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  • dyne (unit of measurement)

    Dyne, unit of force in the centimetre-gram-second system of physical units, equal to the force that would give a free mass of one gram an acceleration of one centimetre per second per second. One dyne equals 0.00001

  • dynein (biochemistry)

    algae: Flagella: …molecules of a protein called dynein that are attached along its length. Extensions of dynein, called dynein arms, connect neighbouring tubules, forming dynein cross-bridges. Dynein is involved in converting the chemical energy of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) into the mechanical energy that mediates flagellar movement. In the presence of ATP, dynein…

  • Dynel (fibre)

    modacrylic: Modacrylic fibres include trademarked Dynel (acrylonitrile and polyvinyl chloride) and Verel (acrylonitrile and vinylidene chloride).

  • Dynevor Castle (castle, Wales, United Kingdom)

    Carmarthenshire: The ruins of the 13th-century Dynevor Castle are located just west of Llandeilo. Originally built in 876 ce by Rhodri Mawr, the castle was taken by the English in the 13th century and rebuilt. The Welsh leader Owen Glendower tried to retake it in 1408 but failed. Kidwelly, established in…

  • dynode (electronics)

    mass spectrometry: Electron multipliers: Electrodes, called dynodes, are so arranged that each succeeding generation of electrons is attracted to the next dynode. For example, if 4 electrons are released at the first dynode, then 16 will emerge from the second and so forth. Gains of as much as one million are…

  • dynorphin (biochemistry)

    endorphin: the enkephalins, beta-endorphin, and dynorphin, which were discovered in the 1970s by Roger Guillemin and other researchers. Endorphins are distributed in characteristic patterns throughout the nervous system, with beta-endorphin found almost entirely in the pituitary gland.

  • Dyola (people)

    The Gambia: Ethnic groups: The Diola (Jola) are the people longest resident in the country; they are now located mostly in western Gambia. The largest group is the Malinke, comprising about one-third of the population. The Wolof, who are the dominant group in Senegal, also predominate in Banjul. The Fulani…

  • Dyophysite (Christianity)

    Byzantine Empire: Christological controversies: …who in contrast declared for dyophysitism—i.e., the Christological position that two natures, perfect and perfectly distinct, existed in the single person of Christ. That struggle for power and legitimacy between Antioch, Alexandria, and Rome came to a head at the Council of Chalcedon (451). There the pope’s view triumphed, thanks…

  • Dyott, Thomas W. (American glassmaker)

    Thomas W. Dyott, British-born American patent-medicine king, glassmaker, temperance advocate, and reformer. His “picture bottles” have special value as antiques. A druggist’s apprentice in London, Dyott arrived in Philadelphia in the 1790s almost penniless and rented a basement room where by day he

  • DYP (political party, Turkey)

    Necmettin Erbakan: A centre-right coalition of the True Path (Do?ru Yol) and Motherland (Anavatan) parties then held power until internal disagreements brought it down in June. Erbakan was again asked to try to form a coalition, and this time, when Tansu ?iller, head of the True Path Party, agreed to join him,…

  • Dyrrhachium (Albania)

    Durr?s, primary seaport of Albania. It lies on the Adriatic Sea coast, west of Tirana. Founded as Epidamnus by Greeks from Corcyra and Corinth in the 7th century bce, it was seized by the Illyrian king Glaucias in 312 bce. It later passed to the Romans, who called it Dyrrhachium and made it the

  • Dysaphis plantaginea (insect)

    aphid: Types of aphids: The rosy apple aphid (Dysaphis plantaginea) deforms fruit, producing “aphis apples.” Its feeding activity causes leaves to curl about it, providing some protection from insecticide sprays. The life cycle involves plantain plants as alternate hosts from which the aphid returns to the apple tree to deposit…

  • dysarthria (pathology)

    Dysarthria, motor speech disorder in which neurological damage impairs the ability of nerves to send messages to the muscles involved in speech production. Dysarthria can affect persons of all ages and varies in type and severity. Dysarthria can affect any of the muscles involved in speech

  • Dyschoriste (plant genus)

    Acanthaceae: …Hygrophila (100), Thunbergia (90), and Dyschoriste (80). The small genus Avicennia contains at least eight species of ecologically important mangroves.

