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  • Alun (Welsh author)

    John Blackwell, poet and prose writer, regarded as the father of the modern Welsh secular lyric. While an apprentice shoemaker, he began attending meetings of the Cymreigyddion, an organization of Welshmen in London dedicated to preserving ancient Welsh literature, and he participated in

  • alunite (mineral)

    Alunite, a widespread rock-forming sulfate mineral that occupies pockets or seams in volcanic rocks such as rhyolites, trachytes, and andesites, where it presumably formed through their chemical reaction with escaping sulfurous vapours. It has been used as a source of potash (during World War I) a

  • alunogen (mineral)

    Alunogen, a sulfate mineral formed by sulfate solutions that attack aluminous minerals; alunogen is hydrated aluminum sulfate, formulated Al2(SO4)317H2O. It typically occurs as an efflorescence or crevice filling in pyrite-containing coal formations, shales, or slates, as well as in the gossan

  • Alushta (Ukraine)

    Alushta, tourist resort, Crimea, Ukraine, on the south coast of the Crimean Peninsula. It is the site of a settlement dating from the 6th century ad; in the 14th century it was a Genoan stronghold. Tourism, based on the fine beach and relatively cool summers, developed in the late 19th century.

  • Alu?ta (Ukraine)

    Alushta, tourist resort, Crimea, Ukraine, on the south coast of the Crimean Peninsula. It is the site of a settlement dating from the 6th century ad; in the 14th century it was a Genoan stronghold. Tourism, based on the fine beach and relatively cool summers, developed in the late 19th century.

  • Aluterus scriptus (fish)

    filefish: The scrawled filefish (Aluterus scriptus) of worldwide distribution may grow about 100 cm (40 inches) long, but most filefishes are considerably smaller. The members of this family are not generally considered good to eat.

  • Alutiiq language

    Eskimo-Aleut languages: Yupik: …spoken southward from Norton Sound; Pacific Yupik, commonly called Alutiiq, spoken from the Alaska Peninsula eastward to Prince William Sound; Naukanski Siberian Yupik, whose speakers were resettled southward from Cape Dezhnyov, the easternmost point of the Eurasian landmass; Central Siberian Yupik (mainly Chaplinski), which is spoken in the Chukchi Peninsula…

  • Aluyi (people)

    Lozi, a complex of about 25 peoples of about 6 cultural groups inhabiting western Zambia, the area formerly known as Barotseland in Zambia and speaking Benue-Congo languages of the Niger-Congo family. Formerly, the groups were all called Barotse as subjects of the paramount chief of the dominant

  • Alva (Oklahoma, United States)

    Alva, city, seat (1907) of Woods county, northwestern Oklahoma, U.S., on Salt Fork of the Arkansas River near the Kansas border. Established as a land office in 1893 at a Santa Fe Railway stop, it was named for Alva Adams, a railroad attorney and governor of Colorado (1887–89). It is a marketing

  • Alva, Fernando álvarez de Toledo y Pimentel, 3er duque de (Spanish soldier and statesman)

    Fernando álvarez de Toledo y Pimentel, 3er duque de Alba, Spanish soldier and statesman famous for his conquest of Portugal (1580) and notorious for his tyranny as governor-general of the Netherlands (1567–73). In the Netherlands he instituted the Council of Troubles (nicknamed the Council of

  • Alvar (Hindu mystics)

    Alvar, any of a group of South Indian mystics who from the 7th to the 10th century wandered from temple to temple singing ecstatic hymns in adoration of the god Vishnu. Their counterpart among the followers of the god Shiva were the Nayanars. The name Alvar means, in the Tamil language in which

  • Alvarado, Pedro de (Spanish conquistador)

    Pedro de Alvarado, Spanish conquistador who helped conquer Mexico and Central America for Spain in the 16th century. Alvarado went to Santo Domingo in 1510 and in 1518 commanded one of Juan de Grijalba’s ships sent from Cuba to explore the Yucatán Peninsula. In February 1519 he accompanied the

