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  • Deschamps, Eustache (French writer)

    Eustache Deschamps, poet and author of L’Art de dictier (1392), the first treatise on French versification. The son of middle-class parents, Deschamps was educated in Reims by the poet Guillaume de Machaut, who had a lasting influence on him. After law studies in Orléans, he held administrative and

  • Deschanel, Paul-Eugène-Louis (president of France)

    Paul Deschanel, French political figure who was an important parliamentary leader during the Third Republic and served as its 10th president (Feb. 17 to Sept. 20, 1920). Deschanel was a brilliant student of philosophy, law, and literature who chose to combine journalism and politics for a career.

  • Deschler, Joachim (German artist)

    medal: Germany and Austria: … (active 1525–54) and his follower Joachim Deschler (active 1540–69) were the principal medalists. Ludwig Neufahrer worked mainly in Nürnberg and the Austrian Habsburg domains, employed by Ferdinand I from 1545. The Italian expatriate medalist Abondio was called to Vienna and also appointed court medalist by Emperor Maximilian II in Prague…

  • Deschooling Society (work by Illich)

    Ivan Illich: In Deschooling Society (1971), his best-known and most influential book, Illich articulated his highly radical ideas about schooling and education. Drawing on his historical and philosophical training as well as his years of experience as an educator, Illich presented schools as places where consumerism and obedience…

  • descloizite (mineral)

    Descloizite, vanadate mineral containing lead, copper, and zinc that usually forms brownish red to blackish brown crusts of intergrown crystals or rounded fibrous masses; its physical appearance is varied, however, and specimens have been found in shades from orange-red to black and various

  • Desclos, Anne (French writer and translator)

    Dominique Aury, French writer and translator who was a respected member of the literary establishment but gained her greatest fame in 1994 when it was confirmed that she was the author, under the pseudonym Pauline Réage, of the sensational erotic best-seller Histoire d’O, published in 1954 and

  • Desclos, Anne (French writer and translator)

    Dominique Aury, French writer and translator who was a respected member of the literary establishment but gained her greatest fame in 1994 when it was confirmed that she was the author, under the pseudonym Pauline Réage, of the sensational erotic best-seller Histoire d’O, published in 1954 and

  • Desclot, Bernat (Spanish historian)

    Spanish literature: Prose: Bernat Desclot’s chronicle deals with the reign of Peter I the Great; though the account of Peter IV the Ceremonious is ascribed to Bernat Desclot, it was planned and revised by the King himself.

  • descort (literature)

    Descort, a synonym for lai, a medieval Proven?al lyric in which the stanzas are nonuniform. The term also refers to a poem in medieval Proven?al literature with stanzas in different languages. Derived from Old French and Old Proven?al, the word literally means “a quarrel” or

  • Descriptio Regni Japoniae (work by Varenius)

    Bernhardus Varenius: In 1649 he published Descriptio Regni Japoniae (“Description of the Kingdom of Japan”), which in addition to describing Japan included a Latin translation of an account of Siam (Thailand), possibly by the Dutch navigator Willem Corneliszoon Schouten, and excerpts from the Arab traveler and geographer Leo Africanus on religion…

  • description (Arabic poetic device)

    Arabic literature: Description: …from the outset: description (wa?f). Analysts of the earliest poetry chose to devote particular attention to the ways in which poets depicted animals and other aspects of nature and often indulged in complex patterns of imagery that likened attributes of one animal to those of another. The images of…

  • description (philosophy)

    formal logic: Definite descriptions: …known as Russell’s theory of descriptions—holds that “The ? is ψ” is to be understood as meaning that exactly one thing is ? and that thing is also ψ. In that case it can be expressed by a wff of LPC-with-identity that contains no description operators—namely, (1) (?x)[?x · (?y)(?y…

  • Description de l’Egypte (publication by Fourier)

    ancient Egypt: The recovery and study of ancient Egypt: …country, issuing in 1809–28 the Description de l’égypte, the most comprehensive study to be made before the decipherment of the hieroglyphic script. The renowned Rosetta Stone, which bears a decree of Ptolemy V Epiphanes in hieroglyphs, demotic script, and Greek alphabetic characters, was discovered during the expedition; it was ceded…

  • Description de la Louisiane (work by Hennepin)

