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  • Alpine skiing

    Alpine skiing, skiing technique that evolved during the late 19th and early 20th centuries in the mountainous terrain of the Alps in central Europe. Modern Alpine competitive skiing is divided into the so-called speed and technical events, the former comprising downhill skiing and the supergiant

  • Alpine Slav (people)

    Slovenia: The Alpine Slavs: During the 6th century ce, ancestors of the Slovenes, now referred to by historians as Alpine Slavs or proto-Slovenes, pushed up the Sava, Drava, and Mura river valleys into the Eastern Alps and the Karst. There they absorbed the existing Romano-Celtic-Illyrian cultures. At…

  • Alpine snowboarding (sport)

    snowboarding: Alpine snowboarding: Alpine snowboarding, often called freecarving, was the most popular style of snowboarding in the mid-1980s during the infancy of the sport, when snowboarders used the existing infrastructure of ski resorts and the venues of ski racing. By the end of the 1990s, however, most die-hard…

  • alpine strawberry (plant)

    strawberry: Major species: The woodland, or alpine, strawberry (F. vesca) can be found throughout much of the Northern Hemisphere and bears small intensely flavourful fruits. Common North American species include the Virginia wild strawberry (F. virginiana) and the beach, or coastal, strawberry (F. chiloensis).

  • Alpine style (mountaineering)

    Gerlinde Kaltenbrunner: She employed the Alpine style of mountaineering pioneered by climber Reinhold Messner and others, in which climbers carry a minimal amount of equipment on expeditions, have little or no outside support (e.g., porters), and do not use supplemental oxygen. This style is particularly challenging for people climbing at…

  • Alpine Symphony, An, Op. 64 (work by Strauss)

    An Alpine Symphony, Op. 64, symphonic poem by German composer Richard Strauss that musically re-creates a day’s mountain climb in the Bavarian Alps. It premiered on October 28, 1915. At the time he composed this piece, Strauss was living in the southern Bavarian town of Garmisch (now

  • alpine timothy (plant)

    timothy: Alpine, or mountain, timothy (Phleum alpinum) is about half as tall, with short, thick panicles. It occurs in wet places from Greenland to Alaska, and at high altitudes in many other parts of North America and Europe.

  • alpine tundra (geography)

    tundra: …timberline on high mountains (alpine tundra). Tundra is known for large stretches of bare ground and rock and for patchy mantles of low vegetation such as mosses, lichens, herbs, and small shrubs. This surface supports a meagre but unique variety of animals. The Finns called their treeless northern reaches…

  • alpine vegetation (plants)

    mountain ecosystem: Flora: Above the tree line, alpine vegetation comprises a variety of different subtypes including grasslands, mires, low heathlands, and crevice-occupying vegetation. For example, treeless alpine vegetation is found on mountains above 2,500 metres in central Japan, grading down to 1,400 metres in northern Hokkaido. Japanese stone pine (Pinus pumila), heathers,…

  • Alpine-Himalayan System (mountains, Eurasia)

    mountain: The Alpine-Himalayan, or Tethyan, System: The interconnected system of mountain ranges and intermontane plateaus that lies between the stable areas of Africa, Arabia, and India on the south and Europe and Asia on the north owes its existence to the collisions of different continental fragments during the past…

  • Alpini, Prospero (Italian scientist)

    Prospero Alpini, physician and botanist who is credited with the introduction to Europe of coffee and bananas. While a medical adviser to Giorgio Emo, the Venetian consul in Cairo (1580–83), Alpini made an extensive study of Egyptian and Mediterranean flora. He is reputed to have been the first to

  • Alpinia (plant)

    Shellflower, any of about 250 species of plants in the genus Alpinia of the ginger family (Zingiberaceae), native to warm climates of Asia and Polynesia. They have gingerlike rhizomes (underground stems) and grow to 6 m (20 feet). Their leaves are long-bladed and leathery. The flower petals form a

  • alprazolam (drug)