  • álvares Pereira, Nun’ (Portuguese military leader)

    Saint Nuno álvares Pereira, ; canonized April 26, 2009; feast day November 6), outstanding Portuguese military leader, known also as the Holy Constable, whose victory over Castilian forces in the historic Battle of Aljubarrota (August 14, 1385) ensured his nation’s independence. Pereira

  • álvarez Bravo, Manuel (Mexican photographer)

    Manuel álvarez Bravo, photographer who was most noted for his poetic images of Mexican people and places. He was part of the artistic renaissance that occurred after the Mexican Revolution (1910–20). Although he was influenced by international developments, notably Surrealism, his art remained

  • álvarez de Toledo y Pimentel, Fernando, 3er duque de Alba (Spanish soldier and statesman)

    Fernando álvarez de Toledo y Pimentel, 3er duque de Alba, Spanish soldier and statesman famous for his conquest of Portugal (1580) and notorious for his tyranny as governor-general of the Netherlands (1567–73). In the Netherlands he instituted the Council of Troubles (nicknamed the Council of

  • álvarez Montalván, Emilio (Nicaraguan ophthalmologist, writer, and political activist)

    Emilio álvarez Montalván, (“Don Emilio”), Nicaraguan ophthalmologist, writer, and political activist (born July 31, 1919, Managua, Nic.—died July 2, 2014, Managua), strove to illuminate the complexities of Nicaraguan political culture and voiced his opposition to various forms of dictatorship in

  • álvarez Quintero brothers (Spanish writers)

    álvarez Quintero brothers, Spanish brothers who collaborated in almost 200 dramas depicting the life, manners, and speech of Andalusia. Serafín álvarez Quintero (b. March 26, 1871, Utrera, Sevilla, Spain—d. April 12, 1938, Madrid) and Joaquín álvarez Quintero (b. Jan. 20, 1873, Utrera, Sevilla,

  • álvarez Quintero, Joaquín (Spanish writer)

    álvarez Quintero brothers: brothers who collaborated in almost 200 dramas depicting the life, manners, and speech of Andalusia. Serafín álvarez Quintero (b. March 26, 1871, Utrera, Sevilla, Spain—d. April 12, 1938, Madrid) and Joaquín álvarez Quintero (b. Jan. 20, 1873, Utrera, Sevilla, Spain—d. June 14, 1944, Madrid) produced…

  • álvarez Quintero, Serafín (Spanish writer)

    álvarez Quintero brothers: Spanish brothers who collaborated in almost 200 dramas depicting the life, manners, and speech of Andalusia. Serafín álvarez Quintero (b. March 26, 1871, Utrera, Sevilla, Spain—d. April 12, 1938, Madrid) and Joaquín álvarez Quintero (b. Jan. 20, 1873, Utrera, Sevilla, Spain—d. June 14, 1944, Madrid)…

  • Alvarez, A. (British author and critic)

    A. Alvarez, British novelist, essayist, and critic whose works explore the interaction of public and private forces that shape personality and behaviour. Although Alvarez’s family enjoyed economic and cultural advantages, both of his parents attempted suicide during his childhood. He entered Corpus

  • Alvarez, Al (British author and critic)

    A. Alvarez, British novelist, essayist, and critic whose works explore the interaction of public and private forces that shape personality and behaviour. Although Alvarez’s family enjoyed economic and cultural advantages, both of his parents attempted suicide during his childhood. He entered Corpus

  • Alvarez, Alfred (British author and critic)

    A. Alvarez, British novelist, essayist, and critic whose works explore the interaction of public and private forces that shape personality and behaviour. Although Alvarez’s family enjoyed economic and cultural advantages, both of his parents attempted suicide during his childhood. He entered Corpus

  • álvarez, Juan (president of Mexico)

    Juan álvarez, revolutionary leader for more than 40 years, before and after the end of Spanish rule, and provisional president of Mexico in 1855. A landowner of mestizo ancestry, álvarez in 1811 joined José María Morelos in an unsuccessful campaign for independence from Spain. He was prominent in

