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  • almemar (Judaism)

    Bimah, (from Arabic al-minbar, “platform”), in Jewish synagogues, a raised platform with a reading desk from which, in the Ashkenazi (German) ritual, the Torah and Haf?arah (a reading from the prophets) are read on the Sabbath and festivals. In the Sephardic (Spanish) rite, the entire service is

  • almemor (Judaism)

    Bimah, (from Arabic al-minbar, “platform”), in Jewish synagogues, a raised platform with a reading desk from which, in the Ashkenazi (German) ritual, the Torah and Haf?arah (a reading from the prophets) are read on the Sabbath and festivals. In the Sephardic (Spanish) rite, the entire service is

  • almen (pasture)

    Alps: Plant and animal life: These distinctive mountain pastures—called alpages, from which both the names of the mountain system and the vegetational zone are derived—are found above the main and lateral valleys; the spread of invasive weeds, pollution from animal wastes, and erosion from ski-related development limit their carrying capacity. In the southern reaches…

  • Almena (opera by Battishill)

    Jonathan Battishill: …and choruses for plays, notably, Almena (1764), an opera produced at Drury Lane as the work of Battishill and Michael Arne. In 1764 he became organist at St. Clement Danes and St. Martin-in-the-Fields and wrote psalm settings and hymns, catches, glees, and madrigals. After his wife left him in 1777,…

  • Almendares River (river, Cuba)

    Almendares River, river of western Cuba, rising at about 740 ft (225 m) in the Alturas (heights) de Bejucal and flowing in a semicircle north and west, then northward across the Cuban coastal plain through the city of Havana, forming the boundary between the neighbourhoods of Vedado and Miramar. It

  • Almendares, Río (river, Cuba)

    Almendares River, river of western Cuba, rising at about 740 ft (225 m) in the Alturas (heights) de Bejucal and flowing in a semicircle north and west, then northward across the Cuban coastal plain through the city of Havana, forming the boundary between the neighbourhoods of Vedado and Miramar. It

  • Almendralejo (city, Spain)

    Almendralejo, city, Badajoz provincia (province), in Extremadura comunidad autónoma (autonomous community), southwestern Spain. Founded in the 13th century, the city has a number of fine old mansions, notably that of the marquéses de Monsalud, which contains a collection of local Roman antiquities.

  • almendro (tree)

    Almendro, (Dipteryx oleifera), large tree in the pea family (Fabaceae) native to tropical forests of Central America. Almendro wood is extremely heavy and dense, making it useful for construction projects such as railroad building and for high-impact sporting goods. Ecologically, the plant is

  • Almendros, Nestor (Spanish cinematographer)

    Nestor Almendros, cinematographer and recipient of an Oscar from the U.S. Motion Picture Academy of Arts and Sciences for the best cinematography for his work on Days of Heaven (1978). Emigrating from Spain to Cuba in 1948, Almendros worked there for several years and made amateur films with Tomás

  • Almería (Spain)

    Almería, port city and capital of Almería provincia (province), in the comunidad autónoma (autonomous community) of Andalusia, southern Spain, on the Mediterranean Gulf of Almería. Known to the Romans as Portus Magnus and to the Moors as Al-Marīyah (“Mirror of the Sea”), it was captured by the

  • Almería (province, Spain)

    Almería, provincia (province) in the comunidad autónoma (autonomous community) of Andalusia, southeastern Spain, bordering the Mediterranean Sea. It was formed in 1833. Primarily mountainous, Almería is crossed by sierras in which terminate successive zones of the Baetic Cordillera. The intervening

  • Almería culture (ancient culture)

    Spain: Prehistory: …settlement at Los Millares (Almería), which extends over five acres (two hectares) and is protected by triple walls of stone reinforced with towers at regular intervals. A formidable barbican with arrow slits and guard chambers projected from the gateway. Those defenses stretch over 330 yards (300 metres) and cut…

  • Almetevsk (Russia)

