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  • Alliance, Treaty of (French-United States history [1778])

    Franco-American Alliance, (Feb. 6, 1778), agreement by France to furnish critically needed military aid and loans to the 13 insurgent American colonies, often considered the turning point of the U.S. War of Independence. Resentful over the loss of its North American empire after the French and

  • Allice shad (fish)

    shad: The Allis (or Allice) shad (A. alosa) of Europe is about 75 cm (30 inches) long and 3.6 kg (8 pounds) in weight. The twaite shad (A. finta) is smaller.

  • allicin (chemical compound)

    organosulfur compound: Disulfides and polysulfides and their oxidized products: …of water and heat on allicin, a biologically active thiosulfinate, or disulfide S-oxide, CH2=CHCH2S(=O)SCH2CH=CH2, in turn formed enzymatically from sulfoxide precursors in the intact garlic bulb (see below Sulfoxides and sulfones: Reactions). Sulfurized olefins are used in extreme pressure lubrication, while a highly resistant sulfur cement

  • Allied (film by Zemeckis [2016])

    Marion Cotillard: …credits included the romantic thriller Allied, in which she starred with Brad Pitt and portrayed a member of the French Resistance who might be a German spy, and the action adventure Assassin’s Creed, based on a video game.

  • Allied Artists Association (British organization)

    Camden Town Group: They thus formed the Allied Artists Association, completely independent of the established art societies such as the Royal Academy. The association held its exhibits of French and English Post-Impressionism at the Royal Albert Hall. In 1911 Sickert’s circle officially became the Camden Town Group. At the three important exhibitions…

  • Allied Chemical & Dye Corporation (American corporation)

    AlliedSignal, former American corporation that became a leading manufacturer of aerospace systems and components before merging with Honeywell International, Inc., in 1999. The corporation was formed in 1920 in the consolidation of several chemical manufacturers; the Barrett Company (founded 1903),

  • Allied Chemical Corporation (American corporation)

    AlliedSignal, former American corporation that became a leading manufacturer of aerospace systems and components before merging with Honeywell International, Inc., in 1999. The corporation was formed in 1920 in the consolidation of several chemical manufacturers; the Barrett Company (founded 1903),

  • Allied Command Operations (international organization)

    North Atlantic Treaty Organization: Organization: …states, subsumes two strategic commands: Allied Command Operations (ACO) and Allied Command Transformation (ACT). ACO is headed by the SACEUR and located at Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE) in Casteau, Belgium. ACT is headquartered in Norfolk, Virginia, U.S. During the alliance’s first 20 years, more than $3 billion worth…

  • Allied Command Transformation (international organization)

    North Atlantic Treaty Organization: Organization: …Allied Command Operations (ACO) and Allied Command Transformation (ACT). ACO is headed by the SACEUR and located at Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE) in Casteau, Belgium. ACT is headquartered in Norfolk, Virginia, U.S. During the alliance’s first 20 years, more than $3 billion worth of “infrastructure” for NATO forces—bases,…

  • Allied Control Council (German history)

    House of Habsburg: Habsburg–Lorraine: After World War II the Allied Control Council in Austria in January 1946 declared that it would support the Austrian government in measures to prevent any return of the Habsburgs, and the law of 1919 was written into the Austrian State Treaty of 1955. In June 1961 the Austrian government…

  • Allied Corporation (American corporation)

    AlliedSignal, former American corporation that became a leading manufacturer of aerospace systems and components before merging with Honeywell International, Inc., in 1999. The corporation was formed in 1920 in the consolidation of several chemical manufacturers; the Barrett Company (founded 1903),

  • Allied Expeditionary Air Forces (international military organization)

    Trafford Leigh-Mallory: …commander in chief of the Allied Expeditionary Air Forces, which were to be used in the projected Allied invasion of France in the spring of 1944. Leigh-Mallory thus became the commander of some 9,000 U.S. and British aircraft allotted to this operation, and he found himself in the middle of…

  • Allied powers (World War II alliance)

    Allied powers: …World War II the chief Allied powers were Great Britain, France (except during the German occupation, 1940–44), the Soviet Union (after its entry in June 1941), the United States (after its entry on December 8, 1941), and China. More generally, the Allies included all the wartime members of the United…

  • Allied powers (World War I)