  • Alvarez, Luis (American physicist)

    Luis Alvarez, American experimental physicist who was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1968 for work that included the discovery of many resonance particles (subatomic particles having extremely short lifetimes and occurring only in high-energy nuclear collisions). Alvarez studied physics at

  • Alvarez, Luis W. (American physicist)

    Luis Alvarez, American experimental physicist who was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1968 for work that included the discovery of many resonance particles (subatomic particles having extremely short lifetimes and occurring only in high-energy nuclear collisions). Alvarez studied physics at

  • Alvarez, Luis Walter (American physicist)

    Luis Alvarez, American experimental physicist who was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1968 for work that included the discovery of many resonance particles (subatomic particles having extremely short lifetimes and occurring only in high-energy nuclear collisions). Alvarez studied physics at

  • Alvarez, Walter (American geologist)

    Luis Alvarez: …helped his son, the geologist Walter Alvarez, publicize Walter’s discovery of a worldwide layer of clay that has a high iridium content and which occupies rock strata at the geochronological boundary between the Mesozoic and Cenozoic eras (i.e., about 65.5 million years ago). They postulated that the iridium had been…

  • Alvaro (Mozarab leader)

    Spain: The independent emirate: Incited by the extremist chiefs Alvarus and Eulogius (the latter being canonized after his death), the Mozarabs sought to strengthen their Christian faith through the aura of martyrdom and began to publicly revile the Prophet Muhammad, an action punishable by death from 850 onward, according to Mozarabic sources. The emir…

  • Alvaro de Castro Museum (museum, Maputo, Mozambique)

    museum: Africa: Mozambique’s first museum, the Alvaro de Castro Natural History Museum in Maputo, was founded in 1913. Meanwhile in North Africa the Egyptian Museum in Cairo (founded 1835) had been relocated to its new building in 1902, and certain of the collections had been transferred to form two new institutions:…

  • álvaro I Nimi a Lukeni (king of Kongo)

    Kongo: …known as the Jagas, and álvaro I Nimi a Lukeni (reigned 1568–87) was able to restore Kongo only with Portuguese assistance. In exchange, he allowed them to settle in at Luanda (a Kongo territory) and create the Portuguese colony that became Angola. Relations with Angola soon soured and then worsened…

  • Alvaro, Corrado (Italian author)

    Corrado Alvaro, Italian novelist and journalist whose works investigated the social and political pressures of life in the 20th century. His works were often set in Calabria, southern Italy. Alvaro began his career as a writer in 1916, working on daily newspapers in Bologna and Milan. Military

  • Alvear, Marcelo T. de (president of Argentina)

    Marcelo T. de Alvear, statesman and political leader who served as president of Argentina from 1922 until 1928. Alvear belonged to a distinguished Argentine family. He was educated at the University of Buenos Aires, where he received a doctor of jurisprudence degree. He was a cofounder in 1890 of

  • Alvear, Marcelo Torcuato de (president of Argentina)

    Marcelo T. de Alvear, statesman and political leader who served as president of Argentina from 1922 until 1928. Alvear belonged to a distinguished Argentine family. He was educated at the University of Buenos Aires, where he received a doctor of jurisprudence degree. He was a cofounder in 1890 of

  • Alvearie: or triple Dictionarie, in Englishe, Latin, and French, An (work by Baret)

    dictionary: From Classical times to 1604: …John Baret’s work of 1573, An Alveary, or Triple Dictionary, in English, Latin, and French. In his preface Baret acknowledged that the work was brought together by his students in the course of their exercises, and the title Alveary was to commemorate their “beehive” of industry. The first rhyming dictionary,…

  • Alvensleben Convention (German history)

    Gustav, count von Alvensleben-Erxleben: …this agreement, known as the Alvensleben Convention (1863), was repudiated by the Prussian government and allowed to pass into oblivion. Subsequently appointed lieutenant general (1863) and general of the infantry (1868), Alvensleben saw service in the Franco-German war (1870–71) as head of the 3rd Army Corps.