    Almetyevsk, city, Tatarstan republic, Russia, on the left bank of the Stepnoy (Steppe) Zay River. It was founded in 1950 in connection with the discovery of petroleum in the area. Crude oil is sent from Almetyevsk to refineries at Perm and Kstovo (near Nizhny Novgorod) through pipelines completed

  • Almetyevsk (Russia)

    Almetyevsk, city, Tatarstan republic, Russia, on the left bank of the Stepnoy (Steppe) Zay River. It was founded in 1950 in connection with the discovery of petroleum in the area. Crude oil is sent from Almetyevsk to refineries at Perm and Kstovo (near Nizhny Novgorod) through pipelines completed

  • Almgren, Frederick (American mathematician)

    Plateau problem: …American mathematicians Jean Taylor and Frederick Almgren obtained the mathematical derivation of the Plateau conjecture, which states that, when several soap films join together (for example, when several bubbles meet each other along common interfaces), the angles at which the films meet are either 120 degrees (for three films) or…

  • Almira (opera by Handel)

    George Frideric Handel: Life: …Hamburg of his first opera, Almira.

  • Almirante Brown (cabecera, Argentina)

    Almirante Brown, cabecera (county seat) and partido (county) of Gran (Greater) Buenos Aires, Argentina. It is located south of the city of Buenos Aires, in Buenos Aires provincia (province). The county was founded in 1873, and the county seat is often referred to as Adroqué, the name of its

  • Almirante, Giorgio (Italian political leader)

    fascism: Italy: …led at various times by Giorgio Almirante, Augusto De Marsanich, Arturo Michelini, and Gianfranco Fini. As an official in Mussolini’s Italian Social Republic, a puppet state established by the Germans in northern Italy in 1944, Almirante oversaw the regime’s propaganda machinery. When the MSI was launched in 1946, Almirante sought…

  • Almodóvar Caballero, Pedro Mercedes (Spanish filmmaker)

    Pedro Almodóvar, Spanish filmmaker known for colourful melodramatic films that often feature sexual themes. As a young man, Almodóvar moved to Madrid with the hopes of attending the Spanish national film school, but it had recently been closed under dictator Francisco Franco’s rule. With this

  • Almodóvar, Pedro (Spanish filmmaker)

    Pedro Almodóvar, Spanish filmmaker known for colourful melodramatic films that often feature sexual themes. As a young man, Almodóvar moved to Madrid with the hopes of attending the Spanish national film school, but it had recently been closed under dictator Francisco Franco’s rule. With this

  • almogávares (Spanish mercenary army)

    Michael IX Palaeologus: …Byzantium employed as mercenaries the Catalan Company, led by Roger de Flor, which soon began attacking and robbing Byzantines and Turks alike. Hoping to get rid of them, Michael arranged the murder of Roger de Flor in the imperial palace in April 1305. The Catalans then rebelled and ravaged the…

  • Almohads (Berber confederation)

    Almohads, Berber confederation that created an Islamic empire in North Africa and Spain (1130–1269), founded on the religious teachings of Ibn Tūmart (died 1130). A Berber state had arisen in Tinmel in the Atlas Mountains of Morocco about 1120, inspired by Ibn Tūmart and his demands for puritanical

  • Almon, John (British journalist)

    John Almon, parliamentary reporter and political writer, who took part in the struggle between press and Parliament for the right to publish reports of debates. A friend of the political reformer John Wilkes, he became known in the early 1760s as a Whig pamphleteer and as a bookseller from whose

  • almond (tree and nut)

    Almond, (Prunus dulcis), tree native to southwestern Asia and its edible seed. A member of the family Rosaceae (order Rosales), Prunus dulcis is an economically important crop tree grown primarily in Mediterranean climates between 28° and 48° N and between 20° and 40° S, with California producing

  • almond oil (essential oil)

    Rosales: Chemicals: Almond oil, used for flavouring, is extracted from the bitter almond. The crude oil contains considerable amygdalin and is poisonous, but this is removed during refining. The almonds eaten as nuts come from sweet almond varieties, which do not contain amygdalin and are safe to…