    Allied powers: The major Allied powers in World War I were Great Britain (and the British Empire), France, and the Russian Empire, formally linked by the Treaty of London of September 5, 1914. Other countries that had been, or came to be, allied by treaty to one or more…

  • Allied powers (international alliance)

    Allied powers, those countries allied in opposition to the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Turkey) in World War I or to the Axis powers (Germany, Italy, and Japan) in World War II. The major Allied powers in World War I were Great Britain (and the British Empire), France, and the

  • Allied Reparations Commission (international relations)

    Germany: Years of economic and political stabilization: A committee of the Allied Reparations Commission headed by the American financier and soon-to-be vice president Charles Dawes had recommended these changes and urged the Allies to grant sizable loans to Germany to assist its economic recovery. The Dawes Plan marked a significant step in the upswing of the…

  • Allied Submarine Detection Investigation Committee (military technology)

    World War II: The Atlantic and the Mediterranean, 1940–41: …vessels had the ASDIC (Anti-Submarine Detection Investigation Committee) device to detect submerged U-boats. By the spring of 1941, under the guidance of Admiral Karl D?nitz, the U-boat commanders were changing their tactic of individual operation to one of wolf-pack attacks: groups of U-boats, disposed in long lines, would rally…

  • Allied-Signal Inc. (American corporation)

    AlliedSignal, former American corporation that became a leading manufacturer of aerospace systems and components before merging with Honeywell International, Inc., in 1999. The corporation was formed in 1920 in the consolidation of several chemical manufacturers; the Barrett Company (founded 1903),

  • AlliedSignal (American corporation)

    AlliedSignal, former American corporation that became a leading manufacturer of aerospace systems and components before merging with Honeywell International, Inc., in 1999. The corporation was formed in 1920 in the consolidation of several chemical manufacturers; the Barrett Company (founded 1903),

  • Allier (department, France)

    Auvergne: …encompassed the central départements of Allier, Puy-de-D?me, Cantal, and Haute-Loire. In 2016 the Auvergne région was joined with the région of Rh?ne-Alpes to form the new administrative entity of Auvergne-Rh?ne-Alpes.

  • Allier River (river, France)

    Allier River, river, central France, that joins the Loire River 4 miles (6 km) west of Nevers after a course of 255 miles (410 km). Rising in Lozère département, it races through deep gorges along structural lines of weakness between the Margeride and Velay mountains. Traversing the basins of

  • Allies (World War II alliance)

    Allied powers: …World War II the chief Allied powers were Great Britain, France (except during the German occupation, 1940–44), the Soviet Union (after its entry in June 1941), the United States (after its entry on December 8, 1941), and China. More generally, the Allies included all the wartime members of the United…

  • Allies (international alliance)

    Allied powers, those countries allied in opposition to the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Turkey) in World War I or to the Axis powers (Germany, Italy, and Japan) in World War II. The major Allied powers in World War I were Great Britain (and the British Empire), France, and the

  • Allies (World War I)

    Allied powers: The major Allied powers in World War I were Great Britain (and the British Empire), France, and the Russian Empire, formally linked by the Treaty of London of September 5, 1914. Other countries that had been, or came to be, allied by treaty to one or more…

  • Alligator (work by Moore)

    Canadian literature: Fiction: …of Newfoundland, and Lisa Moore’s Alligator (2005) dissects lives in contemporary St. John’s, the capital of Newfoundland and Labrador province.

  • alligator (reptile)

    Alligator, (genus Alligator), either of two crocodilians related to the tropical American caimans (family Alligatoridae). Alligators, like other crocodilians, are large animals with powerful tails that are used both in defense and in swimming. Their eyes, ears, and nostrils are placed on top of

  • Alligator (reptile)

    Alligator, (genus Alligator), either of two crocodilians related to the tropical American caimans (family Alligatoridae). Alligators, like other crocodilians, are large animals with powerful tails that are used both in defense and in swimming. Their eyes, ears, and nostrils are placed on top of

  • alligator apple (plant)

    Alligator apple, fruit tree of tropical America valued for its roots. See custard

  • Alligator Baby (story by Munsch)

    Robert Munsch: Munsch’s later books included Alligator Baby (1997), Andrew’s Loose Tooth (1998), Ribbon Rescue (1999), Smelly Socks (2004), Moose! (2011), and The Enormous Suitcase (2017). He was awarded the Order of Canada in 1999.