  • Alvensleben-Erxleben, Gustav, Graf von (Prussian general)

    Gustav, count von Alvensleben-Erxleben, Prussian general and adjutant general who was the chief personal adviser to King (later Emperor) William I. As a member of the Prussian general staff (1847–58), Alvensleben participated in the suppression of the revolution of 1849 in Baden and was named chief

  • alveolar artery (anatomy)

    human digestive system: The gums: …tissues receive branches from the alveolar arteries; these vessels, called alveolar because of their relationship to the alveoli dentales, or tooth sockets, also supply the teeth and the spongy bone of the upper and lower jaws, in which the teeth are lodged.

  • alveolar consonant (phonetics)

    Latin language: …probably /w/; a dental or alveolar series (produced with the tongue against the front teeth or the alveolar ridge behind the upper front teeth) /t d n s l/ and possibly /r/; a velar series (produced with the tongue approaching or contacting the velum or soft palate) /k g/ and…

  • alveolar ridge (anatomy)

    phonetics: Articulatory phonetics: The alveolar ridge is a small protuberance just behind the upper front teeth that can easily be felt with the tongue. The major part of the roof of the mouth is formed by the hard palate in the front, and the soft palate or velum at…

  • alveolar sac (anatomy)

    poison: Inhalation: The alveolar region has the slowest rate of particle clearance in the entire respiratory system, unless the particles are water-soluble, in which case they are cleared readily by dissolution. Water-insoluble particles in the respiratory bronchioles and alveoli are removed by cellular means, principally by macrophages—scavenger cells…

  • Alveolata (protist)

    protozoan: Annotated classification: Alveolata Alveolar sacs (alveolae) present beneath the plasma membrane and may contain rigid material (such as glucose) that confers a distinctive texture to the surface of the cell. Transverse (equatorial) cell division. Mitochondrial cristae are tubular. Ciliophora Ciliated. Possess a special type of flagellar apparatus…

  • alveoli, pulmonary (anatomy)

    Pulmonary alveolus, any of the small air spaces in the lungs where carbon dioxide leaves the blood and oxygen enters it. Air, entering the lungs during inhalation, travels through numerous passageways called bronchi and then flows into approximately 300,000,000 alveoli at the ends of the

  • alveolus, pulmonary (anatomy)

    Pulmonary alveolus, any of the small air spaces in the lungs where carbon dioxide leaves the blood and oxygen enters it. Air, entering the lungs during inhalation, travels through numerous passageways called bronchi and then flows into approximately 300,000,000 alveoli at the ends of the

  • Alver, Amalie (Norwegian novelist)

    Amalie Skram, novelist, one of the foremost Naturalist writers of her time in Norway. The daughter of an unsuccessful speculator, Skram had an unhappy childhood in a divided home. She was then disappointed by her early marriage to an older man and their subsequent divorce. Later on, she married a

  • Alverio, Rosa Dolores (American dancer, singer, and actress)

    Rita Moreno, Puerto Rican-born American actress, dancer, and singer who accomplished the rare feat of winning the four major North American entertainment awards (EGOT): Emmy (1977, 1978), Grammy (1972), Oscar (1962), and Tony (1975). She was also the first Hispanic woman to receive an Oscar

  • Alverio, Rosita Dolores (American dancer, singer, and actress)

    Rita Moreno, Puerto Rican-born American actress, dancer, and singer who accomplished the rare feat of winning the four major North American entertainment awards (EGOT): Emmy (1977, 1978), Grammy (1972), Oscar (1962), and Tony (1975). She was also the first Hispanic woman to receive an Oscar

  • Alves de Lima e Silva, Luis (Brazilian statesman)

    Luiz Alves de Lima e Silva, duke de Caxias, military hero and statesman who gave the military a prominent position in the government of the Brazilian empire. Caxias kept up his family’s tradition by joining the military service at age 14, and within a year he was promoted to second lieutenant. At

  • Alves, Francisco de Paula Rodrigues (president of Brazil)