    Alprazolam, drug used in the treatment of anxiety disorders and panic disorder. Alprazolam is classified as a benzodiazepine (a drug that produces a calming, sedative effect) and is marketed under the brand name Xanax by Pfizer, Inc. Alprazolam was patented in the 1970s, having been developed by

  • Alps (Roman provinces, Europe)

    Alpes, several small provinces set up by the Romans in the western Alps. Some time after the conquest of the Ligurian tribes in the area in 14 bc, Augustus established Alpes Maritimae (Maritime Alps) under a prefect (later a procurator), to guard the coastal road from Italy to southern France. Its

  • Alps (mountains, Europe)

    Alps, a small segment of a discontinuous mountain chain that stretches from the Atlas Mountains of North Africa across southern Europe and Asia to beyond the Himalayas. The Alps extend north from the subtropical Mediterranean coast near Nice, France, to Lake Geneva before trending east-northeast to

  • Alps from End to End, The (work by Conway)

    William Martin Conway, Baron Conway: …in 1894 was described in The Alps from End to End (1895), and The First Crossing of Spitsbergen (1897) records his exploration of the island in 1896–97. During expeditions in the Central and Southern Andes in 1898, Conway climbed Mount Aconcagua (22,831 feet [6,959 m]), the highest summit in the…

  • Alpujarra rug

    Alpujarra rug, handwoven floor covering with pile in loops, made in Spain from the 15th to the 19th century in the Alpujarras district south of Granada. The construction of these rugs makes them more suitable for spreads than for floor use. The foundation is of linen, and the woolen pile material

  • alpwirtschaft (economics)

    Alpwirtschaft, type of pastoral nomadism that forms a unique economic system in the Alps and involves the migration of livestock between mountain pastures in warm months and lower elevations the remainder of the year. In German, Alp, or Alm, means mountain pasture, and Wirtschaft means domestic

  • alquimista, O (novel by Coelho)

    Paulo Coelho: …Coelho published O alquimista (The Alchemist), a mystical account of an Andalusian shepherd boy’s journey across North Africa in search of treasure. After being dropped by its first publisher, the book was reissued to great success in Brazil and—in translation—abroad. His memoir As Valkírias (1992; The Valkyries) recounts a…

  • ALR (international organization)

    art fraud: Victims and resources: The Art Loss Register (ALR), founded in 1991, grew out of the International Foundation for Art Research (IFAR: founded 1969), a not-for-profit organization that initiated and maintained (until 1997) an international database of stolen works of art, antiques, and collectables. After 1998 ALR assumed maintenance, although…

  • Alre (France)

    Auray, town, Morbihan département, Bretagne (Brittany) région, northwestern France, on the Auray estuary. It is situated 7.5 miles (12 km) from the Atlantic, southwest of Rennes. Its chateau (demolished 1558) was a residence of the dukes of Brittany. Outside its walls in 1364 the War of the Breton

  • ALS (pathology)

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), degenerative neurological disorder that causes muscle atrophy and paralysis. The disease usually occurs after age 40; it affects men more often than women. ALS is frequently called Lou Gehrig disease in memory of the famous baseball player Lou Gehrig, who died

  • Als (island, Denmark)

    Als, island in the Little Belt (strait), Denmark. It is separated from the Sundeved peninsula of southern Jutland by the narrow Als Sound. Fertile clay loams support mixed agriculture, fruit growing, and dairy farming on the island. The earliest known specimen of a northern European boat (c. 300

  • Als der Krieg zu Ende war (play by Frisch)

    Max Frisch: …Krieg zu Ende war (1949; When the War Was Over). Reality and dream are used to depict the terrorist fantasies of a responsible government prosecutor in Graf ?derland (1951; Count Oederland), while Don Juan oder die Liebe zur Geometrie (1953; Don Juan, or The Love of Geometry) is a reinterpretation…

  • Alsace (historical region and former région, France)