  • Dyscolus (work by Menander)

    Menander: …is clearly evident in the Dyscolus in the character of the gruff misanthrope Knemon, while the subtle clash and contrast of character and ethical principle in such plays as Perikeiromenē (interesting for its sympathetic treatment of the conventionally boastful soldier) and Second Adelphoe constitute perhaps his greatest achievement.

  • Dyscophinae (amphibian subfamily)

    Anura: Annotated classification: …species; 10 subfamilies: Cophylinae (Madagascar), Dyscophinae (Madagascar), Scaphiophryninae (Madagascar), Asterophryinae (New Guinea and Sulu Archipelago), Genyophryninae (Philippines, eastern Indo-Australian archipelago, New Guinea, northern Australia), Brevicipitinae (Africa), Microhylinae (North and South America, Southeast Asia, Sri Lanka, western

  • dyscrasite (mineral)

    antimonide: Two common antimonides are dyscrasite (Ag3Sb) and stibiopalladinite (Pd5Sb2). Dyscrasite exhibits a distinct orthorhombic symmetry. It is an important silver ore that occurs in deposits of hydrothermal origin associated with intrusive igneous rocks; significant amounts are found at Cobalt, Ont., Can., and at Broken Hill, N.S.W., Australia. Stibiopalladinite exhibits…

  • Dysdercus (insect, Dysdercus genus)

    red bug: The genus Dysdercus is one of the most destructive cotton pests in North America and India. This cotton stainer damages cotton plants by sucking the sap and destroys the cotton bolls by staining them with excrement. At one time small piles of sugarcane were put between rows…

  • Dysderidae (spider family)

    spider: Annotated classification: Family Dysderidae 500 species worldwide. Respiratory tracheae with 4 spiracles (openings) in 2 pairs, 1 behind the other. Family Agelenidae (funnel weavers) 500 species worldwide. Eyes in 2 rows; anterior (lateral) spinnerets long; most make a flat funnel web in vegetation and a tube-shaped retreat at…

  • dysdiadochokinesia (pathology)

    cerebellar ataxia: Manifestations of ataxia and other symptoms: Dysdiadochokinesia is an inability to make rapid alternating muscle movements, such as those required when tapping a foot. The condition appears to reflect abnormal control of opposing muscles. Asynergia refers to an inability to combine the various components of a movement to create fluid motion.…

  • dysentery (pathology)

    Dysentery, infectious disease characterized by inflammation of the intestine, abdominal pain, and diarrhea with stools that often contain blood and mucus. Dysentery is a significant cause of illness and death in young children, particularly those who live in less-developed countries. There are two

  • dysexecutive syndrome (psychology)

    memory: Executive attention: …associated with a condition called dysexecutive syndrome, can affect the role of executive attention in the control of thought, behaviour, and emotion. Evidenced by a notable reduction in the patient’s abilities to set goals, make plans, and initiate actions, dysexecutive syndrome is often accompanied by diminished social inhibitions and thereby…

  • dysfunctional uterine bleeding (pathology)

    Uterine bleeding, abnormal bleeding from the uterus, which is not related to menstruation. Menstruation is the normal cyclic bleeding that occurs when the egg has been released from the ovary and fertilization has not occurred. Other episodes of bleeding that cannot be considered part of the

  • dysgrammatism (pathology)

    speech disorder: Disorders of language development: …at the usual age (dysgrammatism). Though this is often a sign of inherited language disability, it may reflect intellectual disability or other types of brain damage.

  • dyslalia (pathology)

    speech disorder: Disorders of language development: …to manifest articulatory immaturity (infantile dyslalia). If no organic cause can be found, the probable cause may be delayed maturation of psychomotor skills.

  • dyslexia (pathology)

    Dyslexia, an inability or pronounced difficulty to learn to read or spell, despite otherwise normal intellectual functions. Dyslexia is a chronic neurological disorder that inhibits a person’s ability to recognize and process graphic symbols, particularly those pertaining to language. Primary

  • dysmenorrhea (pathology)

    Dysmenorrhea, pain or painful cramps felt before or during menstruation. Dysmenorrhea may be primary or secondary. Primary dysmenorrhea is caused by specific imbalances in the woman’s endocrine system during the menstrual cycle. Secondary dysmenorrhea denotes menstrual cramps caused by some other

  • dysmenorrhoea (pathology)