    Francisco de Paula Rodrigues Alves, president of Brazil from 1902 to 1906, generally considered one of the outstanding civilian holders of that office. First elected to public office in 1872, Rodrigues Alves was president of S?o Paulo state in 1900–02 and 1912–16. During his term as Brazil’s

  • Alvin (submersible)

    Deepwater Horizon oil spill: Environmental costs: …Gulf (ECOGIG) aboard the submersible Alvin—which had famously been involved in investigating the wreckage of the Titanic—noted some ecological recovery of oiled areas of the seafloor, though detectable oil levels in sediment cores remained the same as they had been four years earlier.

  • Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater (American dance company)

    Alvin Ailey, Jr.: …choreographer, and director of the Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater.

  • Alvin, Dave (American musician)

    X: Later members included Dave Alvin (b. November 11, 1955, Los Angeles, California) and Tony Gilkyson.

  • Alvings, the (fictional characters)

    The Alvings, fictional characters, a family now consisting of mother (Helen) and son (Oswald), in Henrik Ibsen’s drama Gengangere (1881; Ghosts). Both characters continue to be affected by the dissolute behaviour of Captain Alving, Helen’s husband and Oswald’s father, long after the captain’s

  • Alvintzy, Josef, Baron (Austrian commander)

    Siege of Mantua: …Graf von Wurmser and Baron Josef Alvintzy, in four successive tries, repeated the same mistakes of giving priority to lifting the Siege of Mantua, rather than first trying to destroy Napoleon’s 40,000-man Army of Italy, and of deploying their armies too far apart to coordinate their attacks effectively. Napoleon utilized…

  • Alvise I (doge of Venice)

    Mocenigo Family: His nephew Alvise I (1507–77) was doge from 1570; his reign was dominated by a new war with the Turks in which Nicosia and Famagusta were lost but in which the great naval victory of Lepanto was won. The family suffered a political eclipse for the next…

  • Alvise II (doge of Venice)

    Mocenigo Family: …Alvise I became doge as Alvise II from 1700 to 1709, followed a few years later by Alvise III Sebastiano, doge from 1723 to 1732. A distant cousin, Alvise IV (1701–78), was doge from 1763 to 1778 and sought to reverse the declining fortunes of the republic by an enlightened…

  • Alvise III Sebastiano (doge of Venice)

    Mocenigo Family: …a few years later by Alvise III Sebastiano, doge from 1723 to 1732. A distant cousin, Alvise IV (1701–78), was doge from 1763 to 1778 and sought to reverse the declining fortunes of the republic by an enlightened commercial policy and a series of measures in restraint of clerical wealth…

  • Alvise IV (doge of Venice)

    Mocenigo Family: A distant cousin, Alvise IV (1701–78), was doge from 1763 to 1778 and sought to reverse the declining fortunes of the republic by an enlightened commercial policy and a series of measures in restraint of clerical wealth and privilege that provoked a conflict with Pope Clement XIII.

  • Alvor agreement (Angolan history)

    20th-century international relations: Events in Southeast Asia and Africa: In the Alvor agreement of January 1975 all three agreed to form a coalition, but civil war resumed in July. By the end of the year the MPLA had been reinforced by 10,000 Cuban soldiers airlifted to Luanda by the U.S.S.R. In the United States the imperative…

  • Alvord, John W. (American clergyman)

    Freedmen's Bank: John W. Alvord, a Congregational minister, and Anson M. Sperry, a U.S. Army paymaster, individually identified that need and attempted to foster the creation of such an institution in early 1865. Alvord’s efforts culminated in the legislation passed by Congress on March 3 that incorporated…

  • ?lvsborg (former county, Sweden)

    ?lvsborg, former l?n (county) of southwestern Sweden, located to the west and south of Lake V?nern. Formed as a county in 1634, it was merged with the counties of G?teborg och Bohus and Skaraborg in 1998 to form the county of V?stra

  • ?Alwah (ancient kingdom, Africa)