    Alsace, historical region and former région of France, incorporated since January 2016 into the région of Grand Est. As an administrative entity, it encompassed the départements of Haut-Rhin (“Upper Rhine”) and Bas-Rhin (“Lower Rhine”) and was bounded by the régions of Lorraine to the west and

  • Alsace-Champagne-Ardenne-Lorraine (region, France)

    Grand Est, région of France created in 2016 by the union of the former régions of Alsace, Lorraine, and Champagne-Ardenne. It is bounded by the régions of Hauts-de-France and ?le-de-France to the west and Bourgogne–Franche-Comté to the south. Belgium and Luxembourg lie to the north, Germany to the

  • Alsace-Lorraine (territory, France)

    Alsace-Lorraine, area comprising the present French départements of Haut-Rhin, Bas-Rhin, and Moselle. Alsace-Lorraine was the name given to the 5,067 square miles (13,123 square km) of territory that was ceded by France to Germany in 1871 after the Franco-German War. This territory was retroceded

  • Alsatian (breed of dog)

    German shepherd, breed of working dog developed in Germany from traditional herding and farm dogs. Until the 1970s the breed was known as the Alsatian in the United Kingdom. A strongly built, relatively long-bodied dog, the German shepherd stands 22 to 26 inches (56 to 66 cm) and weighs 75 to 95

  • Alsatian chair

    folk art: Other arts: The Alsatian chair, for instance, has an upright-board back, carved with a pierced, silhouetted, bilateral design; some hundreds of variations of this simple design have been recorded within the area. Certain occupational forms emerged, according to need, such as the milking stool, the cobbler’s bench, and…

  • Alsatian clover (plant)

    clover: repens), and alsike clover (T. hybridum). Red clover, a biennial, or short-lived perennial, bears an oval purplish flower head about 2.5 cm (1 inch) in diameter. White clover, a low creeping perennial, is often used in lawn-grass mixtures and bears a white flower head often tinged with…

  • Alseid (Greek mythology)

    nymph: …Napaeae (nape, “dell”) and the Alseids (alsos, “grove”) were nymphs of glens and groves; the Dryads or Hamadryads presided over forests and trees.

  • Alsen (island, Denmark)

    Als, island in the Little Belt (strait), Denmark. It is separated from the Sundeved peninsula of southern Jutland by the narrow Als Sound. Fertile clay loams support mixed agriculture, fruit growing, and dairy farming on the island. The earliest known specimen of a northern European boat (c. 300

  • Alseuosmiaceae (plant family)

    Asterales: Other families: Alseuosmiaceae features five genera with 10 species of shrubs native to Australia, New Zealand, New Guinea, and New Caledonia. The two genera of Argophyllaceae have a total of 20 species of small trees and shrubs native to Australia, New Zealand, and New Caledonia. There are…

  • alsike clover (plant)

    clover: repens), and alsike clover (T. hybridum). Red clover, a biennial, or short-lived perennial, bears an oval purplish flower head about 2.5 cm (1 inch) in diameter. White clover, a low creeping perennial, is often used in lawn-grass mixtures and bears a white flower head often tinged with…

  • Alsinda (opera by Zingarelli)

    Niccolò Antonio Zingarelli: Alsinda, given at La Scala, Milan, in 1785, was the first of a series of his operas produced there until 1803.

  • Also sprach Zarathustra (treatise by Nietzsche)

    Thus Spake Zarathustra, treatise by Friedrich Nietzsche, written in four parts and published in German between 1883 and 1885 as Also sprach Zarathustra. The work is incomplete, according to Nietzsche’s original plan, but it is the first thorough statement of Nietzsche’s mature philosophy and the

  • Also sprach Zarathustra (work by Strauss)

    Richard Strauss: Works: Also sprach Zarathustra (1896; Thus Spoke Zarathustra) is ostensibly a homage to the philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche but is actually a concerto for orchestra in which the entities of man and nature are illustrated and contrasted by opposing tonalities.

  • Alsomitra macrocarpa (plant)

    seed: Dispersal by wind: …[6 inches] long) of the Javan cucumber (Alsomitra macrocarpa), a tropical climber.