  • alligator fish (fish)

    Poacher, (family Agonidae), any of the marine fishes of the family Agonidae (order Scorpaeniformes), a group of approximately 50 species that also includes alligatorfishes, sea poachers, and starsnouts. Poachers live in cold water, on the bottom, and are found mainly in the northern Pacific Ocean.

  • alligator gar (fish)

    gar: …and relatively short in the alligator gar (A. spatula) of the southern United States. The alligator gar, reaching a length of about 3 metres (10 feet), is one of the largest of all freshwater fishes. Gars are edible but are almost never eaten in the central and northern United States.…

  • alligator lizard (reptile)

    Alligator lizard, any of 42 lizard species in the subfamily Gerrhonotinae of the family Anguidae in any of the following genera: Abronia, Barisia, Elgaria, Gerrhonotus, and Mesaspis. Alligator lizards are found from southern British Columbia and the northwestern United States through Mexico and

  • Alligator mississippiensis (reptile)

    alligator: The American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis), the larger of the two species, is found in the southeastern United States. It is black with yellow banding when young and is generally brownish when adult. The maximum length is about 5.8 metres (19 feet), but it more typically ranges…

  • alligator pear (fruit and tree)

    Avocado, fruit of Persea americana of the family Lauraceae, a tree native to the Western Hemisphere from Mexico south to the Andean regions. Avocado fruits have greenish or yellowish flesh with a buttery consistency and a rich, nutty flavour. They are often eaten in salads, and in many parts of the

  • Alligator People, The (film by Del Ruth [1959])

    Roy Del Ruth: Later work: …the well-done low-budget horror picture The Alligator People, with Lon Chaney, Jr., and Beverly Garland. His final film was Why Must I Die? (1960), an account of Barbara Graham, a party girl convicted and executed for murder; it was an alternate treatment to director Robert Wise’s I Want to Live!…

  • Alligator Rivers (rivers, Northern Territory, Australia)

    Alligator Rivers, three perennial rivers, northeastern Northern Territory, Australia, that empty into Van Diemen Gulf, an inlet of the Timor Sea. They were explored in 1818–20 by Captain Phillip Parker King, who named them in the belief that the crocodiles infesting their lower swampy,

  • Alligator sinensis (reptile)

    alligator: The Chinese alligator (A. sinensis) is a much smaller, little-known reptile found in the Yangtze River region of China. It is similar to the larger form but attains a maximum length of about 2.1 metres (7 feet)—although usually growing to 1.5 metres—and is blackish with faint…

  • alligator snapping turtle (reptile)

    turtle: Habitats: The alligator snapping turtle (Macrochelys temmincki) lives in the deep, slow-moving streams and backwaters of the U.S. Gulf Coast. Map turtles (Graptemys), on the other hand, select the faster-flowing waters of those same streams. The saltwater terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin) lives in brackish coastal estuaries and marshes from

  • alligator weed (plant)
  • Alligatoridae (reptile family)

    crocodile: Annotated classification: Family Alligatoridae (alligators and caimans) 4 genera and 8 species; teeth of lower jaw fit inside those of upper jaw. Family Crocodylidae (true crocodiles) 3 genera and 14 species; teeth of upper and lower jaws form one interdigitating row when mouth

  • Allilueva, Svetlana (Russian writer)

    Svetlana Alliluyeva, Russian-born daughter of Soviet ruler Joseph Stalin; her defection to the United States in 1967 caused an international sensation. She was Stalin’s only daughter and a product of his second marriage with Nadezhda Alliluyeva, who committed suicide in 1932. Svetlana graduated

  • Alliluyeva, Svetlana (Russian writer)

    Svetlana Alliluyeva, Russian-born daughter of Soviet ruler Joseph Stalin; her defection to the United States in 1967 caused an international sensation. She was Stalin’s only daughter and a product of his second marriage with Nadezhda Alliluyeva, who committed suicide in 1932. Svetlana graduated

  • Allin, Erskine S. (American inventor)

    small arm: The bolt action: …hinged-breech “trap-door” mechanism, developed by Erskine S. Allin at the Springfield Armory, in which the top of the breech was flipped forward along the top of the barrel. The first Model 1866 was a converted .58-inch musket, the second Model 1866 was a new rifle in .50-inch calibre, and subsequent…

  • Allin, the Right Rev. John Maury (American religious leader)

    The Right Rev. John Maury Allin, American religious leader who was the Episcopal Church’s 23rd presiding bishop, serving from 1974 to 1986; he was active in efforts to raise money for the rebuilding of over 100 firebombed black churches but was unwilling to support the ordination of women (b. April

  • Allin-Springfield rifle

    small arm: The bolt action: …Model 1866 was a new rifle in .50-inch calibre, and subsequent versions were built in .45-inch calibre. These weapons, born of postwar starvation budgets, continued to use components introduced with the Model 1855 muzzle-loaders.