  • Almond, David Paul MacPherson (Canadian film and television director)

    Paul Almond, (David Paul MacPherson Almond), Canadian film and television director (born April 26, 1931, Montreal, Que.—died April 9, 2015, Beverly Hills, Calif.), helped conceive and directed the groundbreaking British TV documentary Seven Up! (1964). Almond and Tim Hewat, the producer of

  • Almond, Edward M. (United States general)

    Edward M. Almond, American army officer who held important command positions during the Korean War. Almond graduated from Virginia Military Institute (VMI) in 1915 and in November 1916 took a commission in the infantry. He was promoted to captain in July 1917 and, upon the entry of the United

  • Almond, Edward Mallory (United States general)

    Edward M. Almond, American army officer who held important command positions during the Korean War. Almond graduated from Virginia Military Institute (VMI) in 1915 and in November 1916 took a commission in the infantry. He was promoted to captain in July 1917 and, upon the entry of the United

  • Almond, Gabriel (American political scientist)

    Gabriel Abraham Almond, American political scientist noted for his comparative studies of political systems and his analysis of political development. Almond received a Ph.D. from the University of Chicago in 1938 and taught at Brooklyn College from 1939 to 1946, except during his service in the

  • Almond, Gabriel Abraham (American political scientist)

    Gabriel Abraham Almond, American political scientist noted for his comparative studies of political systems and his analysis of political development. Almond received a Ph.D. from the University of Chicago in 1938 and taught at Brooklyn College from 1939 to 1946, except during his service in the

  • Almond, Paul (Canadian film and television director)

    Paul Almond, (David Paul MacPherson Almond), Canadian film and television director (born April 26, 1931, Montreal, Que.—died April 9, 2015, Beverly Hills, Calif.), helped conceive and directed the groundbreaking British TV documentary Seven Up! (1964). Almond and Tim Hewat, the producer of

  • almoner (European history)

    Almoner, originally, an officer responsible for distributing alms to the poor, usually connected with a religious house or other institution but also a position with some governments. In the 13th century, almoners were attached to the French court to distribute the royal alms, and in 1486 the

  • almoner

    almoner: …in 1964 by the title medical social worker, the term also used in the United States. Medical social workers are employed by hospitals and public health departments.

  • almonry school

    Almonry school, medieval English monastic charity school supported by a portion of the funds allocated to the almoner (q.v.). The practice began in the early 14th century when a form of scholarship was established that provided attendance at the cathedral school, housing, and food for boys at

  • Almora (India)

    Almora, town, southeastern Uttarakhand state, northern India. It lies on a ridge of the Siwalik Range (foothills of the Himalayas) about 35 miles (55 km) west of Pithoragarh and 170 miles (275 km) northeast of Delhi. After the Gurkhas (ethnic Nepali soldiers) captured Almora in 1790, they built a

  • Almoravids (Berber confederation)

    Almoravids, confederation of Berber tribes—Lamtūnah, Gudālah, Massūfah—of the ?anhājah clan, whose religious zeal and military enterprise built an empire in northwestern Africa and Muslim Spain in the 11th and 12th centuries. These Saharan Berbers were inspired to improve their knowledge of Islamic

  • almost everywhere (logic)

    metalogic: Elementary logic: , “almost everywhere”—an idea that was present in a different form in Skolem’s construction of a nonstandard model of arithmetic in 1933). It follows that, if the given structures are models of a theory, then their ultraproduct is such a model also, because every sentence in…

  • Almost Family (American television series)

    Timothy Hutton: …then starred in the sitcom Almost Family (2019), playing a fertility doctor who, as a sperm donor, fathered a number of children. In addition, he had recurring roles in Tom Clancy’s Jack Ryan, The Haunting of Hill House, and How to Get Away with Murder.