    Dysmenorrhea, pain or painful cramps felt before or during menstruation. Dysmenorrhea may be primary or secondary. Primary dysmenorrhea is caused by specific imbalances in the woman’s endocrine system during the menstrual cycle. Secondary dysmenorrhea denotes menstrual cramps caused by some other

  • dysmetria (pathology)

    cerebellar ataxia: Manifestations of ataxia and other symptoms: Dysmetria, for example, is a form of ataxia characterized by an inability to make a movement of the appropriate distance, such as touching a heel to a shin or touching a finger to a target object. In such tests, persons with dysmetria undershoot or overshoot…

  • Dysnomia (astronomy)

    Eris: …has at least one moon, Dysnomia, about one-eighth its size, with an orbital period about two weeks long.

  • Dyson College of Arts and Sciences (college, New York, United States)

    Pace University: In 1948 the institute founded Dyson College of Arts and Sciences, thus expanding the school’s curriculum, and the name was changed to Pace College. University status was achieved in 1973. The school’s research facilities now include the Hastings Center in Pleasantville and the Thomas J. McShane Center for Psychological Services…

  • Dyson, Freeman (American physicist)

    Freeman Dyson, British-born American physicist and educator best known for his speculative work on extraterrestrial civilizations. Dyson was the son of a musician and composer. As a teenager, he developed a passion for mathematics, which he pursued at Trinity College, Cambridge, but his studies

  • Dyson, Freeman John (American physicist)

    Freeman Dyson, British-born American physicist and educator best known for his speculative work on extraterrestrial civilizations. Dyson was the son of a musician and composer. As a teenager, he developed a passion for mathematics, which he pursued at Trinity College, Cambridge, but his studies

  • Dyson, Kevin (American football player)

    Tennessee Titans: …across the field to receiver Kevin Dyson, who easily scored a game-winning 75-yard touchdown in a play that became known as the “Music City Miracle.” The Titans then won two additional road playoff games to earn the franchise’s first Super Bowl berth. In the Super Bowl the Titans again found…

  • Dyson, Sir Frank (British astronomer)

    Sir Frank Dyson, British astronomer who in 1919 organized observations of stars seen near the Sun during a solar eclipse, which provided evidence supporting Einstein’s prediction in the theory of general relativity of the bending of light in a gravitational field. In 1894 Dyson became chief

  • Dyson, Sir Frank Watson (British astronomer)

    Sir Frank Dyson, British astronomer who in 1919 organized observations of stars seen near the Sun during a solar eclipse, which provided evidence supporting Einstein’s prediction in the theory of general relativity of the bending of light in a gravitational field. In 1894 Dyson became chief

  • Dyson, Sir James (British inventor and industrial designer)

    Sir James Dyson, British inventor, industrial designer, and entrepreneur who successfully manufactured innovative household appliances and became a determined campaigner to restore engineering and technical innovation to high esteem in British society. As a boy, Dyson attended the prestigious

  • Dysoxylum (plant genus)

    Sapindales: Distribution and abundance: …South America, and tropical Africa; Dysoxylum (80 species) from Indo-Malaysia to the islands of the Pacific; Turraea (60 species) in tropical and southern Africa to Australia; Chisocheton (50 species) in Indo-Malaysia; and Guarea (50 species) in tropical America and tropical Africa.

  • dyspareunia (pathology)

    Dyspareunia, painful or difficult sexual intercourse in the female. Disorders are generally physical rather than psychological. Dyspareunia may be caused by inflammation or infection of the vagina, vaginismus (q.v.; voluntary or involuntary contraction of the lower vaginal muscles), remnants of

  • dyspepsia (pathology)

    Indigestion, any or all of the symptoms—abdominal discomfort, belching, flatulence, aversion to eating, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, heartburn—associated with the malfunctioning of the digestive system. Indigestion may be caused by disease, but it primarily occurs because of stress,

  • dysphagia (pathology)

    Dysphagia, difficulty or pain in swallowing, caused by lesions or stricture of the upper digestive tract, obstruction of the upper digestive tract by tumours or foreign bodies, or disturbances in the nervous or muscular control of swallowing. Obstruction of the esophagus is the most common cause of

  • dysphasia (pathology)

    Aphasia, defect in the expression and comprehension of language caused by damage to the temporal and the frontal lobes of the brain. Aphasia can be caused by a head injury, a tumour, a stroke, or an infection. Symptoms vary with the location and extent of the brain tissues involved. Damage to the