    Sudan: Medieval Christian kingdoms: …Dongola); and the kingdom of ?Alwah in the south, with its capital at Sūbah (Soba) near what is now Khartoum. Between 543 and 575 these three kingdoms were converted to Christianity by the work of Julian, a missionary who proselytized in Nobatia (543–545), and his successor Longinus, who between 569…

  • Alwar (India)

    Alwar, city, northeastern Rajasthan state, northwestern India. It is situated on the eastern edge of the Alwar Hills (a portion of the Aravalli Range), roughly equidistant from Delhi (northeast) and Jaipur (southwest). The city is surrounded by a wall and moat and is dominated by a fort on a

  • Always (film by Spielberg [1989])

    Holly Hunter: …Dreyfuss in Steven Spielberg’s romance Always (1989) and in Lasse Hallstr?m’s Once Around (1991), and she starred with Gena Rowlands and Bill Pullman in the 1992 TV movie Crazy in Love.

  • Always Coming Home (work by Le Guin)

    Ursula K. Le Guin: Always Coming Home (1985) concerns the Kesh, survivors of nuclear war in California, and includes poetry, prose, legends, autobiography, and a tape recording of Kesh music. In 2008 Le Guin made literary news with Lavinia, a metatextual examination of a minor character from Virgil’s Aeneid…

  • Always Outnumbered, Always Outgunned (novel by Mosley)

    Walter Mosley: Always Outnumbered, Always Outgunned (1997; filmed as Always Outnumbered for television, 1998), a collection of stories set in contemporary Watts, features the ex-convict Socrates Fortlow. Mosley returned to the Fortlow character in the stories of Walkin’ the Dog (1999) and in the novel The Right…

  • Alwur (India)

    Alwar, city, northeastern Rajasthan state, northwestern India. It is situated on the eastern edge of the Alwar Hills (a portion of the Aravalli Range), roughly equidistant from Delhi (northeast) and Jaipur (southwest). The city is surrounded by a wall and moat and is dominated by a fort on a

  • Alxa Plateau (desert region, China)

    Alxa Plateau, southernmost portion of the Gobi (desert), occupying about 400,000 square miles (1,000,000 square km) in north-central China. Covering the western portions of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region and the northern part of Gansu province, it is bounded by the Huang He (Yellow River) and

  • Alyattes (king of Lydia)

    Alyattes, king of Lydia, in west-central Anatolia (reigned c. 610–c. 560 bc), whose conquest created the powerful but short-lived Lydian empire. Soon after succeeding his father, King Sadyattes, Alyattes started five consecutive years of raids that devastated the farmland around the Greek city of

  • Alydar (racehorse)

    Affirmed: Breeding and early years: …would forever be linked to Alydar, against whom he would battle throughout his racing life. Affirmed’s first race was on May 24, 1977, at Belmont Park in New York, an easy win that he followed with a victory in the Youthful Stakes on June 15. Alydar was also entered in…

  • Alyokhin, Aleksandr Aleksandrovich (Russian-French chess player)

    Alexander Alekhine, world champion chess player from 1927 to 1935 and from 1937 until his death, noted for using a great variety of attacks. Alekhine was a precocious chess player, becoming a master at age 16 and a grandmaster at age 22. He was playing in a tournament in Mannheim, Germany, when

  • Alyonushka (painting by Vasnetsov)

    Viktor Mikhaylovich Vasnetsov: …the Gray Wolf (1889), and Alyonushka (1881) were extremely popular in Russia. They became, in a sense, surrogates for Russian history, and during the Soviet era many were reproduced in schoolbooks and on consumer goods such as calendars, posters, and boxes of chocolates. That one of his most important paintings—Bogatyrs…

  • Alypius (Greek author)

    Alypius, author of Eisagōgē mousikē (Introduction to Music), a work that contains tabular descriptions of two forms of ancient Greek notation; the tables indicate the interaction of the notation with the Greek modal system. Although the work was written well after the music in question, it is of

  • Alypius, Saint (saint)

    stylite: Alypius reportedly stayed atop his column for 67 years.