  • Almost Famous (film by Crowe [2000])

    Philip Seymour Hoffman: Ripley (1999), and Almost Famous (2000); in the latter film he played real-life music journalist Lester Bangs. In 2002 he continued his collaboration with Anderson in Punch Drunk Love and drew praise for his work in Spike Lee’s 25th Hour.

  • Almost Perfect Affair, An (film by Ritchie [1979])

    Michael Ritchie: Films: …next made the romantic comedy An Almost Perfect Affair (1979), which was set at the Cannes film festival and offered an inside look at the film industry. Widely panned, it received a limited release.

  • almotacén (Muslim official)

    Aurangzeb: Emperor of India: …that were vigorously enforced by mu?tasibs, or censors of morals. The Muslim confession of faith, for instance, was removed from all coins lest it be defiled by unbelievers, and courtiers were forbidden to salute in the Hindu fashion. In addition, Hindu idols, temples, and shrines were often destroyed.

  • Almquist, Carl Jonas Love (Swedish author)

    Carl Jonas Love Almqvist, writer whose vast literary output, ranging from bizarre romanticism to bold realism, greatly influenced the development of Swedish literature. Although his work is uneven, he is a master of Swedish prose. After studying at Uppsala, Almqvist entered the Department of

  • Almqvist, Carl Jonas Love (Swedish author)

    Carl Jonas Love Almqvist, writer whose vast literary output, ranging from bizarre romanticism to bold realism, greatly influenced the development of Swedish literature. Although his work is uneven, he is a master of Swedish prose. After studying at Uppsala, Almqvist entered the Department of

  • alms (charity)

    history of Europe: Poverty: Alms for the poor figured largely in wills and were a duty of most religious orders. Corporate charity had a larger place in Counter-Reformation Catholicism than in the thinking of Protestants, who stressed private virtues and endowments. The secularization of church property that accompanied the…

  • alms bowl (Buddhism)

    relic: …such as his staff or alms bowl. The alms bowl (patra), particularly, is associated with a romantic tradition of wanderings and, in different historical periods, has been variously reported as located in Peshawar or in Ceylon (Sri Lanka). In addition, the bodily remains and personal effects of the great Buddhist…

  • Alms for Oblivion (work by Raven)

    Simon Raven: …by the 10-part novel sequence Alms for Oblivion, which includes The Rich Pay Late (1964), Fielding Gray (1967), The Judas Boy (1968), Sound the Retreat (1971), and The Survivors (1976). Some characters reappear in his later seven-book series The First-Born of Egypt, which starts with Morning Star (1984) and ends…

  • almsgiving (charity)

    history of Europe: Poverty: Alms for the poor figured largely in wills and were a duty of most religious orders. Corporate charity had a larger place in Counter-Reformation Catholicism than in the thinking of Protestants, who stressed private virtues and endowments. The secularization of church property that accompanied the…

  • almshouse (American institution)

    Almshouse, in the United States, a locally administered public institution for homeless, aged persons without means. Such institutions radically declined in number in the second half of the 20th century, replaced by other means of subsistence and care. Dating to colonial days, the almshouse was

  • almucantar (astronomy)

    Almucantar, in astronomy, any circle of the celestial sphere parallel to the horizon; when two objects are on the same almucantar, they have the same altitude. The term also refers to instruments of a pattern invented by the U.S. astronomer Seth Carlo Chandler for determining latitude or time by

  • almuce (religious garment)

    religious dress: Roman Catholic religious dress: …worn in choir with an almuce over; this last was a lined shoulder cape designed to help the wearer resist the cold of medieval churches.