  • Alsop, Joseph (American journalist)

    Joseph Alsop, American journalist and longtime syndicated columnist known for straightforward but opinionated political reporting. After graduating magna cum laude from Harvard University (1932), Alsop was a staff writer for the New York Herald Tribune until 1937, when he began collaborating with

  • Alsop, Joseph Wright (American journalist)

    Joseph Alsop, American journalist and longtime syndicated columnist known for straightforward but opinionated political reporting. After graduating magna cum laude from Harvard University (1932), Alsop was a staff writer for the New York Herald Tribune until 1937, when he began collaborating with

  • Alsop, Marin (American conductor)

    Marin Alsop, American conductor who, as the musical director of the Baltimore (Md.) Symphony Orchestra (2007– ), was the first woman to lead a major American orchestra. Alsop was the daughter of musicians and studied piano and violin as a child. By age nine, when she heard Leonard Bernstein lead

  • Alsophila pometaria (insect)

    measuring worm: … (species Paleacrita vernata) and the fall cankerworm (Alsophila pometaria) attack fruit and shade trees, skeletonizing the leaves and spinning threads between the branches. Pupation usually occurs in the soil without a cocoon. Because of their distinctive larvae, the name measuring worm moth is sometimes applied to certain members of the…

  • Alsted, Johann Heinrich (German logician)

    history of logic: The 16th century: … system of the German logician Johann Heinrich Alsted (1588–1638). The work of Vives and Alsted represents perhaps the first systematic effort at a logical symbolism.

  • Alster River (river, Germany)

    Alster River, tributary of the Elbe River in northern Germany. It rises 4 miles (6 km) southeast of Kaltenkirchen and flows generally south for 30 miles (50 km) to Hamburg, where a dam was built along its course in the Middle Ages. The river then continues to the Elbe in two parallel canals, which

  • Alston, Barbara (American singer)

    the Crystals: …1960, whose original members were Barbara Alston(b. December 29, 1943, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.—d. February 16, 2018, Charlotte, North Carolina), Merna Girard(b. 1943, Brooklyn, New York), Delores (“Dee Dee”) Kenniebrew(b. 1945, Brooklyn), Mary Thomas(b. 1946, Brooklyn), and Pattie Wright(b. 1945, Brooklyn). Girard was replaced by Dolores ("La La") Brooks(b. 1946, Brooklyn)…

  • Alston, Richard (British choreographer)

    Rambert: …ballet, especially under artistic director Richard Alston, who in 1987 oversaw the name change to Rambert Dance Company. Later, under Mark Baldwin, the Rambert (as it became known in 2013) notably performed works that combined various art forms.

  • Alston, Smokey (American baseball manager)

    Walter Alston, professional National League baseball manager whose career with the Los Angeles (formerly Brooklyn) Dodgers was the third longest for managers, after Connie Mack and John McGraw. Alston earned his nickname Smokey as a pitcher for his high-school team. At Miami University (Oxford,

  • Alston, Walt (American baseball manager)

    Walter Alston, professional National League baseball manager whose career with the Los Angeles (formerly Brooklyn) Dodgers was the third longest for managers, after Connie Mack and John McGraw. Alston earned his nickname Smokey as a pitcher for his high-school team. At Miami University (Oxford,

  • Alston, Walter (American baseball manager)

    Walter Alston, professional National League baseball manager whose career with the Los Angeles (formerly Brooklyn) Dodgers was the third longest for managers, after Connie Mack and John McGraw. Alston earned his nickname Smokey as a pitcher for his high-school team. At Miami University (Oxford,

  • Alston, Walter Emmons (American baseball manager)

    Walter Alston, professional National League baseball manager whose career with the Los Angeles (formerly Brooklyn) Dodgers was the third longest for managers, after Connie Mack and John McGraw. Alston earned his nickname Smokey as a pitcher for his high-school team. At Miami University (Oxford,

  • alstonite (mineral)

