounds called ethers; its molecular structure consists of two ethyl groups linked through an oxygen atom, as in C2H5OC2H5. Ethyl ether is a colourless, volatile, highly flammable

  • diethyl malonate (chemical compound)

    carboxylic acid: Polycarboxylic acids: ester, CH2(COOCH2CH3)2, called diethyl malonate. This compound is used in a synthetic process to produce a variety of monosubstituted and disubstituted derivatives of acetic acid.

  • diethyl sulfate (chemical compound)

    organosulfur compound: Other sulfinyl and sulfonyl compounds: as dimethyl sulfate, MeOSO2OMe, and diethyl sulfate, EtOSO2OEt, made from the alcohols methanol and ethanol, respectively, as well as sulfur trioxide/sulfuric acid—are important industrial chemicals used to introduce methyl (Me) and ethyl (Et) groups into organic molecules. Both dimethyl and diethyl sulfate are highly toxic. Esters of sulfurous acid known…

  • diethylamine (chemical compound)

    heterocyclic compound: Comparison with carbocyclic compounds: …with the corresponding acyclic amine, diethylamine, which is represented by the formula:

  • diethylcarbamazine (drug)

    Diethylcarbamazine, synthetic anthelmintic drug effective against certain parasitic filarial worms, which are endemic throughout most of the subtropical and tropical regions of the world. These parasites infect the blood and lymph channels in humans, causing the debilitating disease filariasis.

  • diethylstilbestrol (hormone)

    Diethylstilbestrol (DES), nonsteroidal synthethic estrogen used as a drug and formerly used to promote growth of livestock. Unlike natural estrogens, DES remains active following oral administration. It is also administered as vaginal suppositories and by injection. DES breaks down more slowly in

  • diethylzinc (chemical compound)

    organometallic compound: Historical developments: Frankland of diethylzinc, H5C2―Zn―C2H5, which he showed is very useful in organic synthesis. Since then, an ever-increasing variety of organometallic compounds have been utilized in organic synthesis in both the laboratory and industry.

  • dieting (nutrition)

    Dieting, regulating one’s food intake for the purpose of improving one’s physical condition, especially for the purpose of reducing obesity, or what is conceived to be excess body fat. Dieting plans are based on the reduction of any of the macronutrients (fats, carbohydrates, and proteins) that

  • Dietland (American television series)

    Julianna Margulies: …magazine editor in the series Dietland; the show was canceled after one season. She then starred in the miniseries The Hot Zone (2019), about an ebola crisis in the United States in 1989.

  • Dietmar (German bishop)

    Thietmar, bishop of Merseburg and chronicler whose history of the three Ottos and Henry II, Saxon kings of Germany and Holy Roman emperors, is an important medieval Saxon document. The son of John Siegfried, Graf von Walbeck, and a relative of the royal house, Thietmar spent his youth in Magdeburg,

  • dietotheraphy (medicine)

    Unani medicine: Modes of treatment: Ilaj-bi-ghiza, or dietotherapy, involves recommending a specific diet, which is the simplest and most natural course of treatment by a hakim. For fever, for example, Unani medicine stresses a nutrient-rich, low-roughage diet that might include dalia (porridge) and kheer (a milk broth). Both the amount and quality…

  • Dietrich von Bern (German mythology)

    Dietrich von Bern, heroic figure of Germanic legend, apparently derived from Theodoric the Great, an Ostrogothic king of Italy who reigned from c. 493 to 526 ad. Dietrich’s exploits are related in a number of south German songs preserved in Das Heldenbuch (“The Heroes Book”)—including Dietrichs

  • Dietrich, Josef (German military officer)

    Josef Dietrich, German SS officer who commanded Adolf Hitler’s bodyguard and later led an SS panzer (armoured) army in World War II. A butcher’s apprentice, Dietrich joined the German army in 1911 and rose to the rank of sergeant during World War I. An early acquaintance of Hitler, he joined the

  • Dietrich, Marie Magdalene (German American actress)

    Marlene Dietrich, German American motion-picture actress whose beauty, voice, aura of sophistication, and languid sensuality made her one of the world’s most glamorous film stars. Dietrich’s father, Ludwig Dietrich, a Royal Prussian police officer, died when she was very young, and her mother

  • Dietrich, Marlene (German American actress)

    Marlene Dietrich, German American motion-picture actress whose beauty, voice, aura of sophistication, and languid sensuality made her one of the world’s most glamorous film stars. Dietrich’s father, Ludwig Dietrich, a Royal Prussian police officer, died when she was very young, and her mother

  • Dietrich, Paul-Henri (French philosopher)

    Paul-Henri Dietrich, baron d’Holbach, French encyclopaedist and philosopher, a celebrated exponent of atheism and Materialism, whose inherited wealth allowed him to entertain many of the noted philosophers of the day, some of whom (comte de Buffon, J.-J. Rousseau, d’Alembert) reportedly withdrew

  • Dietrich, Sepp (German military officer)

    Josef Dietrich, German SS officer who commanded Adolf Hitler’s bodyguard and later led an SS panzer (armoured) army in World War II. A butcher’s apprentice, Dietrich joined the German army in 1911 and rose to the rank of sergeant during World War I. An early acquaintance of Hitler, he joined the

  • Dietterlin, Wendel (German architect)

    Western architecture: Germany: …on the five orders by Wendel Dietterlin, entitled Architectura (1598), is filled with such Mannerist ornament. An architectural example is the Otto-Heinrichsbau added to the Gothic castle at Heidelberg (burned by the French in 1689). The three tall stories presented the usual verticality of northern architecture, but there was an…

  • Dietz, Ferdinand (German sculptor)

    Western sculpture: Central Europe: …in the area, but later Ferdinand Dietz at Bamberg pursued an increasingly individual Rococo style that often parodied the growing taste for Neoclassicism. Prussian Rococo sculpture was less distinguished, though the decorations of Johann August Nahl are among the most imaginative in Germany.

  • Dietz, Howard (American executive and songwriter)

    Howard Dietz, American motion-picture executive and songwriter. After graduating from Columbia University in 1917, Dietz joined the Philip Goodman Advertising Agency, where he was assigned to devise a trademark for Goldwyn Pictures. Dietz used Columbia’s lion mascot as an inspiration for the

  • Dietz, Robert S. (American geophysicist)

    Robert S. Dietz, American geophysicist and oceanographer who set forth a theory of seafloor spreading in 1961. Dietz was educated at the University of Illinois (B.S., 1937; M.S., 1939; Ph.D., 1941). After serving as an officer in the U.S. Army Air Corps during World War II, he became a civilian

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