  • Al?s, Francis (Belgian-born conceptual artist)

    Francis Al?s, Belgian-born Mexico-based conceptual artist who used a variety of new and more-traditional media to evoke an often poetic sense of dislocation on social and political issues. Al?s was raised in Herfelingen in Belgium, where his father was an appeals court justice. Trained as an

  • Alysheba (racehorse)

    Alysheba, (foaled 1984), American racehorse (Thoroughbred) that in 1987 won the Kentucky Derby and the Preakness Stakes but lost at Belmont, ending his bid for the coveted Triple Crown of American horse racing. Alysheba was purchased as a yearling in 1985 for $500,000 by Dorothy Scharbauer and her

  • Alyssum maritimum (plant)

    Sweet alyssum, (Lobularia maritima), annual or short-lived perennial herb of the mustard family (Brassicaceae). It is native to the Mediterranean region. Sweet alyssum is widely grown as an ornamental for its fragrant clusters of small white four-petaled flowers; there are horticultural forms with

  • Alyssum saxatilis (plant)

    Basket-of-gold, (Aurinia saxatilis), ornamental perennial plant of the mustard family (Brassicaceae) with golden yellow clusters of tiny flowers and gray-green foliage. Basket-of-gold is native to sunny areas of central and southern Europe, usually growing in thin rocky soils. It forms a dense

  • Alytus (Lithuania)

    Alytus, city, southern Lithuania. It lies along the Neman (Lithuanian: Nemunas) River, 37 miles (60 km) south of Kaunas. The city dates from the 14th century. In the 20th century it developed as an industrial centre, with factories producing refrigerators, chemical products, linen, and clothing.

  • Alzateaceae (plant family)

    Myrtales: Family distributions and abundance: Alzateaceae consists of a single genus with one or two species, particularly a scrambling shrub or treelet that occurs from Bolivia, throughout the Andes, to Costa Rica.

  • Alzette River (river, Luxembourg)

    Luxembourg: …sandstone plateau into which the Alzette River and its tributary, the Petrusse, have cut deep winding ravines. Within a loop of the Alzette, a rocky promontory called the Bock (Bouc) forms a natural defensive position where the Romans and later the Franks built a fort, around which the medieval town…

  • Alzheimer disease (pathology)

    Alzheimer disease, degenerative brain disorder that develops in mid-to-late adulthood. It results in a progressive and irreversible decline in memory and a deterioration of various other cognitive abilities. The disease is characterized by the destruction of nerve cells and neural connections in

  • Alzheimer Disease: Clues from Convents

    An ongoing Study of a highly cooperative group of long-lived nuns has been shedding considerable light on aging and Alzheimer disease. The Nun Study, led by neurologist David Snowdon of the University of Kentucky, began in 1986 and has focused on 678 American members of the School Sisters of Notre

  • Alzheimer’s disease (pathology)

    Alzheimer disease, degenerative brain disorder that develops in mid-to-late adulthood. It results in a progressive and irreversible decline in memory and a deterioration of various other cognitive abilities. The disease is characterized by the destruction of nerve cells and neural connections in

  • Alzheimer, Alois (German neuropathologist)

    Alzheimer disease: …in 1906 by German neuropathologist Alois Alzheimer. By the early 21st century it was recognized as the most common form of dementia among older persons. An estimated 47.5 million people worldwide were living with dementia in 2016; that figure was expected to increase to 75.6 million by 2030.