  • Almudena Cathedral (cathedral, Madrid, Spain)

    Madrid: Modern Madrid: …the Plaza de Oriente is Almudena Cathedral, now the city’s main cathedral. Construction began in 1883, but its completion was long delayed by work stoppages (because of financial constraints and the Spanish Civil War), and it was consecrated in 1993 by Pope John Paul II (a statue of whom is…

  • Almuevennen (Danish newspaper)

    Jens Andersen Hansen: …S?rensen, of the peasant newspaper Almuevennen (“Friend of the Peasantry”) in 1842; he was sole editor from 1843 to 1856. A consistent advocate of universal suffrage and agrarian reform, he served in the Constituent Assembly of 1848–49 that produced the June Constitution of 1849, providing for a Parliament and a…

  • almwirtschaft (economics)

    Alpwirtschaft, type of pastoral nomadism that forms a unique economic system in the Alps and involves the migration of livestock between mountain pastures in warm months and lower elevations the remainder of the year. In German, Alp, or Alm, means mountain pasture, and Wirtschaft means domestic

  • ALN (Algerian military organization)

    National Liberation Front: …Algerian war for independence, the National Liberation Army (Armée de Libération Nationale [ALN]), under the command of Col. Houari Boumedienne, acted as the military arm of the FLN. From camps stationed behind Tunisian and Moroccan borders, the ALN’s external contingent provided logistical support and weaponry to ALN forces within the…

  • Alness (Scotland, United Kingdom)

    Alness, village, Highland council area, historic county of Ross-shire, historic region of Ross and Cromarty, northern Scotland, situated on the northern shore of the Cromarty Firth. The village was planned in the 1970s to accommodate commuters to nearby Invergordon’s new industries, in particular

  • alnico (metallurgy)

    Alnico, any member of a series of alloys used to make powerful permanent magnets. Primary constituents are aluminum, nickel, and cobalt in various proportions, with small amounts of one or more of the elements copper, iron, and titanium added; the titanium-containing material is sometimes referred

  • Alnilam (star)

    star: Classification of spectral types: …hot B-type stars, such as Epsilon Orionis, are characterized by lines of helium and of singly ionized oxygen, nitrogen, and neon. In very hot O-type stars, lines of ionized helium appear. Other prominent features include lines of doubly ionized nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon and of triply ionized silicon, all of…

  • Alnus (plant)

    Alder, any of about 30 species of ornamental shrubs and trees constituting the genus Alnus, in the birch family (Betulaceae), distributed throughout the Northern Hemisphere and western South America on cool, wet sites at elevations up to 2,500 m (8,200 feet). An alder may be distinguished from a

  • Alnus crispa (plant)

    alder: …markings, or lenticels; the aromatic-leaved American green alder (A. crispa or A. mitchelliana); the closely related but taller Sitka alder (A. sinuata); and the mountain, or thinleaf, alder (A. tenuifolia), a shrubby tree with yellow or orange-brown midribs on its leaves and a domelike crown of pendulous branches.

  • Alnus glutinosa (plant)

    alder: The European alder (A. glutinosa), sometimes known as black alder for its dark bark and cones, is widespread throughout Eurasia and is cultivated in several varieties in North America. The name black alder is also applied to winterberry, a type of holly. The green alder (A.…

  • Alnus mitchelliana (plant)

    alder: …markings, or lenticels; the aromatic-leaved American green alder (A. crispa or A. mitchelliana); the closely related but taller Sitka alder (A. sinuata); and the mountain, or thinleaf, alder (A. tenuifolia), a shrubby tree with yellow or orange-brown midribs on its leaves and a domelike crown of pendulous branches.

  • Alnus oregona (tree)

    alder: …North American alders are the red alder (A. rubra, or A. oregona), a tall tree whose leaves have rusty hairs on their lower surfaces; the white, or Sierra, alder (A. rhombifolia), an early-flowering tree with orange-red twigs and buds; the speckled alder (A. rugosa), a small tree with conspicuous whitish,…

  • Alnus rhombifolia (Alnus rhombifolia)

    alder: …on their lower surfaces; the white, or Sierra, alder (A. rhombifolia), an early-flowering tree with orange-red twigs and buds; the speckled alder (A. rugosa), a small tree with conspicuous whitish, wartlike, porous markings, or lenticels; the aromatic-leaved American green alder (A. crispa or A. mitchelliana); the closely related but taller…