  • dysphemia (speech disorder)

    Stuttering, speech defect characterized by involuntary repetition of sounds or syllables and the intermittent blocking or prolongation of sounds, syllables, and words. These disruptions alter the rhythm and fluency of speech and sometimes impede communication, with consequences on the affected

  • dysphonia (pathology)

    speech disorder: Voice disorders: …the voice are described as dysphonia. Depending on the underlying cause, the various types of dysphonia are subdivided by the specifying adjective. Thus, a vocal disorder stemming from paralysis of the larynx is a paralytic dysphonia; injury (trauma) of the larynx may produce traumatic dysphonia; endocrine dysphonia reflects the voice…

  • dysphrenia (pathology)

    speech disorder: Symptomatic speech disorders: …as in the peculiar (dysphrenic) mode of speech among sufferers of schizophrenia. Hearing loss dating from early childhood leads to a typical distortion of the speech pattern for which various names have been coined, such as audiogenic dyslalia. Visible defects in oral articulators such as the lips and teeth…

  • dysplasia (pathology)

    Dysplasia, malformation of a bodily structure or tissue; the term most commonly denotes a malformation of bone. Chondroectodermal dysplasia (Ellis–van Creveld syndrome) is a rare congenital disorder; it is hereditary (autosomal recessive). Affected individuals exhibit heart abnormalities (which may

  • dyspnea (medical disorder)

    cardiovascular disease: Ventricular dysfunction in heart failure: The symptoms may vary from shortness of breath on very little exertion to a medical emergency in which the patients feel as though they are suffocating. Congestive symptoms may also result in enlargement of the liver and spleen and loss of fluid into the abdominal cavity (ascites) or the pleural…

  • dysprosium (chemical element)

    Dysprosium (Dy), chemical element, a rare-earth metal of the lanthanide series of the periodic table. Dysprosium is a relatively hard metal and is silvery white in its pure form. It is quite stable in air, remaining shiny at room temperature. Dysprosium turnings ignite easily and burn white-hot.

  • dysrhythmia (pathology)

    Arrhythmia, variation from the normal rate or regularity of the heartbeat, usually resulting from irregularities within the conduction system of the heart. Arrhythmias occur in both normal and diseased hearts and have no medical significance in and of themselves, although they may endanger heart

  • dysthymia (psychology)

    diagnosis: Mental examination: Minor depression, or dysthymia, is the presence of a depressed mood for most of the day. This disorder is diagnosed clinically if symptoms have persisted for two years with no more than two months’ freedom from symptoms. Other symptoms that occur concurrently with this form of depression include…

  • dysthymic disorder (psychology)

    diagnosis: Mental examination: Minor depression, or dysthymia, is the presence of a depressed mood for most of the day. This disorder is diagnosed clinically if symptoms have persisted for two years with no more than two months’ freedom from symptoms. Other symptoms that occur concurrently with this form of depression include…

  • dystonia (pathology)

    Dystonia, movement disorder characterized by the involuntary and repetitive contraction of muscle groups, resulting in twisting movements, unusual postures, and possible tremor of the involved muscles. As the disorder persists, movement may affect other muscle groups. Although dystonias may occur

  • Dystopian Children’s Literature: A Darker Spin on an Established Genre

    Two commonly espoused positions about the world of publishing were resoundingly debunked in 2012. The first was that the printed word was dead. The second was that young people were likely a contributing factor in print’s inevitable demise. After all, how could reading compete with video games,

  • dystopian novel (literary genre)

    Fyodor Dostoyevsky: Legacy: …prison camp novel and the dystopian novel (works such as Yevgeny Zamyatin’s We, Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World, and George Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty-four), derive from his writings. His ideas and formal innovations exercised a profound influence on Friedrich Nietzsche, André Gide, Camus, Jean-Paul Sartre, André Malraux, and Mikhail Bulgakov, to…

  • dystrophia myotonica (pathology)

    myotonia: Myotonia congenita and myotonic muscular dystrophy are usually caused by a mutation or other abnormality in a gene known as CLCN1 (chloride channel 1, skeletal muscle). That gene normally produces a protein that controls chloride channels in skeletal muscle fibre cells. However, defects in CLCN1 disrupt ion flow,

  • dystrophin (protein)

    muscle disease: The muscular dystrophies: …lack of a protein called dystrophin, which causes a disruption of the membrane covering the muscle fibre; the results are the entry of excess amounts of calcium ions into the cell and cell degeneration. Treatment with glucocorticoid medications, specifically prednisone, may delay progression of the disease.