  • Alzira (Spain)

    Alzira, city, Valencia provincia (province), in the comunidad autónoma (autonomous community) of Valencia, eastern Spain. It lies in the Ribera district, south of the city of Valencia. It originated as the Iberian settlement of Algezira Sucro (“Island of Sucro”), so named because of its insular

  • Alzire (play by Voltaire)

    Voltaire: Life with Mme du Chatelet: …a national tragedy, he brought Alzire to the stage in 1736 with great success. The action of Alzire—in Lima, Peru, at the time of the Spanish conquest—brings out the moral superiority of a humanitarian civilization over methods of brute force. Despite the conventional portrayal of “noble savages,” the tragedy kept…

  • Alzon, Emmanuel d’ (French ecclesiast)

    Emmanuel d’ Alzon, French ecclesiastic who founded the order of Augustinians of the Assumption (or Assumptionists). D’Alzon studied in Paris, in Montpellier, and in Rome, where he was ordained (1834). He was named canon and vicar-general of N?mes and retained this position until his death. In 1843

  • Alzon, Emmanuel-Marie-Joseph-Maurice Daudé d’ (French ecclesiast)

    Emmanuel d’ Alzon, French ecclesiastic who founded the order of Augustinians of the Assumption (or Assumptionists). D’Alzon studied in Paris, in Montpellier, and in Rome, where he was ordained (1834). He was named canon and vicar-general of N?mes and retained this position until his death. In 1843

  • AM (Jewish chronology)

    Anno mundi, (Latin: “in the year of the world”) the year dating from the year of creation in Jewish chronology, based on rabbinic calculations. Since the 9th century ad, various dates between 3762 and 3758 bc have been advanced by Jewish scholars as the time of creation, but the exact date of Oct.

  • Am (Indian deity)

    Patángoro: …most important of which was Am, a wind god.

  • Am (chemical element)

    Americium (Am), synthetic chemical element (atomic number 95) of the actinoid series of the periodic table. Unknown in nature, americium (as the isotope americium-241) was artificially produced from plutonium-239 (atomic number 94) in 1944 by American chemists Glenn T. Seaborg, Ralph A. James, Leon

  • AM (electronics)

    Amplitude modulation (AM), variation of the amplitude of a carrier wave (commonly a radio wave) in accordance with the characteristics of a signal, such as a vocal or musical sound composed of audio-frequency waves. See

  • Am climate (meteorology)

    Tropical monsoon and trade-wind littoral climate, major climate type of the K?ppen classification characterized by small annual temperature ranges, high temperatures, and plentiful precipitation (often more than wet equatorial, or Af, climates in annual total). Despite their resemblance to wet

  • ?am ha-aretz (Judaism)

    Talmud and Midrash: Legend and folklore: …those in the countryside (the ?am ha-aretz, or “people of the land”). The rabbis realized the great danger involved in this situation and developed their own folk material. They adopted the dramatic and artistic parts of these stories but rejected the unwanted elements, replacing them with their own ideas. Thus…

  • Am-mut (ancient Egyptian monster)
  • AM1 (chemistry)

    chemical bonding: Computational approaches to molecular structure: …acronyms, such as AM1 (Austin Method 1) and MINDO (Modified Intermediate Neglect of Differential Overlap), which are two popular semiempirical procedures.

  • Am386 microprocessor

    Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.: In 1991 AMD released the Am386 microprocessor family, a reverse-engineered chip that was compatible with Intel’s next-generation 32-bit 386 microprocessor. There ensued a long legal battle that was finally decided in a 1994 U.S. Supreme Court ruling in AMD’s favour. That same year, Compaq Computer Corporation contracted with AMD to…

  • AMA (American organization)

    American Medical Association (AMA), organization of American physicians, the objective of which is “to promote the science and art of medicine and the betterment of public health.” It was founded in Philadelphia in 1847 by 250 delegates representing more than 40 medical societies and 28 colleges.

  • AMA Plaza (building, Chicago, Illinois, United States)

    AMA Plaza, a 52-story skyscraper in downtown Chicago, Illinois, U.S., designed by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and completed in 1972. It is a towering example of both the International Style and the elegant pin-striped steel-and-glass buildings Mies crafted in the postwar era. Rising on a narrow site

  • Ama-ga (Mesopotamian god)

    Tammuz, in Mesopotamian religion, god of fertility embodying the powers for new life in nature in the spring. The name Tammuz seems to have been derived from the Akkadian form Tammuzi, based on early Sumerian Damu-zid, The Flawless Young, which in later standard Sumerian became Dumu-zid, or Dumuzi.

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