  • Alnus rubra (tree)

    alder: …North American alders are the red alder (A. rubra, or A. oregona), a tall tree whose leaves have rusty hairs on their lower surfaces; the white, or Sierra, alder (A. rhombifolia), an early-flowering tree with orange-red twigs and buds; the speckled alder (A. rugosa), a small tree with conspicuous whitish,…

  • Alnus rugosa (plant)

    alder: …orange-red twigs and buds; the speckled alder (A. rugosa), a small tree with conspicuous whitish, wartlike, porous markings, or lenticels; the aromatic-leaved American green alder (A. crispa or A. mitchelliana); the closely related but taller Sitka alder (A. sinuata); and the mountain, or thinleaf, alder (A. tenuifolia), a shrubby tree…

  • Alnus sinuata (plant)

    alder: …the closely related but taller Sitka alder (A. sinuata); and the mountain, or thinleaf, alder (A. tenuifolia), a shrubby tree with yellow or orange-brown midribs on its leaves and a domelike crown of pendulous branches.

  • Alnus tenuifolia (plant)

    alder: sinuata); and the mountain, or thinleaf, alder (A. tenuifolia), a shrubby tree with yellow or orange-brown midribs on its leaves and a domelike crown of pendulous branches.

  • Alnus viridis (Alnus viridis)

    alder: The green alder (A. viridis), a European shrub, has sharply pointed, bright-green leaves. The white alder (A. incana) includes several varieties useful as an ornamental.

  • Alnwick (England, United Kingdom)

    Alnwick, town, unitary authority and historic county of Northumberland, northeastern England. It lies on the south bank of the River Aln, between the Cheviot Hills and the sea. The town is dominated by the Norman castle, after 1309 the principal seat of the Percy family, who later became earls of

  • Alnwick (former district, England, United Kingdom)

    Alnwick, former district, unitary authority and historic county of Northumberland, northern England, that borders Scotland on the northwest and the North Sea on the east. Alnwick descends eastward from the peaty moorlands of the Cheviot Hills, which reach elevations above 2,000 feet (610 metres)

  • Alnwick Castle (castle, England, United Kingdom)

    Alnwick: …is dominated by the Norman castle, after 1309 the principal seat of the Percy family, who later became earls of Northumberland. The castle, now the seat of the dukes of Northumberland, was rehabilitated in the 18th century under the direction of architect Robert Adam, and the surrounding park was landscaped…

  • Alnwick, Baron Percy of (English noble)

    Henry Percy, 1st earl of Northumberland, English statesman, leading figure during the reigns of England’s Richard II and Henry IV. He and his son Sir Henry Percy, the celebrated “Hotspur,” are commemorated in William Shakespeare’s play Henry IV, Part I. Son of the 3rd Baron Percy of Alnwick (died

  • Aloadae (Greek mythology)

    Aloadae, in Greek legend, the twin sons of Iphimedia, the wife of Aloeus, by the god Poseidon. Named Otus and Ephialtes, the Aloadae were of extraordinary strength and stature. The Aloadae attacked the Olympian gods and tried to storm heaven itself, but Apollo destroyed them before they reached

  • Aloe (plant genus)

    Aloe, genus of shrubby succulent plants in the family Asphodelaceae, containing hundreds of species native to Africa, Madagascar, and the Arabian Peninsula. Most members of the genus have a rosette of leaves at the base but no stem. Several species are cultivated as ornamentals for their

  • aloe (plant)

    Mauritius hemp, (Furcraea foetida), plant of the asparagus family (Asparagaceae) and its fibre, belonging to the leaf fibre group. The fibre is made into bagging and other coarse fabrics and is sometimes mixed with other fibres to improve colour in rope. Despite its name, it is not a true hemp. The

  • Aloe vera (plant)

    Aloe: …popular potted plant known as true aloe (Aloe vera), is used as an ingredient in cosmetics and in medicine as a purgative and as a treatment for burns.