    Louis Hennepin: …full account of his exploits, Description de la Louisiane (1683), later revised as Nouvelle découverte d’un très grand pays situé dans l’Amérique (1697; “New Discovery of a Very Large Country Situated in America”), in which he claimed to have explored the Mississippi to its mouth. This bold assumption was, however,…

  • Description du corps humain, La (work by Descartes)

    death: Descartes, the pineal soul, and brain-stem death: In “La Description du corps humain” (1664) he wrote that “although movements cease in the body when it is dead and the soul departs, one cannot deduce from these facts that the soul produced the movements.” In a formulation of really modern tenor, he then added…

  • Description of a Good Wife (work by Brathwait)

    etiquette: …Brathwaite’s The English Gentleman and Description of a Good Wife—arrived in colonial America with passengers of the “Mayflower.” These British imports were soon followed by such indigenous products as the manual for parents entitled School of Good Manners (attributed to Eleazar Moody, 1715).

  • Description of a Struggle (work by Kafka)

    Franz Kafka: Works: …early works by Kafka as Description of a Struggle (begun about 1904) and Meditation, though their style is more concretely imaged and their structure more incoherent than that of the later works, are already original in a characteristic way. The characters in these works fail to establish communication with others,…

  • Description of Greece (work by Pausanias)

    Pausanias: …geographer whose Periegesis Hellados (Description of Greece) is an invaluable guide to ancient ruins.

  • Description of New England, A (work by Smith)

    John Smith: Among his books are A Description of New England (1616), a counterpart to his Map of Virginia with a Description of the Country (1612); The Generall Historie of Virginia, New England, and the Summer Isles (1624); and The True Travels, Adventures, and Observations of Captain John Smith in Europe,…

  • Description of the Kingdom of Japan (work by Varenius)

    Bernhardus Varenius: In 1649 he published Descriptio Regni Japoniae (“Description of the Kingdom of Japan”), which in addition to describing Japan included a Latin translation of an account of Siam (Thailand), possibly by the Dutch navigator Willem Corneliszoon Schouten, and excerpts from the Arab traveler and geographer Leo Africanus on religion…

  • Description of the Marvelous Canon of Logarithms (work by Napier)

    John Napier: Contribution to mathematics: …are contained in two treatises: Mirifici Logarithmorum Canonis Descriptio (Description of the Marvelous Canon of Logarithms), which was published in 1614, and Mirifici Logarithmorum Canonis Constructio (Construction of the Marvelous Canon of Logarithms), which was published two years after his death. In the former, he outlined the steps that had…

  • Description of the Sea-coast and Islands of Scotland, With Large and Exact Maps, for the Use of Seamen (work by Adair)

    John Adair: …the first part of his Description of the Sea-coast and Islands of Scotland, With Large and Exact Maps, for the Use of Seamen. The second part was never printed. Judging from his scrupulous delineations, Adair’s search for perfection may have delayed completion of his work, but he was also hampered…

  • description operator (logic)

    formal logic: Definite descriptions: …and (ιx), known as a description operator, can be thought of as forming a name of an individual out of a proposition form. (ιx) is analogous to a quantifier in that, when prefixed to a wff α, it binds every free occurrence of x in α. Relettering of bound variables…

  • description, knowledge by (philosophy)

    epistemology: St. Anselm of Canterbury: Knowledge by description is possible using concepts formed on the basis of sensation. Thus, all knowledge of God depends upon the description that he is “the thing than which a greater cannot be conceived.” From that premise Anselm infers, in his ontological argument for the…

  • descriptions, theory of (philosophy)

    philosophy of language: Russell’s theory of descriptions: The power of Frege’s logic to dispel philosophical problems was immediately recognized. Consider, for instance, the hoary problem of “non-being.” In the novel Through the Looking-Glass by Lewis Carroll, the messenger says he passed nobody on the road, and he is met…

  • descriptive bibliography

    bibliography: Descriptive bibliography: The primary purpose of descriptive bibliography is to organize detailed information culled from a mass of materials in a systematic way so that others can have access to useful information. In the earliest bibliographies, the organizing principle was simply that of compiling all…

  • descriptive cataloging (library science)

    information processing: Description and content analysis of analog-form records: Descriptive cataloging is the extraction of bibliographic elements (author names, title, publisher, date of publication, etc.) from each item; the assignment of subject categories or headings to such items is termed subject cataloging.