    Alstonite, a barium and calcium carbonate mineral, CaBa(CO3)2, with minor amounts of strontium. It is colourless or light gray or pink in appearance and is also transparent or translucent. Its crystal structure is orthorhombic and is identical to that of aragonite, with barium and calcium in

  • Alstroemeria (plant)
  • Alstroemeriaceae (plant family)

    Liliales: Major families: …genus, belongs to the family Alstroemeriaceae, which is distributed in the New World from Chile and Argentina to Mexico. Species within this family are herbaceous herbs or climbers with distinctive resupinate leaves and flowers clustered in umbels. The genus Bomarea is a characteristic vine of the high Andean mountains with…

  • Alstyne, Fanny Van (American hymn writer)

    Fanny Crosby, American writer of hymns, the best known of which was “Safe in the Arms of Jesus.” Crosby lost her sight to an eye infection and medical ignorance at the age of six weeks. She nonetheless grew up an active and happy child. From 1835 to 1843 she attended the New York Institution for

  • alt-ozier (pottery)

    ozier pattern: …of zigzag basket weave; the alt-ozier (“old ozier”), which has radial ribs; the neu-ozier (“new ozier”), the ribs of which resemble the curves of an S, appearing around 1742; and the Brühlsches Allerei-Dessin (“Brühl’s varied design”), a pattern of basketwork and molded motifs, such as shells and flowers, surrounded by…

  • alt-right
  • alt-rock (music)

    Alternative rock, pop music style, built on distorted guitars and rooted in generational discontent, that dominated and changed rock between 1991 and 1996. It burst into the mainstream when “Smells Like Teen Spirit”—the first major-label single from Nirvana, a trio based in Seattle, Washington,

  • Alta (Utah, United States)

    Alta, town and ski resort, Salt Lake county, northern Utah, U.S. Lying at an elevation of 8,583 feet (2,616 metres) in the Little Cottonwood Canyon of the Wasatch Range 26 miles (42 km) east of Salt Lake City, the town—then a silver mining camp—was founded as Central City in 1866 and renamed Alta

  • Alta Gracia (island, Nicaragua)

    Ometepe Island, island in southwestern Nicaragua, the largest island in Lake Nicaragua. Ometepe actually consists of two islands joined by a narrow isthmus 2 miles (3 km) in length. Their combined area is about 107 square miles (276 square km). The larger, northern one is 12 miles (19 km) from east

  • Alta Velocidad Espa?ola (Spanish high-speed train)

    railroad: Western Europe: … completed a new line, the Alta Velocidad Espa?ola (AVE; “Spanish High-Speed”), between Madrid and Sevilla (Seville), built not to the country’s traditional broad 1,676-mm (5-foot 6-inch) gauge but to the European standard of 1,435 mm (4 feet 8.5 inches). Other routes from Madrid followed, running to Valladolid in 2007, Barcelona…

  • Alta Velocità (Italian high-speed train)

    railroad: Western Europe: In Italy the first Alta Velocità (AV; “High-Speed”) line, running the 250 km (150 miles) from Rome to Florence and designed for 300-km- (185-mile-) per hour top speed, was finished in 1992; the first segment had been opened in 1977, but progress thereafter had been hampered by funding uncertainties…

  • Altai (republic, Russia)

    Altay, republic, southern Russia, in the Altai Mountains. It s bounded on the south by Mongolia and China. It embraces a complex series of ranges and high plateaus, divided by deep valleys and broad basins, that attain a maximum height of 14,783 feet (4,506 metres) in Mount Belukha. Steppe

  • Altai (kray, Russia)

    Altay, kray (region), southwestern Siberia, Russia. Altay kray lies in the basin of the upper Ob River and its headstreams, the Biya and Katun. The kray borders Kazakhstan in the southwest. Once part of the khanate of Dzungaria, the kray was colonized by the Russians from the 18th century. It

  • Altai Mountains (mountain range, Asia)