  • aloewood (plant)

    Cordia: …leaves of the tropical American geiger tree, aloewood, or sebesten plum (C. sebestena) are used as a substitute for sandpaper. The bright red-orange, six- to seven-lobed flowers are striking and occur in large clusters. The greenish, acid-tasting fruits are edible. The tree grows to 10 metres high (about 33 feet).

  • Alofi (Niue)

    Niue: …capital and largest settlement is Alofi. Area 100 square miles (260 square km). Pop. (2011) 1,613.

  • Alofi Island (island, Wallis and Futuna)

    Horne Islands: …of volcanic islands (Futuna and Alofi) forming the southwestern part of the French overseas collectivity of Wallis and Futuna, in the west-central Pacific Ocean. Futuna (not to be confused with its namesake in Vanuatu, which is said to have been settled from Futuna) is the site of Mount Singavi (also…

  • Aloha Oe (song by Liliuokalani)

    Liliuokalani: …Hawaii’s Queen and composed “Aloha Oe,” a song ever afterward beloved in the islands. Thereafter she withdrew from public life, enjoying a government pension and the homage of islanders and visitors alike.

  • Aloha State (state, United States)

    Hawaii, constituent state of the United States of America. Hawaii (Hawaiian: Hawai‘i) became the 50th U.S. state on August 21, 1959. Hawaii is a group of volcanic islands in the central Pacific Ocean. The islands lie 2,397 miles (3,857 km) from San Francisco, California, to the east and 5,293 miles

  • Alois Leopold Johann Baptist, Graf Lexa von Aehrenthal (Austro-Hungarian foreign minister)

    Alois, Graf Lexa von Aehrenthal, foreign minister (1906–12) of the Austro-Hungarian Dual Monarchy, whose direction of the latter’s annexation of Bosnia and Hercegovina (1908) provoked an international crisis. (See Bosnian crisis of 1908.) Entering the imperial foreign service as attaché in Paris

  • Alois, Crown Prince (prince of Liechtenstein)

    Liechtenstein: History: In 2004 Hans Adam’s son, Crown Prince Alois, assumed the day-to-day responsibilities of royal governance, though his father officially remained head of state. In 2006 the principality celebrated its 200th anniversary.

  • Alojzy, Fortunat (Polish actor and writer)

    Alojzy Fortunat ?ó?kowski, actor, writer, translator, and head of a Polish theatrical family. ?ó?kowski was born into a noble family and served in the army during the revolt of 1794. He made his acting debut in Warsaw in 1798, toured the country for four years, and then joined the National Theatre

  • Alompra (king of Myanmar)

    Alaungpaya, (Burmese: “The Victorious”) king (1752–60) who unified Myanmar (Burma) and founded the Alaungpaya, or Konbaung, dynasty, which held power until the British annexed Upper (northern) Burma on Jan. 1, 1886. He also conquered the independent Mon kingdom of Pegu (in the Irrawaddy River

  • Alone (work by Byrd)

    Richard E. Byrd: Byrd’s accomplishments: …to the South Pole, and Alone (1938) describes his experiences at Bolling Advance Base. Byrd was extremely competent in public relations, and his expeditions were surrounded by a glare of publicity that made him a national hero and an internationally famous figure.

  • Alone with America: Essays on the Art of Poetry in the United States Since 1950 (essay by Howard)

    Richard Howard: In Alone with America: Essays on the Art of Poetry in the United States Since 1950 (1969), Howard offered a critical analysis of the work and styles of 41 American poets. He is perhaps best known for his translation of a vast body of work from…

  • Alonella (branchipod genus)

    crustacean: Size range and diversity of structure: …fleas (class Branchiopoda), such as Alonella, reach lengths of less than 0.25 millimetre (0.009 inch), and many members of the subclass Copepoda are less than one millimetre in length. The range of structure is reflected in the complex classification of the group. Some of the parasitic forms are so modified…

  • Along Came a Spider (novel by Patterson)