  • descriptive ethics (philosophy)

    Comparative ethics, the empirical (observational) study of the moral beliefs and practices of different peoples and cultures in various places and times. It aims not only to elaborate such beliefs and practices but also to understand them insofar as they are causally conditioned by social, e

  • descriptive geometry (mathematics)

    mathematics: Projective geometry: …syllabus that promoted his own descriptive geometry, which was useful in the design of forts, gun emplacements, and machines and which was employed to great effect in the Napoleonic survey of Egyptian historical sites.

  • descriptive grammar (linguistics)

    grammar: Conceptions of grammar: … provide rules for correct usage), descriptive (i.e., describe how a language is actually used), or generative (i.e., provide instructions for the production of an infinite number of sentences in a language). The traditional focus of inquiry has been on morphology and syntax, and for some contemporary linguists (and many traditional…

  • descriptive mode (literature)

    nonfictional prose: The descriptive mode: In nonfictional prose, essayists, moralists, naturalists, and others regularly evoked nature scenes. The most sumptuous masters of prose composed landscapes as elaborately as landscape painters. The French writer and statesman Chateaubriand (1768–1848), for example, who was not outstandingly successful in inventing plots or…

  • descriptive modeling (computer science)

    data mining: Descriptive modeling: Descriptive modeling, or clustering, also divides data into groups. With clustering, however, the proper groups are not known in advance; the patterns discovered by analyzing the data are used to determine the groups. For example, an advertiser could analyze a general population in…

  • descriptive phonology (linguistics)

    phonology: Synchronic (descriptive) phonology investigates sounds at a single stage in the development of a language, to discover the sound patterns that can occur. For example, in English, nt and dm can appear within or at the end of words (“rent,” “admit”) but not at the…

  • Descriptive Sociology (work by Spencer)

    Herbert Spencer: Life and works: …a series of works called Descriptive Sociology, in which information was provided about the social institutions of various societies, both “primitive” and “civilized.” The series was interrupted in 1881 because of a lack of public support. Spencer was a friend and adviser of Beatrice Potter, later Beatrice Webb, the social…

  • descriptive statistics

    statistics: Descriptive statistics: Descriptive statistics are tabular, graphical, and numerical summaries of data. The purpose of descriptive statistics is to facilitate the presentation and interpretation of data. Most of the statistical presentations appearing in newspapers and magazines are descriptive in nature. Univariate methods of descriptive statistics…

  • Descurainia pinnata (plant)
  • Desdemona (fictional character)

    Desdemona, fictional character, the wife of Othello and the object of his unwarranted jealousy, in William Shakespeare’s tragic drama Othello (written 1603–04). The daughter of a Venetian senator, Desdemona is greatly loved by Othello, an honoured and heroic Moorish general in the service of

  • desdén con el desdén, El (work by Moreto y Caba?a)

    Agustín Moreto: His masterpiece, El desdén con el desdén (“Contempt with Contempt”), based on parts of four plays of Lope de Vega, is marked, as are all his best plays, by its elegance and faithfulness to real life.

  • Desdunes, Daniel (American plaintiff)

    Jim Crow law: Challenging the Separate Car Act: On February 24, 1892, 21-year-old Daniel Desdunes purchased a first-class ticket on the Louisville & Nashville from New Orleans to Mobile, Alabama, and took a seat in the whites-only car. He was arrested according to the plan and charged with a criminal violation of the Separate Car Act. Tourgée, Martinet,…

  • Dese (Ethiopia)

    Dese, town, central Ethiopia, situated on the western escarpment of the Great Rift Valley at an elevation of 7,500 feet (2,300 metres). Dese (Amharic: “My Joy”) is a commercial and communications centre, 16 miles (25 km) northwest of Kembolcha, which is at the junction of roads to Addis Ababa and

  • Deseado River (river, Argentina)

    Deseado River, river in southern Argentina, rising in Lake Buenos Aires in the Andes of southern Chile and Argentina. It flows generally eastward and southeastward through Santa Cruz province. Near Koluel Kayke and Jaramillo it sometimes disappears into the dry soils of Patagonia, but it reemerges

  • desecration (religion)

    Sacrilege, originally, the theft of something sacred; as early as the 1st century bc, however, the Latin term for sacrilege came to mean any injury, violation, or profanation of sacred things. Legal punishment for such acts was already sanctioned, in the Levitical code of ancient Israel. The