    Altai Mountains, complex mountain system of Central Asia extending approximately 1,200 miles (2,000 km) in a southeast-northwest direction from the Gobi (Desert) to the West Siberian Plain, through China, Mongolia, Russia, and Kazakhstan. The jagged mountain ridges derive their name from the

  • Altai Nature Reserve (research area, Russia)

    Altaisky Nature Reserve, natural area set aside for research in the natural sciences, in the northeastern Altai Mountains near Lake Teletsky, in south-central Russia. The reserve, established in 1932, has an area of 34,025 square miles (88,124 square km). Its physiographic features include high

  • Altai Shan (mountain range, Asia)

    Altai Mountains, complex mountain system of Central Asia extending approximately 1,200 miles (2,000 km) in a southeast-northwest direction from the Gobi (Desert) to the West Siberian Plain, through China, Mongolia, Russia, and Kazakhstan. The jagged mountain ridges derive their name from the

  • Altaic (people)

    Altaic languages: The origins of Altaic languages: In historical times the Altaic peoples were concentrated on the steppe lands of Central Asia, and it is believed that the Altaic protolanguage originated on the steppes in or near the region of the Altai Mountains. Furthermore, it is assumed that the Turks have always inhabited the western, the…

  • Altaic languages

    Altaic languages, group of languages consisting of three language families—Turkic, Mongolian, and Manchu-Tungus—that show noteworthy similarities in vocabulary, morphological and syntactic structure, and certain phonological features. Some, but not all, scholars of those languages argue for their

  • Altaids (geological region, Asia)

    Asia: Chronological summary: Orogenic deformation in the Altaids was essentially continuous from the late Proterozoic Eon (about 850 million years ago) into the early part of the Mesozoic Era (about 220 million years ago), in some regions—such as Mongolia and Siberia—lasting even to the end of the Jurassic Period (about 145 million…

  • Altair (computer)

    computer: The Altair: In September 1973 Radio Electronics published an article describing a “TV Typewriter,” which was a computer terminal that could connect a hobbyist with a mainframe computer. It was written by Don Lancaster, an aerospace engineer and fire spotter in Arizona who was also a…

  • Altair (star)

    Altair, the brighest star in the northern constellation Aquila and the 12th brightest star in the sky. With the bright stars Deneb and Vega, Altair (Arabic for “flying eagle”) forms the prominent asterism of the Summer Triangle. It is an A-type star 16.6 light-years from Earth. Altair rotates at

  • Altair (spacecraft)

    Constellation program: …NASA named the lunar lander Altair, after the brightest star in the constellation Aquila. Aquila is the Latin word for Eagle, which was also the name of the first crewed spacecraft to land on the Moon, Apollo 11’s lunar module. Altair would have been a two-stage spacecraft (a descent stage…

  • Altaisky Nature Reserve (research area, Russia)

    Altaisky Nature Reserve, natural area set aside for research in the natural sciences, in the northeastern Altai Mountains near Lake Teletsky, in south-central Russia. The reserve, established in 1932, has an area of 34,025 square miles (88,124 square km). Its physiographic features include high

  • Altamira (cave, Spain)

    Altamira, cave in northern Spain famous for its magnificent prehistoric paintings and engravings. It is situated 19 miles (30 km) west of the port city of Santander, in Cantabria provincia. Altamira was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1985. The cave, discovered by a hunter in 1868, was

  • Altamont Festival, The (American music festival)

    The Altamont festival: As the final show of their American tour, the Rolling Stones held a one-day rock festival at Altamont Speedway in Livermore, California, on December 6, 1969. The free event was intended as a thank-you gesture by the band to their fans and was to feature…

  • Altamsh (Delhi sultan)

    Iltutmish, third and greatest Delhi sultan of the so-called Slave dynasty. Iltutmish was sold into slavery but married the daughter of his master, Qu?b al-Dīn Aibak, whom he succeeded in 1211. He strengthened and expanded the Muslim empire in northern India and moved the capital to Delhi, where he

  • Altamura (Italy)