    James Patterson: …the promotion of his novel Along Came a Spider (1993; film 2001) by taking the unusual step of creating and financing a television commercial for it. The book, a grisly thriller featuring African American homicide detective Alex Cross, became an instant best seller, and its protagonist resurfaced in more than…

  • Along the Great Divide (film by Walsh [1951])

    Kirk Douglas: …father’s death in Raoul Walsh’s Along the Great Divide (1951); and a volatile and vengeful cop in William Wyler’s Detective Story (1951). He was cast as a corrupt motion-picture executive in Vincente Minnelli’s The Bad and the Beautiful (1952), and the performance earned Douglas his second Oscar nomination. One

  • Aloni, Shulamit (Israeli politician)

    Shulamit Aloni, (Shulamit Adler), Israeli politician (born December 1927, Tel Aviv, British Palestine [now in Israel]—died Jan. 24, 2014, Kfar Shmaryahu, near Tel Aviv), devoted her life to secular liberal causes, opposing both the Israeli occupation of Palestinian territory and the political power

  • Alonso (fictional character)

    The Tempest: …a wedding in Tunis: King Alonso of Naples, his son Ferdinand, his brother Sebastian, and Prospero’s brother, Antonio.

  • Alonso Quixano (fictional character)

    Don Quixote, 17th-century Spanish literary character, the protagonist of the novel Don Quixote by Miguel de Cervantes. The book, originally published in Spanish in two parts (1605, 1615), concerns the eponymous would-be knight errant whose delusions of grandeur make him the butt of many practical

  • Alonso Realonda, José Protasio Rizal Mercado y (Filipino political leader and author)

    José Rizal, patriot, physician, and man of letters who was an inspiration to the Philippine nationalist movement. The son of a prosperous landowner, Rizal was educated in Manila and at the University of Madrid. A brilliant medical student, he soon committed himself to the reform of Spanish rule in

  • Alonso, Alberto Julio Rayneri (Cuban dancer and choreographer)

    Alberto Julio Rayneri Alonso, Cuban dancer, ballet master, and choreographer (born May 22, 1917, Havana, Cuba—died Dec. 31, 2007, Gainesville, Fla.), was cofounder in 1948 (with his brother, Fernando Alonso, and his sister-in-law, Alicia Alonso) of the National Ballet of Cuba and went on to gain

  • Alonso, Alicia (Cuban dancer)

    Alicia Alonso, Cuban ballerina highly regarded for her convincing portrayals of leading roles in the great works of classical and Romantic ballet. She was best known for her lively, precise Giselle and for her sensual, tragic Carmen. Her dance studies began in childhood with flamenco lessons in

  • Alonso, Dámaso (Spanish writer)

    Dámaso Alonso, Spanish poet, literary critic, and scholar, a member of the group of poets called the Generation of 1927. Educated at the University of Madrid, Alonso taught at the Centre of Historical Studies, Madrid (1923–36), and was a professor at the University of Valencia (1933–39) and the

  • Alonso, Fernando (Cuban dancer and ballet master)

    Fernando Alonso, (Fernando Juan Evangelista Eugenio de Jesús Alonso Rayneri), Cuban dancer and ballet master (born Dec. 27, 1914, Havana, Cuba—died July 27, 2013, Havana), nurtured the dancing career of his wife, Alicia Alonso, and later, in collaboration with her, pioneered the Cuban style of

  • Alonso, Giovanni Francesco Antonio (Italian physiologist and physicist)

    Giovanni Alfonso Borelli, Italian physiologist and physicist who was the first to explain muscular movement and other body functions according to the laws of statics and dynamics. He was appointed professor of mathematics at Messina in 1649 and at Pisa in 1656. In 1667 he returned to Messina and in

  • Alonso, Mateo (South American sculptor)

    Western sculpture: 19th-century sculpture: …“Christ of the Andes” by Mateo Alonso erected in 1902 on the border of Chile and Argentina. Abstractions were also endowed with a more urgent ideological content than in former centuries. In France, at least in the great “Triumph of the Republic” by Jules Dalou (unveiled in 1899 in the…

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