  • desegregation busing (racial integration)

    Busing, in the United States, the practice of transporting students to schools within or outside their local school districts as a means of rectifying racial segregation. Although American schools were technically desegregated in 1954 by the landmark U.S. Supreme Court decision handed down in Brown

  • desegregation, racial

    baseball: Integration: Several major league teams either discussed or attempted the racial integration of professional baseball in the 1940s. The interest in integration in the 1940s was sparked by several factors—the increasing economic and political influence of urban blacks, the success of black ballplayers in exhibition…

  • Desembarco del Granma National Park (national park, Cuba)

    Cuba: Plant and animal life: Desembarco del Granma National Park features a series of verdant limestone terraces that range from 1,180 feet (360 metres) above sea level to 590 feet (180 metres) below. Both Desembarco del Granma and Vi?ales were designated UNESCO World Heritage sites in 1999.

  • desensitization (medicine)

    Desensitization, treatment that attempts to eliminate allergic reactions, as of hay fever or bronchial asthma, by a series of injections in graded strengths of the substance to which the person is sensitive (e.g., pollen, house dust). Extracts of the material to be injected are purified and put i

  • desensitization (behaviour therapy)

    mental disorder: Behavioral psychotherapy: …can be gradual (sometimes called desensitization) or rapid (sometimes known as flooding). Contrary to popular belief, the anxiety that is produced during such controlled exposure is not usually harmful. Even if severe panic initially strikes the sufferer, it will gradually diminish and will be less likely to return in the…

  • Deseret (American history)

    Utah: Mormon settlement and territorial growth: …as the intermountain empire, or Deseret, the latter the name of a proposed state that incorporated most of present-day Arizona and Nevada, portions of Idaho, Colorado, New Mexico, and Wyoming, and approximately one-third of California. Immigrant converts continued to stream into Utah from Europe (especially from Scandinavia and the United…

  • Deseret News, The (American newspaper)

    The Deseret News, daily newspaper published in Salt Lake City, Utah, by the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons). It was founded as a biweekly in 1850. The word Deseret means “Land of the Honey Bee,” according to the Book of Mormon, and was to have been the name of the anticipated

  • Deseret, University of (university, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States)

    University of Utah, public, coeducational institution of higher education in Salt Lake City, Utah, U.S. It is a comprehensive university with many research opportunities and academic programs. Through 16 colleges and schools it offers some 75 undergraduate degree programs and more than 90 graduate

  • Désert (novel by Le Clézio)

    Jean-Marie Gustave Le Clézio: …protagonist of his acclaimed novel Désert (1980; Desert), is a North African Berber separated from her past and her cultural inheritance when she was forced to flee her desert homeland; she returns pregnant and resolved both to perpetuate her tribal inheritance and to embrace her legacy of memory and transcendence.…

  • desert

    Desert, any large, extremely dry area of land with sparse vegetation. It is one of Earth’s major types of ecosystems, supporting a community of distinctive plants and animals specially adapted to the harsh environment. For a list of selected deserts of the world, see below. Desert environments are

  • Desert Archaic culture (ancient North American cultures)

    Native American: Desert Archaic cultures: Ancient peoples in the present-day Plateau and Great Basin culture areas created distinctive cultural adaptations to the dry, relatively impoverished environments of these regions. The Cochise or Desert Archaic culture began by about 7000 bce and persisted until the

  • Desert Artesian Basin (region, Western Australia, Australia)

    Canning Basin, arid sedimentary basin in northwestern Western Australia. Occupying a largely unexplored area of about 150,000 square miles (400,000 square km), it extends south from the Fitzroy River to the De Grey River and from the coast southeast almost to 128° E longitude. The basin underlies

  • desert cardinal (bird)

    cardinal: The desert cardinal (C. sinuatus) is common to the thorn scrub of the American Southwest. Less showy than the northern cardinal, this gray bird with a red mask is also called pyrrhuloxia (formerly part of the bird’s scientific name, combining the Latin name for the bullfinch…

  • desert Christmas cactus (plant, Cylindropuntia species)
  • desert Christmas tree (plant)

    Lennooideae: sonorae) and desert Christmas tree (P. arenarium). The succulent underground stems of sand food were used as food by Native Americans in what is now Arizona.