    Altamura, town, Puglia (Apulia) regione, southeastern Italy. Altamura lies on the Murge plateau at 1,552 feet (473 m) above sea level, southwest of Bari. It was founded about 1200 by the Holy Roman emperor Frederick II, who created several new towns in Apulia, to which he attracted Italians,

  • Altan (Mongol chief)

    Altan, Mongol khan, or chief, who terrorized China during the 16th century. He converted the Mongols to the reformed, or Dge-lugs-pa (Yellow Hat), sect of Tibetan Buddhism. Altan became chief of the eastern Mongols in 1543 and thereafter posed a constant threat to the northern borders of China u

  • Altan Khan (Mongol chief)

    Altan, Mongol khan, or chief, who terrorized China during the 16th century. He converted the Mongols to the reformed, or Dge-lugs-pa (Yellow Hat), sect of Tibetan Buddhism. Altan became chief of the eastern Mongols in 1543 and thereafter posed a constant threat to the northern borders of China u

  • Altan tobchi (Mongol chronicle)

    Mongolian literature: Origins through the 19th century: …were copied in Lubsangdandzin’s 17th-century Altan tobchi (“Golden Summary”). Likewise, the Mongol original of the history of Chinggis Khan’s campaigns was lost, but its Chinese translation survived. His sayings, which were preserved in Rashīd al-Dīn’s 14th-century universal history and, by oral transmission, in Mongol chronicles of the 17th century, also…

  • altar (religion)

    Altar, in religion, a raised structure or place that is used for sacrifice, worship, or prayer. Altars probably originated when certain localities (a tree, a spring, a rock) came to be regarded as holy or as inhabited by spirits or gods, whose intervention could be solicited by the worshiper. The

  • Altar (mountain, Ecuador)

    Ecuador: Relief: Chimborazo (20,702 feet [6,310 metres]), Altar (17,451 feet [5,319 metres]), and Sangay (17,158 feet [5,230 metres]). These are included in two ranges connected at intervals by transversal mountain chains, between which are large isolated valleys or basins, called hoyas.

  • Altar of Earth and Harvests (historical altar, Beijing, China)

    Beijing: Recreation: …Beijing and encloses the former Altar of Earth and Harvests (Shejitan), where the emperors made offerings to the gods of earth and agriculture. The altar consists of a square terrace in the centre of the park. To the north of the altar is the Hall of Worship (Baidian), now the…

  • Altar of the Kings (work by Balbás)

    Jerónimo de Balbás: …he began work on the altar for the Chapel of the Kings in the Cathedral of Mexico City. This project introduced the estípite to Mexico, where it quickly spread and became a standard element of the Churrigueresque style of Mexican Baroque architecture, an overwhelmingly decorative and ornate style. The altar…

  • Altar of the Patron Saints (painting by Lochner)

    Stefan Lochner: In this “Altar of the Patron Saints,” Lochner adds to the idealism of the older painters of the Cologne school with a wealth of naturalistic observation in the figures, while the sculpturelike draperies lend them a monumental dignity. In 1447 he became a member of the town…

  • Altar of the Three Kings (painting by Dürer)

    Albrecht Dürer: First journey to Italy: …classical endeavours is his painting Altar of the Three Kings (1504), which was executed with the help of pupils. Although the composition, with its five separate pictures, has an Italian character, Dürer’s intellect and imagination went beyond direct dependence on Italian art. From this maturity of style comes the bold,…

  • Altar of the Virgin (sculpture by Riemenschneider)

    Tilman Riemenschneider: His major work, the Altar of the Virgin (c. 1505–10) in Herrgotts Church at Creglingen, is a wood altar, 32 feet (10 metres) high, depicting the life of Mary. Riemenschneider employed numerous assistants on the massive monument, but he executed the dominant life-size figures himself. Other major works are…

  • Altar, Desierto de (desert, North America)

    Sonoran Desert, arid region covering 120,000 square miles (310,800 square km) in southwestern Arizona and southeastern California, U.S., and including much of the Mexican state of Baja California Sur, part of Baja California state, and the western half of the state of Sonora. Subdivisions of the