  • Allingham, Margery (British author)

    Margery Allingham, British detective-story writer of unusual subtlety, wit, and imaginative power who created the bland, bespectacled, keen-witted Albert Campion, one of the most interesting of fictional detectives. Campion’s career was begun with a group of ingenious popular thrillers: The Crime

  • Allingham, Margery Louise (British author)

    Margery Allingham, British detective-story writer of unusual subtlety, wit, and imaginative power who created the bland, bespectacled, keen-witted Albert Campion, one of the most interesting of fictional detectives. Campion’s career was begun with a group of ingenious popular thrillers: The Crime

  • Allioideae (plant subfamily)

    Allioideae, subfamily of flowering plants in the family Amaryllidaceae (order Asparagales), with about 18 genera distributed throughout most regions of the world, except for the tropics, Australia, and New Zealand. Although formerly treated as its own family (Alliaceae), Allioideae has been

  • Allis shad (fish)

    shad: The Allis (or Allice) shad (A. alosa) of Europe is about 75 cm (30 inches) long and 3.6 kg (8 pounds) in weight. The twaite shad (A. finta) is smaller.

  • Allison, Bobby (American stock-car racer)

    Bobby Allison, American stock-car racer who was one of the winningest drivers in National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR) history and a member of one of the most notable, and most tragic, families in racing. A NASCAR champion in 1983, he raced competitively at NASCAR’s highest level

  • Allison, Davey (American race-car driver)

    Davey Allison, U.S. race-car driver (born Feb. 25, 1961, Hueytown, Ala.—died July 13, 1993, Birmingham, Ala.), won 19 titles while competing on the Winston Cup tour, including the National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing’s (NASCAR’s) 1992 Daytona 500, the sport’s premier race. He was named R

  • Allison, Dennis (American engineer)

    computer: Early computer enthusiasts: Dennis Allison wrote a version of BASIC for these early personal computers and, with Bob Albrecht, published the code in 1975 in a newsletter called Dr. Dobb’s Journal of Computer Calisthenics and Orthodontia, later changed to Dr. Dobb’s Journal. Dr. Dobb’s is still publishing programming…

  • Allison, Fran (American actress)

    puppetry: Puppetry in the contemporary world: …Dragon, who exchanged repartee with Fran Allison, a human actress standing outside the booth. In 1969, puppets were introduced on the educational program “Sesame Street”; these were created by Jim Henson and represented a type of figure that reached its full potential in “The Muppet Show,” which attracted enormous audiences…

  • Allison, Graham T. (American political scientist)

    bureaucratic politics approach: …of bureaucratic politics begin with Graham T. Allison’s 1969 article in The American Political Science Review, “Conceptual Models and the Cuban Missile Crisis,” although this work built on earlier writings by Charles Lindblom, Richard Neustadt, Samuel Huntington, and others. Allison provides an analysis of the Cuban missile crisis that contrasts…

  • Allison, James P. (American immunologist)

    James P. Allison, American immunologist who contributed to the discovery of mechanisms underlying T-cell activation and who was a pioneer in the development of immune checkpoint therapy for cancer. For his discoveries, Allison shared the 2018 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine with Japanese

  • Allison, Luther (American musician)

    Luther Allison, American blues singer and guitarist who during a 30-year career appeared with almost all of the leading blues performers and also served as an influence on rock and roll; although he was especially popular in Europe and had moved to Paris in 1983, recent American albums had brought

  • Allison, Robert Arthur (American stock-car racer)

    Bobby Allison, American stock-car racer who was one of the winningest drivers in National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR) history and a member of one of the most notable, and most tragic, families in racing. A NASCAR champion in 1983, he raced competitively at NASCAR’s highest level

  • Allison, William B. (American politician)

    William B. Allison, U.S. representative (1863–71) and senator (1873–1908) from Iowa, cosponsor of the Bland-Allison Act of 1878, which expanded U.S. Treasury purchase of silver bullion and restored the silver dollar as legal tender. Allison practiced law in his hometown of Ashland, Ohio, and (from