  • desert climate

    Africa: Climatic regions: These are the hot desert, semiarid, tropical wet-and-dry, equatorial (tropical wet), Mediterranean, humid subtropical marine, warm temperate upland, and mountain regions.

  • Desert cultures (ancient North American cultures)

    Desert cultures, in North America, ancient cultures centred on the Great Basin in the area of Nevada, Utah, and Arizona; they lasted from about 7000 or 8000 bc to about 2000 bc. Subsistence was based on gathering wild seeds and plants and on hunting small game; social groups were probably small

  • desert dormouse (rodent)

    Desert dormouse, (Selevinia betpakdalaensis), a rarely seen or captured small rodent of Central Asia. Weighing less than 28 grams (1 ounce), the desert dormouse has a stout rounded body 8 to 10 cm (3.1 to 3.9 inches) long and a slightly shorter fine-haired tail of 6 to 8 cm. Its gray fur is long,

  • Desert Fathers (Christian hermits)

    Desert Fathers, early Christian hermits whose practice of asceticism in the Egyptian desert, beginning in the 3rd century, formed the basis of Christian monasticism. One of these hermits, Pachomius of the Thebaid (c. ad 290–346; see Pachomius, Saint), who organized nine monasteries for men and two

  • Desert Fox, Operation (United States military expedition)

    Iraq War: Prelude to war: …several Iraqi military installations (code-named Operation Desert Fox). After the bombing, however, Iraq refused to allow inspectors to reenter the country, and during the next several years the economic sanctions slowly began to erode as neighbouring countries sought to reopen trade with Iraq.

  • Desert Fox, the (German field marshal)

    Erwin Rommel, German field marshal who became the most popular general at home and gained the open respect of his enemies with his spectacular victories as commander of the Afrika Korps in World War II. Rommel’s father was a teacher, as his grandfather had been, and his mother was the daughter of a

  • Desert Fox, The (film by Hathaway [1951])

    Henry Hathaway: Film noirs: Just as exciting was The Desert Fox (1951), which included a noteworthy turn by James Mason as German Field Marshal Erwin Rommel. Hathaway’s success continued in 1952 with Diplomatic Courier, which starred Power as an American up against communist agents, and O. Henry’s Full House, to which he contributed…

  • Desert Fury (film by Allen [1947])

    Lewis Allen: …London, and the crime yarn Desert Fury, in which a police officer (Burt Lancaster) wrests his former girlfriend (Lizabeth Scott) away from a compulsive gambler (John Hodiak). The suspenseful So Evil My Love (1948) featured Milland as a con man who seduces a widow (Ann Todd) and manipulates her into…

  • Desert Heat (film by Avildsen [1999])

    John G. Avildsen: …the thriller genre again with Desert Heat (also released as Inferno), which starred Jean-Claude Van Damme; the film was loosely based on the 1961 classic Yojimbo by Kurosawa Akira.

  • desert hedgehog (mammal)

    hedgehog: …African hedgehogs (genus Atelerix), six desert hedgehogs (genus Hemiechinus), and two steppe hedgehogs (genus Mesechinus). European hedgehogs are kept as pets, as is the African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris).

  • Desert Inn (hotel and casino, Las Vegas, Nevada, United States)

    Las Vegas: Emergence of the contemporary city: …Clark, the owner of the Desert Inn, who proposed that the federal government retire its World War II–era debts by holding a national lottery, and Howard Hughes, who kept a suite at the Desert Inn throughout the 1950s and lived there permanently from 1966 to 1970. Some of the investments…

  • desert ironwood (tree)

    Ironwood Forest National Monument: …preserves a significant stand of desert ironwood trees (Olneya tesota), a species endemic to the Sonoran Desert. The ironwood was named for the extreme density of its wood; it can reach 45 feet (14 metres) in height and live for more than 800 years. It serves as a “nurse plant,”…

  • desert locust (insect)

    locust: The desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria) inhabits dry grasslands and deserts from Africa to the Punjab and can fly upward to about 1,500 metres (5,000 feet) in huge towers of individuals. The smaller Italian and Moroccan locusts (Calliptamus italicus and Dociostaurus maroccanus) cause extensive plant damage in…

  • Desert Love (work by Montherlant)

    Henry de Montherlant: …la Rose de Sable (1954; Desert Love); this book is also highly critical of French colonial rule in North Africa.