  • dysuria (pathology)

    renal system disease: Disorders of urine flow: Dysuria is commonly, but not necessarily, associated with frequency of urination. This in turn may represent either an irritable or contracted bladder; or the actual amount of urine formed may be unusually large (polyuria), in which case voiding is likely to be painless. Sometimes polyuria…

  • Dytiscidae (insect)

    Predaceous diving beetle, (family Dytiscidae), any of more than 4,000 species of carnivorous, aquatic beetles (insect order Coleoptera) that prey on organisms ranging from other insects to fish larger than themselves. Diving beetles are oval and flat and range in length from 1.5 mm to more than 35

  • Dyula (people)

    Dyula, people of western Africa who speak a Mande language of the Niger-Congo language family. Most are Muslims, and they have long been noted as commercial traders. The Dyula were active gold traders as long ago as the time of the ancient African kingdom of Ghana. They flourished under the empire

  • Dyula language

    Mande languages: …four million), Malinke, Maninka, Mende, Dyula (which is used as a trade language by four million people in northern C?te d’Ivoire and western Burkina Faso), Soninke, and Susu. The smaller eastern group consists of 13 languages, only one of which, Dan, has a million speakers.

  • Dyushambe (national capital, Tajikistan)

    Dushanbe, city and capital of Tajikistan. It lies along the Varzob (Dushanbinka) River in the Gissar valley, in the southwest of the republic. It was built in the Soviet period on the site of three former settlements, of which the largest was named Dyushambe (Tajik dush, meaning “Monday,” its

  • DZ Bank (German bank)

    Germany: Public and cooperative institutions: …by the DZ Bank (Deutsche Zentral-Genossenschaftsbank, or “German Central Cooperative Bank”), which serves as a central bank for some 1,500 industrial and agricultural credit cooperatives.There are also public and private mortgage banks, installment credit institutions, and the now-privatized postal check and postal savings systems, which were once operated by…

  • DZ twin (biology)

    Dizygotic twin, two siblings who come from separate ova, or eggs, that are released at the same time from an ovary and are fertilized by separate sperm. The term originates from di, meaning “two,” and zygote, “egg.” The rate of dizygotic twinning varies considerably worldwide. For example, parts of

  • D?alal-Abad (Kyrgyzstan)

    Jalal-Abad, city, western Kyrgyzstan. Though made a city in 1877, it remained essentially a large village. Given city status again in 1927, it now is a regional centre for food processing and other light industries and has a theatre and a museum. Pop. (2006 est.)

  • Dzalamo (people)

    Zaramo, a people who reside in the area surrounding Dar es-Salaam, Tanzania, and comprise the major ethnic component in the city. The Zaramo are considered to be part of the cluster of Swahili peoples on the coast of East Africa who have incorporated elements from many diverse ethnic backgrounds

  • D?ambul (Kazakhstan)

    Taraz, city, southern Kazakhstan. It lies at the junction of the Talas River and the Turk-Sib Railway. Taraz is one of the oldest towns of Kazakhstan. It stands on the site of the ancient city of Taraz, which flourished as a stop along the Silk Road until it was destroyed by Mongol armies in the

  • Dzaudzhikau (Russia)

    Vladikavkaz, city and capital of North Ossetia republic, southwestern Russia. It lies along the Terek River and on the northern slopes of the Caucasus Mountains. Founded in 1784, Vladikavkaz was designed as the key fortress to hold the Georgian Military Highway through the Terek River valley and

  • Dzavhan River (river, Mongolia)

    Mongolia: Drainage: …Altai Mountains, and the Zavkhan (Dzavhan), which runs off the southern slopes of the Khangai Mountains. Other rivers east of the Zavkhan end in salt lakes or disappear in the Gobi. Generally, Mongolian rivers are swift with a steep gradient or are slow and meandering and prone to flooding in…