  • Allison, William Boyd (American politician)

    William B. Allison, U.S. representative (1863–71) and senator (1873–1908) from Iowa, cosponsor of the Bland-Allison Act of 1878, which expanded U.S. Treasury purchase of silver bullion and restored the silver dollar as legal tender. Allison practiced law in his hometown of Ashland, Ohio, and (from

  • alliteration (literature)

    Alliteration, in prosody, the repetition of consonant sounds at the beginning of words or stressed syllables. Sometimes the repetition of initial vowel sounds (head rhyme) is also referred to as alliteration. As a poetic device, it is often discussed with assonance and consonance. In languages

  • alliterative prose (literature)

    Alliterative prose, prose that uses alliteration and some of the techniques of alliterative verse. Notable examples are from Old English and Middle English, including works by the Anglo-Saxon writer Aelfric and the so-called Katherine Group of five Middle English devotional

  • alliterative verse (literature)

    Alliterative verse, early verse of the Germanic languages in which alliteration, the repetition of consonant sounds at the beginning of words or stressed syllables, is a basic structural principle rather than an occasional embellishment. Although alliteration is a common device in almost all

  • allitic crust (geology)

    duricrust: Distribution of duricrusts: Allitic crusts yield commercial bauxite. Detrital and valley-floor duricrusts occur in all these countries, chiefly adjacent to the margins of residual caps. These crusts include economic reserves of manganese ore in western Africa and silicified terrace gravels in southern Australia. Possible combinations of terrain, weathering,…

  • allium (plant)

    Allium, (genus Allium), large genus of onion- or garlic-scented bulbous herbs of the amaryllis family (Amaryllidaceae). Allium species are found in most regions of the world except the tropics and New Zealand and Australia. Several are important food crops, including the onion (Allium cepa), garlic

  • Allium (plant)

    Allium, (genus Allium), large genus of onion- or garlic-scented bulbous herbs of the amaryllis family (Amaryllidaceae). Allium species are found in most regions of the world except the tropics and New Zealand and Australia. Several are important food crops, including the onion (Allium cepa), garlic

  • Allium ampeloprasum variety porrum (plant)

    Leek, (Allium porrum), hardy biennial plant of the amaryllis family (Amaryllidaceae), grown as a vegetable. The leek is an ancient crop and is native to eastern Mediterranean lands and the Middle East. The plant is related to the onion and has a mild, sweet, onionlike flavour. Leek stalks are

  • Allium cepa (plant)

    Onion, (Allium cepa), herbaceous biennial plant in the amaryllis family (Amaryllidaceae), grown for its edible bulb. The onion is likely native to southwestern Asia but is now grown throughout the world, chiefly in the temperate zones. Onions are low in nutrients but are valued for their flavour

  • Allium porrum (plant)

    Leek, (Allium porrum), hardy biennial plant of the amaryllis family (Amaryllidaceae), grown as a vegetable. The leek is an ancient crop and is native to eastern Mediterranean lands and the Middle East. The plant is related to the onion and has a mild, sweet, onionlike flavour. Leek stalks are

  • Allium sativum (plant)

    Garlic, (Allium sativum), perennial plant of the amaryllis family (Amaryllidaceae), grown for its flavourful bulbs. The plant is native to central Asia but grows wild in Italy and southern France and is a classic ingredient in many national cuisines. The bulbs have a powerful onionlike aroma and

  • Allium schoenoprasum (plant)

    Chive, (Allium schoenoprasum), small perennial plant of the amaryllis family (Amaryllidaceae), related to the onion. Chives are grown as ornamentals for their attractive flowers and as a potherb for their flavourful leaves. The leaves can be used fresh or dried and are a common seasoning for eggs,

  • Allix, Andre (French geographer)

    hinterland: In the early 20th century, Andre Allix adopted the German word Umland (“land around”) to describe the economic realm of an inland town, while continuing to accept hinterland in reference to ports. Allix pointed out that umland (now a standard English term) is found in late 19th-century German dictionaries, but…

  • Allix, Pierre (French scholar)

    biblical literature: Uncials: …the French preacher and scholar Pierre Allix; and Tischendorf, with the use of chemical reagents, later deciphered the almost 60 percent of the New Testament contained in it, publishing it in 1843. The text had two correctors after the 5th century but is, on the whole, Byzantine and reflects the…