  • desert lynx (mammal species)

    Caracal, (Felis caracal), short-tailed cat (family Felidae) found in hills, deserts, and plains of Africa, the Middle East, and central and southwestern Asia. The caracal is a sleek, short-haired cat with a reddish brown-coat and long tufts of black hairs on the tips of its pointed ears. Long

  • desert night lizard (reptile)

    night lizard: The desert night lizard (X. vigilis) lives underneath decaying Joshua trees in the Mojave and Sonoran deserts. Among the smallest night lizards, X. vigilis is less than 4 cm (1.6 inches) from snout to vent. It eats small insects and termites that live under logs. A…

  • Desert Notes: Reflections in the Eye of a Raven (work by Lopez)

    Barry Lopez: …wrote such fictional narratives as Desert Notes: Reflections in the Eye of a Raven (1976) and River Notes: The Dance of Herons (1979). Among his short-story volumes were Winter Count (1981), Light Action in the Caribbean (2000), and Outside (2014). Other notable works included the essay collections Crossing Open Ground

  • Desert of the Exodus, The (book by Palmer)

    E.H. Palmer: Both journeys he described in The Desert of the Exodus, 2 vol. (1871). The same year he published Jerusalem, the City of Herod and of Saladin, a Muslim view of the history of the city. He was professor of Arabic at Cambridge during 1871–81. In 1882 he was asked by…

  • Desert of the Heart (novel by Rule)

    Jane Rule: Desert of the Heart (1964; filmed as Desert Hearts, 1984), Rule’s first, best-known novel, is considered a classic of lesbian literature; it traces the lives of two women, separated by age and background, who meet at a boardinghouse and fall in love. In contrast, This…

  • desert palace (Umayyad architecture)

    Desert palace, any country dwelling built in Syria, Jordan, and Palestine by Umayyad (661–750 ce) rulers and aristocrats. At one time the complexes were thought to be rural retreats for nomadic rulers and members of ruling families who tired of city life, but, because all of these desert residences

  • desert pavement (geological formation)

    Desert pavement, surface of angular, interlocking fragments of pebbles, gravel, or boulders in arid areas. Desert pavement forms on level or gently sloping desert flats, fans, or bajadas and lake and river terraces dating to the Pleistocene Epoch (2.6 million to 11,700 years ago). The percolation

  • Desert Places (poem by Frost)

    Robert Frost: Works: …private demons, as in “Desert Places,” which could serve to illustrate Frost’s celebrated definition of poetry as a “momentary stay against confusion”:

  • desert quail (bird)

    quail: …Gambel’s, or desert, quail (Lophortyx gambelii). Both species have a head plume (larger in males) curling forward.

  • Desert Rats (World War II)

    Desert Rats, group of British soldiers who helped defeat the Germans in North Africa during World War II. The Desert Rats, led by Gen. Allen Francis Harding, were especially noted for a hard-fought three-month campaign against the more-experienced German Afrika Korps, led by Gen. Erwin Rommel (“The

  • Desert Rats, The (film by Wise [1953])

    Robert Wise: Films of the 1950s: , lobbyists; The Desert Rats (1953), a sequel to Henry Hathaway’s The Desert Fox (1951), with James Mason repeating his role as German Field Marshal Erwin Rommel; Destination Gobi (1953), another World War II drama; and So Big (1953), an adaptation of Edna Ferber’s

  • Desert Rose (song by Sting and Mami)

    Sting: Solo career: …album’s title song and “Desert Rose,” which featured Algerian rai singer Cheb Mami. That album also went triple platinum and in 1999 won the Grammys for best pop album and for best male pop vocal performance for the single “Brand New Day.”

  • Desert Sabre, Operation (Middle Eastern history)

    Persian Gulf War: Operation Desert Sabre, a massive allied ground offensive, was launched northward from northeastern Saudi Arabia into Kuwait and southern Iraq on February 24, and within three days Arab and U.S. forces had retaken Kuwait city in the face of crumbling Iraqi resistance. Meanwhile, the main…

  • Desert Shield, Operation (Middle Eastern history)

    Persian Gulf War: …the military buildup, known as Operation Desert Shield. Iraq meanwhile built up its occupying army in Kuwait to about 300,000 troops.