  • DZero (scientific experiment)

    subatomic particle: Testing the Standard Model: …second experiment at Fermilab, code-named DZero, or D0, published more convincing evidence. The results indicated that the top quark has a mass between 170 and 190 gigaelectron volts (GeV; 109 eV). This is almost as heavy as a nucleus of lead, so it was not surprising that previous experiments had…

  • Dzerzhinsk (Russia)

    Dzerzhinsk, city, Nizhegorod oblast (province), western Russia. Dzerzhinsk lies along the Oka River upstream from its confluence with the Volga River at Nizhny Novgorod. Part of the Nizhny Novgorod metropolitan area, Dzerzhinsk and its satellite towns stretch for 15 miles (24 km) along the Oka. The

  • Dzerzhinskaya Hill (hill, Belarus)

    Belarusian Ridge: …which the highest point is Dzyarzhynskaya Hill, elevation 1,135 feet (346 metres), in the Minsk Upland. To the south of the ridge lie the extensive Pripet Marshes.

  • Dzerzhinsky Hill (hill, Belarus)

    Belarusian Ridge: …which the highest point is Dzyarzhynskaya Hill, elevation 1,135 feet (346 metres), in the Minsk Upland. To the south of the ridge lie the extensive Pripet Marshes.

  • Dzerzhinsky, Feliks Edmundovich (Russian revolutionary)

    Feliks Edmundovich Dzerzhinsky, Bolshevik leader, head of the first Soviet secret police organization. Son of a Polish nobleman, Dzerzhinsky joined the Kaunas (Kovno) organization of the Lithuanian Social Democratic Party in 1895. He became a party organizer, and, although he was arrested by the

  • Dzer?insk (Russia)

    Dzerzhinsk, city, Nizhegorod oblast (province), western Russia. Dzerzhinsk lies along the Oka River upstream from its confluence with the Volga River at Nizhny Novgorod. Part of the Nizhny Novgorod metropolitan area, Dzerzhinsk and its satellite towns stretch for 15 miles (24 km) along the Oka. The

  • Dzhadzh (national capital, Uzbekistan)

    Tashkent, capital of Uzbekistan and the largest city in Central Asia. Tashkent lies in the northeastern part of the country. It is situated at an elevation of 1,475 to 1,575 feet (450 to 480 metres) in the Chirchiq River valley west of the Chatkal Mountains and is intersected by a series of canals

  • Dzhalal-Abad (Kyrgyzstan)

    Jalal-Abad, city, western Kyrgyzstan. Though made a city in 1877, it remained essentially a large village. Given city status again in 1927, it now is a regional centre for food processing and other light industries and has a theatre and a museum. Pop. (2006 est.)

  • dzhalman (rodent)

    Desert dormouse, (Selevinia betpakdalaensis), a rarely seen or captured small rodent of Central Asia. Weighing less than 28 grams (1 ounce), the desert dormouse has a stout rounded body 8 to 10 cm (3.1 to 3.9 inches) long and a slightly shorter fine-haired tail of 6 to 8 cm. Its gray fur is long,

  • Dzhambul (Kazakhstan)

    Taraz, city, southern Kazakhstan. It lies at the junction of the Talas River and the Turk-Sib Railway. Taraz is one of the oldest towns of Kazakhstan. It stands on the site of the ancient city of Taraz, which flourished as a stop along the Silk Road until it was destroyed by Mongol armies in the

  • Dzhavakhet Range (mountains, Caucasia, Asia)

    Caucasus: Geology: Caucasus, the Talish Mountains, the Dzhavakhet Range, and the Armenian Highland likewise originated from folds uplifted from the Alpine geosyncline. Whereas the western sector of the Lesser Caucasus and the Talish in the far southeast are formed chiefly of deposits laid down about 50 million years ago during the downwarp…

  • Dzhetym Range (mountains, Asia)

    Tien Shan: Physiography: …most important ranges are Borkoldoy, Dzhetym, At-Bashy, and the Kakshaal (Kokshaal-Tau) Range, in which Dankova Peak reaches a height of 19,626 feet (5,982 metres).