  • Allman Brothers Band, the (American rock group)

    The Allman Brothers Band, American rock band whose bluesy, jam-oriented sound helped spark the Southern rock movement of the 1970s and set the stage for several generations of roots-oriented improvisational rock bands. The members were Duane Allman (in full Howard Duane Allman; b. November 20,

  • Allman, Duane (American musician)

    the Allman Brothers Band: The members were Duane Allman (in full Howard Duane Allman; b. November 20, 1946, Nashville, Tennessee, U.S.—d. October 29, 1971, Macon, Georgia, U.S.), Gregg Allman (in full Gregory Lenoir Allman; b. December 8, 1947, Nashville, Tennessee, U.S.—d. May 27, 2017, Savannah, Georgia), Berry Oakley (in full Raymond Berry…

  • Allman, Gregg (American musician)

    the Allman Brothers Band: ), Gregg Allman (in full Gregory Lenoir Allman; b. December 8, 1947, Nashville, Tennessee, U.S.—d. May 27, 2017, Savannah, Georgia), Berry Oakley (in full Raymond Berry Oakley III; b. April 4, 1948, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.—d. November 11, 1972, Macon, Georgia), Dickey Betts (in full Forrest Richard…

  • Allman, Gregory Lenoir (American musician)

    the Allman Brothers Band: ), Gregg Allman (in full Gregory Lenoir Allman; b. December 8, 1947, Nashville, Tennessee, U.S.—d. May 27, 2017, Savannah, Georgia), Berry Oakley (in full Raymond Berry Oakley III; b. April 4, 1948, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.—d. November 11, 1972, Macon, Georgia), Dickey Betts (in full Forrest Richard…

  • Allman, Howard Duane (American musician)

    the Allman Brothers Band: The members were Duane Allman (in full Howard Duane Allman; b. November 20, 1946, Nashville, Tennessee, U.S.—d. October 29, 1971, Macon, Georgia, U.S.), Gregg Allman (in full Gregory Lenoir Allman; b. December 8, 1947, Nashville, Tennessee, U.S.—d. May 27, 2017, Savannah, Georgia), Berry Oakley (in full Raymond Berry…

  • Alloa (Scotland, United Kingdom)

    Clackmannanshire: Alloa, the administrative centre of the council area, is also a commercial centre. Area council area, 61 square miles (157 square km). Pop. (2001) council area, 48,077; (2011) 51,442.

  • Allobroges (people)

    Allobroges, ancient Celtic tribe that lived in the part of southeastern France bounded by the Rh?ne and Isère rivers and in the area around present-day Geneva. The Allobroges are first mentioned by the 2nd-century-bc Greek historian Polybius as inhabitants of a territory Hannibal passed through in

  • allochemical rock (geology)

    sedimentary rock: …clastic sedimentary rocks and (2) allochemical and orthochemical sedimentary rocks.

  • Allocutio de iis quorum Latini incusantur (work by Theophylactus of Ochrida)

    Theophylactus Of Ochrida: In his Allocutio de iis quorum Latini incusantur (c. 1090; “Address on Matters for Which the Latins Are Attacked”), Theophylactus sharply criticized his Greek co-religionists for slandering Western Christianity. Nonetheless, he disputed the papal claims to primacy over all Christendom and Western theological speculation on the Trinity.…

  • allocution (papal address)

    Allocution, historically, an address made by the pope in the course of a secret consistory. The reign of Pius XII (1939–58), however, saw addresses (allocutiones) to various congresses and conventions of doctors, scientists, jurists, and other professionals. These speeches became the occasion of

  • allocution (law)

    allocution: In common law, allocution is an unsworn address by a defendant to the court, after a guilty verdict has been reached but prior to sentencing. The statement is typically used as an attempt to persuade the judge to impose a more lenient sentence.