  • Desert Solitaire (work by Abbey)

    Edward Abbey: His book Desert Solitaire (1968), considered by many to be his best, is an extended meditation on the sublime and forbidding wilderness of southeastern Utah and the human incursions into it. He husbanded his extensive knowledge of the region, admitting “I have written much about a good…

  • Desert Song, The (film by Del Ruth [1929])

    Roy Del Ruth: Early films: …the first all-talking, all-singing operetta, The Desert Song, as well as Gold Diggers of Broadway, which established the studio’s cottage industry of “Gold Diggers” pictures and also unveiled the pop standard “Tiptoe Through the Tulips.”

  • Desert Song, The (operetta by Romberg and Hammerstein II)

    Sigmund Romberg: …My Heart” and “Drinking Song”; The Desert Song (1926), remembered for the title song and “One Alone”; and The New Moon (1928), with “Lover, Come Back to Me” (melody adapted in part from Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky’s June: Barcarolle).

  • Desert Storm, Operation (Middle Eastern history)

    Persian Gulf War: …bombardment, which had been named Operation Desert Storm, destroyed Iraq’s air defenses before attacking its communications networks, government buildings, weapons plants, oil refineries, and bridges and roads. By mid-February the allies had shifted their air attacks to Iraq’s forward ground forces in Kuwait and southern Iraq, destroying their fortifications and…

  • desert tea (beverage)

    Ephedra: Major species and uses: …tealike preparation known variously as Mormon tea, Mexican tea, squaw tea, and desert tea.

  • desert varnish (geology)

    Desert varnish, thin, dark red to black mineral coating (generally iron and manganese oxides and silica) deposited on pebbles and rocks on the surface of desert regions. As dew and soil moisture brought to the surface by capillarity evaporate, their dissolved minerals are deposited on the surface;

  • desert wheatgrass (plant)

    wheatgrass: Several species, including desert wheatgrass (Agropyron desertorum) and crested wheatgrass (A. cristatum), are good forage plants and are often used as soil binders in the western United States. Wheatgrass is also the name of juice derived from seedlings of true wheat (Triticum aestivum), sometimes consumed as a health…

  • desert woodrat (rodent)

    woodrat: Some populations of the desert woodrat (N. lepida) and the white-throated woodrat (N. albigula) are black (melanistic).

  • desert, cold

    desert: Environment: cold deserts occur in temperate regions at higher latitudes—and therefore colder temperatures—than those at which hot deserts are found. These dry environments are caused by either remoteness from the coast, which results in low atmospheric humidity from a lack of onshore winds, or the presence…

  • Désert, Le (work by David)

    Félicien-César David: …he produced his “symphonic ode” Le Désert. Resembling an oratorio bordering on opera and embodying Arabic melodies, it was a highly evocative, enormously successful work. Of his five operas, Lalla Roukh (1862) maintained its popularity for 40 years. David also wrote other symphonic odes, songs, and chamber works. His music,…

  • Désert, Le (work by Memmi)

    Albert Memmi: …tale of psychological introspection; and Le Désert (1977), in which violence and injustice are seen as age-old responses to the pain and uncertainty of the human condition.

  • Desertas Islands (islands, Portugal)

    Portugal: Wildlife: …seal is native to Madeira’s Desertas Islands, which were designated a nature reserve in 1990. Some 40 species of birds breed there, including the Madeira laurel pigeon and the Zino’s petrel. The variety of beetles (nearly 700 species, many indigenous) and moths (more than 100 species, about one-fourth of which…

  • Deserted Village, The (poem by Goldsmith)

    The Deserted Village, pastoral elegy by Oliver Goldsmith, published in 1770. Considered to be one of his major poems, it idealizes a rural way of life that was being destroyed by the displacement of agrarian villagers, the greed of landlords, and economic and political change. In response to the

  • Desértica de Mo?amedes (desert, Angola)

    Mo?amedes Desert, desert, southwestern Africa, extending north along the Atlantic coast of Angola from the Angola-Namibia border for about 275 miles (450 km) and constituting the northernmost extension of the Namib Desert. Fronting the Atlantic Ocean to the west, it gradually ascends in elevation e

  • desertification (ecology)

    Desertification, the process by which natural or human causes reduce the biological productivity of drylands (arid and semiarid lands). Declines in productivity may be the result of climate change, deforestation, overgrazing, poverty, political instability, unsustainable irrigation practices, or

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