  • Dzhezkazgan (Kazakhstan)

    Zhezqazghan, city, central Kazakhstan. It is located on a reservoir of the Kenggir (Kara-Kengir) River. The city was created in 1938 in connection with exploitation of the rich local copper deposits. In 1973 a large mining and metallurgical complex was constructed to the southeast to smelt the

  • Dzhirgalantu (Mongolia)

    Hovd, town, administrative headquarters of Hovd aymag (province), western Mongolia, in the northern foothills of the Mongol Altayn Nuruu (Mongolian Altai Mountains) at an elevation of 4,260 ft (1,300 m). Har Us Nuur (lake) lies to the east and is fed by the Hovd Gol (river). Founded in 1731 as a

  • Dzhizak (Uzbekistan)

    Jizzax, city, eastern Uzbekistan. The city is located in a small oasis irrigated by the Sanzar River, northeast of Samarkand. One of the most ancient settlements of Uzbekistan, it was situated on the trade routes to the Mediterranean near Tamerlane’s Gates, the only convenient passage through the

  • Dzhruchi, Gospels of (Georgian manuscript)
  • Dzhugashvili, Ioseb (premier of Soviet Union)

    Joseph Stalin, secretary-general of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1922–53) and premier of the Soviet state (1941–53), who for a quarter of a century dictatorially ruled the Soviet Union and transformed it into a major world power. During the quarter of a century preceding his death, the

  • Dzhugdzhur Mountains (mountains, Russia)

    Asia: The mountain belts: …the Kolyma Upland and the Dzhugdzhur and Stanovoy ranges to the mountains of southern Siberia (the Sayan and the Altai mountains) and to the Tien Shan and Gissar-Alay ranges. The Chersky and Verkhoyansk ranges are the western spurs of that belt.

  • Dzhugdzhur Range (mountains, Russia)

    Asia: The mountain belts: …the Kolyma Upland and the Dzhugdzhur and Stanovoy ranges to the mountains of southern Siberia (the Sayan and the Altai mountains) and to the Tien Shan and Gissar-Alay ranges. The Chersky and Verkhoyansk ranges are the western spurs of that belt.

  • Dzhuma-Mechet Mosque (mosque, G?nc?, Azerbaijan)

    G?nc?: Notable buildings include Dzhuma-Mechet Mosque (built 1620) and the modern mausoleum of the 12th-century Persian poet Ne?āmī Ganjavī. Pop. (2007 est.) 307,500.

  • Dzhumaya (Bulgaria)

    Blagoevgrad, town, southwestern Bulgaria, in the Struma River valley. An ancient Thracian settlement, Scaptopara, existed around its warm mineral springs, which still function as a spa. During the Turkish occupation (1396–1878), the town was called Dzhumaya (D?umaja), later Gorna Dzhumaya; it was

  • Dzhungar (people)

    Dzungar, people of Central Asia, so called because they formed the left wing (dson, “left”; gar, “hand”) of the Mongol army. A western Mongol people whose home was the Ili River valley and Chinese Turkistan, they adopted Buddhism in the 17th century. They are for all practical purposes identical

  • Dzhungarian hamster (rodent)

    hamster: The Dzhungarian hamster (Phodopus sungorus) and the striped dwarf hamster (Cricetulus barabensis) have a dark stripe down the middle of the back. Dwarf desert hamsters (genus Phodopus) are the smallest, with a body 5 to 10 cm (about 2 to 4 inches) long. The largest is…

  • dziady (Slavic religion)

    Dziady, in Slavic religion, all the dead ancestors of a family, the rites that are performed in their memory, and the day on which those rites are performed. Dziady take place three or four times a year; though the dates vary in different localities, dziady are generally celebrated in the winter

  • Dziady (work by Mickiewicz)

    Adam Mickiewicz: …two and four of his Dziady (Forefather’s Eve), in which he combined elements of folklore with a story of tragic love to create a new kind of Romantic drama. While in Russia he visited Crimea in 1825, and, soon after, he published his cycle of sonnets Sonety Krymskie (1826; Crimean…

  • Dzieje Polski (work by Bobrzyński)

    Micha? Bobrzyński: …Poland, published his politically influential Dzieje Polski (“History of Poland”) in 1879, and became the chief exponent of the “pessimistic” (or Kraków) school of Polish historiography, which sharply criticized Poland’s former political and social institutions.

  • Dzienniki, 7 vol. (work by D?browska)

    Maria D?browska: Her diaries—Dzienniki, 7 vol. (1999), covering the years 1914–65—provide vital comments on D?browska’s intellectual life and her work, as well as on the social and political scene in Poland.

  • Dzier?oń, Jan (Polish priest)

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