  • allodial land (land tenure)

    Allodium, land freely held, without obligation of service to any overlord. Allodial land tenure was of particular significance in western Europe during the Middle Ages, when most land was held by feudal tenure. At the end of the 9th century the extent of allodial land in France was increased by the

  • allodium (land tenure)

    Allodium, land freely held, without obligation of service to any overlord. Allodial land tenure was of particular significance in western Europe during the Middle Ages, when most land was held by feudal tenure. At the end of the 9th century the extent of allodial land in France was increased by the

  • allogeneic transplant (surgery)

    Allograft, in medical procedures, the transfer of tissue between genetically nonidentical members of the same species, although of a compatible blood type. Allografts are commonly used in the transplants of skin, corneas, hearts, livers, kidneys, and bone and bone marrow, although transplants of

  • allograft (surgery)

    Allograft, in medical procedures, the transfer of tissue between genetically nonidentical members of the same species, although of a compatible blood type. Allografts are commonly used in the transplants of skin, corneas, hearts, livers, kidneys, and bone and bone marrow, although transplants of

  • allogrooming (animal behaviour)

    animal communication: Signal production: …another individual, called allopreening or allogrooming, has both hygienic and signal functions in many birds and mammals. Courtship signals may include a tactile component for synchronizing mating or gamete release. Roosting with body contact not only preserves heat but also appears to signal pair or group affiliations in mammals and…

  • allometry (biology)

    Allometry, in biology, the change in organisms in relation to proportional changes in body size. An example of allometry can be seen in mammals. Ranging from the mouse to the elephant, as the body gets larger, in general hearts beat more slowly, brains get bigger, bones get proportionally shorter

  • allomorph (linguistics)

    linguistics: Morphology: …morpheme are said to be allomorphs of that morpheme. For example, the regular plurals of English nouns are formed by adding one of three morphs on to the form of the singular: /s/, /z/, or /iz/ (in the corresponding written forms both /s/ and /z/ are written -s and /iz/…

  • Allomyces (fungus)

    fungus: Sexual pheromones: In Allomyces (order Blastocladiales) a pheromone named sirenin, secreted by the female gametes, attracts the male gametes, which swim toward the former and fuse with them. In some simple fungi, which may have gametangia that are not differentiated structurally, a complex biochemical interplay between mating types…

  • Allon Plan (Arab-Israeli history)

    Yigal Allon: …prime minister, he developed a peace plan that proposed restoring most of the West Bank territory to Jordan while retaining military settlements along the Jordan River. The plan was never adopted but spurred the growth of Israeli settlements in the occupied territories in subsequent decades. His unexpected death occurred while…

  • Allon, Yigal (Israeli politician)

    Yigal Allon, Israeli soldier and politician who was best known as the architect of the Allon Plan, a peace initiative that he formulated after Israel captured Arab territory in the Six-Day War of June 1967. Allon was one of the first commanders of the Palmach, an elite branch of the Haganah, a

  • allopatric speciation (biology)

    evolution: Geographic speciation: One common mode of speciation is known as geographic, or allopatric (in separate territories), speciation. The general model of the speciation process advanced in the previous section applies well to geographic speciation. The first stage begins as a result of geographic separation between…

  • allopatry (biology)

    evolution: Geographic speciation: One common mode of speciation is known as geographic, or allopatric (in separate territories), speciation. The general model of the speciation process advanced in the previous section applies well to geographic speciation. The first stage begins as a result of geographic separation between…

  • allophane (mineralogy)

    clay mineral: Imogolite and allophane: Imogolite is an aluminosilicate with an approximate composition of SiO2 · Al2O3 · 2.5H2O. This mineral was discovered in 1962 in a soil derived from glassy volcanic ash known as “imogo.” Electron-optical observations indicate that imogolite has a unique morphological feature of smooth and…

  • allophone (linguistics)

    Allophone, one of the phonetically distinct variants of a phoneme (q.v.). The occurrence of one allophone rather than another is usually determined by its position in the word (initial, final, medial, etc.) or by its phonetic environment. Speakers of a language often have difficulty in hearing the

  • Allophylus (plant genus)

    Sapindales: Distribution and abundance: Allophylus is a tropical and subtropical genus of shrubs and trees, with anywhere from 1 to 200 species recognized by some botanists.

  • allopolyploidy (botany)

    evolution: Polyploidy: …from a single species, and allopolyploids, which stem from a combination of chromosome sets from different species. Allopolyploid plant species are much more numerous than autopolyploids.

  • allopreening (avian behaviour)

    animal communication: Signal production: …grooming of another individual, called allopreening or allogrooming, has both hygienic and signal functions in many birds and mammals. Courtship signals may include a tactile component for synchronizing mating or gamete release. Roosting with body contact not only preserves heat but also appears to signal pair or group affiliations in…

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