  • Altare glass

    Altare glass, type of Italian glassware produced in the town of Altare, near Genoa. The Altare glass industry was established in the 11th century by glassmakers from Normandy and developed independently of the much better known glassworks of Venice. During the 15th century the great demand for

  • altarpiece (religion)

    Altarpiece, work of art that decorates the space above and behind the altar in a Christian church. Painting, relief, and sculpture in the round have all been used in altarpieces, either alone or in combination. These artworks usually depict holy personages, saints, and biblical subjects. Several

  • Altarpiece of the Church Fathers (work by Pacher)

    Michael Pacher: In the “Altarpiece of the Church Fathers” (c. 1483; Alte Pinakothek, Munich), Pacher uses direct and reflected light to create a convincing spatial ambience within a shallow depth. His narrow niches are dominated by the four monumental figures of the Fathers of the Church. The back of…

  • Altavilla, Drogo d’ (count of Apulia)

    Drogo de Hauteville, Norman count of Apulia (1046–51), half brother of the conqueror Robert Guiscard. He led the Norman conquest of southern Italy after the death of his older brother William Iron Arm, whom he succeeded as count of Apulia. Arriving in Italy about 1035 with William and his younger

  • Altavilla, Drogone d’ (count of Apulia)

    Drogo de Hauteville, Norman count of Apulia (1046–51), half brother of the conqueror Robert Guiscard. He led the Norman conquest of southern Italy after the death of his older brother William Iron Arm, whom he succeeded as count of Apulia. Arriving in Italy about 1035 with William and his younger

  • Altavilla, Guglielmo d’ (Norman mercenary)

    William de Hauteville, Norman adventurer, the eldest of 12 Hauteville brothers, a soldier of fortune who led the first contingent of his family from Normandy to southern Italy. He undertook its conquest and quickly became count of Apulia. William and his brothers Drogo and Humphrey responded (c.

  • Altavilla, House of (line of Norman lords)

    House of Hauteville, line of Norman lords and knights who were founders of fiefdoms and kingdoms in southern Italy and Sicily in the 11th and 12th centuries. The wars fought by members of the Hauteville family contributed to a steady reduction of Muslim and Byzantine power in the region. In their

  • Altavilla, Roberto d’ (duke of Apulia)

    Robert, Norman adventurer who settled in Apulia, in southern Italy, about 1047 and became duke of Apulia (1059). He eventually extended Norman rule over Naples, Calabria, and Sicily and laid the foundations of the kingdom of Sicily. Robert was born into a family of knights. Arriving in Apulia, in

  • Altavilla, Umfredo d’ (Norman mercenary)

    Humphrey De Hauteville, soldier of fortune who led the Norman conquest of southern Italy after the deaths of his older brothers William and Drogo and succeeded them as count of Apulia (1051). Arriving in Italy c. 1035, Humphrey fought in Sicily and Apulia, in southern Italy, becoming count of L

  • Altay (republic, Russia)

    Altay, republic, southern Russia, in the Altai Mountains. It s bounded on the south by Mongolia and China. It embraces a complex series of ranges and high plateaus, divided by deep valleys and broad basins, that attain a maximum height of 14,783 feet (4,506 metres) in Mount Belukha. Steppe

  • Altay (kray, Russia)

    Altay, kray (region), southwestern Siberia, Russia. Altay kray lies in the basin of the upper Ob River and its headstreams, the Biya and Katun. The kray borders Kazakhstan in the southwest. Once part of the khanate of Dzungaria, the kray was colonized by the Russians from the 18th century. It

  • Altay (people)

    Altaic languages: The origins of Altaic languages: In historical times the Altaic peoples were concentrated on the steppe lands of Central Asia, and it is believed that the Altaic protolanguage originated on the steppes in or near the region of the Altai Mountains. Furthermore, it is assumed that the Turks have always inhabited the western, the…

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