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  • Ali, Choudhry Rahmat (Indian-Pakistani politician)

    India: Muslim separatism: …students at Cambridge, led by Choudhary Rahmat Ali, proposed that the only acceptable solution to Muslim India’s internal conflicts and problems would be the birth of a Muslim “fatherland,” to be called Pakistan (Persian: “Land of the Pure”), out of the Muslim-majority northwestern and northeastern provinces. The Muslim League and…

  • Ali, Laila (American boxer)

    Muhammad Ali: One of his daughters, however, Laila Ali, pursued a career as a professional boxer during which she went undefeated in 24 bouts between 1999 and 2007 while capturing a number of titles in various weight classes.

  • Ali, Mahershala (American actor)

    Mahershala Ali, American actor who rose to prominence in the 2010s and won an Academy Award for his moving and nuanced performance as the fatherly drug dealer Juan in the film Moonlight (2016). Ali grew up in Hayward, California. His mother was a Baptist minister, and his father left the family

  • Ali, Muhammad (American boxer)

    Muhammad Ali, American professional boxer and social activist. Ali was the first fighter to win the world heavyweight championship on three separate occasions; he successfully defended this title 19 times. Cassius Marcellus Clay, Jr., grew up in the American South in a time of segregated public

  • ?Alī, Mu?ammad Kurd (Syrian scholar)

    Islamic arts: Arab literatures: …1946), of Druze origin, and Mu?ammad Kurd ?Alī (died 1953), the founder of the Arab Academy of Damascus, each of whom, by encouraging a new degree of awareness, made an important contribution to the education of modern historians and persons of letters. An inclination toward Romanticism can be detected in…

  • Ali, Rashied (American musician)

    Rashied Ali, (Robert Patterson, Jr.), American musician (born July 1, 1935, Philadelphia, Pa.—died Aug. 12, 2009, New York, N.Y.), was among the first to depart from the drummer’s traditional role in jazz by playing pure interplay with soloists rather than “keeping time”—indicating tempo and metre.

  • ?li-Bayraml? (Azerbaijan)

    Azerbaijan: Economic regions: …located in B?rd?, Salyan, and ?li-Bayraml?, all of which, in addition to being on the Kura River, have the advantage of being located on railways and motor roads. A thermal power station stands near ?li-Bayraml?.

  • Ali: Fear Eats the Soul (film by Fassbinder)

    Rainer Werner Fassbinder: …Angst essen Seele auf (1973; Ali: Fear Eats the Soul), a tale of doomed romance between a German cleaning woman and a much younger Moroccan mechanic; and In einem Jahr mit 13 Monden (1979; In a Year of 13 Moons), a political allegory concerning a transsexual who regrets having undergone…

  • Alia, Ramiz (president of Albania)

    Ramiz Alia, president of Albania (1982–92) and head of the communist Party of Labour of Albania (1985–91), renamed the Socialist Party of Albania in 1991. Alia, the son of Muslim parents from the Albanian-speaking region of Kosovo in what was then Yugoslavia, attended a French secondary school in

  • Aliákmon River (river, Greece)

    Aliákmon River, river, the longest in Greek Macedonia (Modern Greek: Makedonía). The river’s total length is 185 miles (297 km). Rising in the Grámmos Mountains of the eastern Pindus (Píndos) Range on the Albanian frontier, the Aliákmon River flows southeast through gentle valleys and basins and is

  • Aliákmonos River (river, Greece)

    Aliákmon River, river, the longest in Greek Macedonia (Modern Greek: Makedonía). The river’s total length is 185 miles (297 km). Rising in the Grámmos Mountains of the eastern Pindus (Píndos) Range on the Albanian frontier, the Aliákmon River flows southeast through gentle valleys and basins and is

  • Alianca Democrática (political organization, Portugal)

    Portugal: The 1976 constitution and subsequent reforms: …constitution, a centre-right coalition, the Democratic Alliance (Alianca Democrática), swept into power. The new government swiftly moved to revise the character of the 1976 constitution. The Assembly of the Republic approved a series of reforms that included reducing the powers of the president and abolishing the Council of the Revolution,…

  • Alian?a Renovadora Nacional (political party, Brazil)

    Brazil: Political parties: …a single government party, the National Renewal Alliance, and a lone opposition party, the Brazilian Democratic Movement. The government abolished these two organizations in 1979 and allowed more parties to participate but still under restrictive regulations. After civilian government was restored in 1985, Brazil again legalized all political parties, and…

  • Alianza Bolivariana para los Pueblos de Nuestra América (international organization)

    Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America (ALBA), regional bloc, organized in 2004, that aims for social, political, and economic integration in Latin America and the Caribbean. ALBA, which means “dawn” in Spanish, was conceived by Venezuelan Pres. Hugo Chávez and was created by Venezuela

  • Alianza Democrática (political organization, Chile)

    Chile: Government: …this group was renamed the Coalition of Parties for Democracy (Concertación de los Partidos por la Democracia; CPD). Negotiations between the CPD and Pinochet’s government in 1989 resulted in the removal of the ban on Marxist parties, just one of the amendments to the 1981 constitution that was voted on…

  • Alianza Liberal (political party, Nicaragua)

    Nicaragua: Nicaragua from 1990 to 2006: …and the newly formed right-wing Liberal Alliance (Alianza Liberal; AL), a coalition of three liberal parties, were the main contenders in the 1996 national elections. Daniel Ortega was the FSLN’s presidential candidate, and his party campaigned for expanded social services and civil liberties, national unity, and, in contrast to its…

  • Alianza Patriótica para el Cambio (political party, Paraguay)

    Paraguay: Paraguay in the 21st century: …Lugo of the centre-left coalition Patriotic Alliance for Change (Alianza Patriótica para el Cambio; APC) defeated Blanca Ovelar of the Colorado Party, ending that party’s 62 years of continuous rule.

  • Alianza Popular (political party, Spain)

    Popular Party, Spanish conservative political party. The Popular Party (PP) traces its origins to the Popular Alliance, a union of seven conservative political parties formed in the 1970s by Manuel Fraga Iribarne, a prominent cabinet member under Spain’s longtime dictator Francisco Franco. In March

  • Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana (political party, Peru)

    APRA, political party founded by Víctor Raúl Haya de la Torre (1924), which dominated Peruvian politics for decades. Largely synonymous with the so-called Aprista movement, it was dedicated to Latin American unity, the nationalization of foreign-owned enterprises, and an end to the exploitation of

  • Alianza Republicana Nacionalista (political party, El Salvador)

    El Salvador: Civil war: …a new political organization, the Nationalist Republican Alliance (Alianza Republicana Nacionalista; Arena), led by retired major Roberto D’Aubuisson Arrieta.

  • Alias (American television series)

    J.J. Abrams: …go-ahead for another series creation: Alias (2001–06), a fast-paced modern spy drama. The well-reviewed program was a testament to creator–executive producer (and even theme-song composer) Abrams’s drive, but he was frustrated by the series’ frequent time-slot moves, which he believed contributed to its relatively poor ratings and eventual cancellation.

  • Alias Grace (novel by Atwood)

    Margaret Atwood: … (1993; television film 2007); and Alias Grace (1996), a fictionalized account of a real-life Canadian girl who was convicted of two murders in a sensationalist 1843 trial; a TV miniseries based on the latter work aired in 2017, written by Atwood and Sarah Polley. Atwood’s 2005 novel, The Penelopiad: The…

  • Alias Grace (Canadian-American television series)

    David Cronenberg: Other work: …reverend in the TV miniseries Alias Grace (2017). Cronenberg also penned the novel Consumed (2014), about a salacious pair of journalists investigating a philosopher who may have eaten his wife.

  • Alias Nick Beal (film by Farrow [1949])

    John Farrow: Films of the 1940s: Alias Nick Beal (1949) was one of Farrow’s best films; Milland was cast against type as the devil, who tries to corrupt an honest politician (Thomas Mitchell). The subject matter was likely of special interest to Farrow, who had converted to Roman Catholicism; he later…

  • Alibaba Group (Chinese company)

    Jack Ma: …who was head of the Alibaba Group, which comprised several of China’s most popular Web sites, including the business-to-business marketplace Alibaba.com and the shopping site Taobao.com.

  • Alibates Flint Quarries and Texas Panhandle Pueblo Culture National Monument (archaeological site, Texas, United States)

    Alibates Flint Quarries National Monument, archaeological site in northwestern Texas, U.S. It lies 30 miles (48 km) north-northeast of Amarillo, near Borger. Lake Meredith National Recreation Area adjoins it to the north and west. Established in 1965 as Alibates Flint Quarries and Texas Panhandle

  • Alibates Flint Quarries National Monument (archaeological site, Texas, United States)

    Alibates Flint Quarries National Monument, archaeological site in northwestern Texas, U.S. It lies 30 miles (48 km) north-northeast of Amarillo, near Borger. Lake Meredith National Recreation Area adjoins it to the north and west. Established in 1965 as Alibates Flint Quarries and Texas Panhandle

  • Alicante (Spain)

    Alicante, port city, capital of Alicante provincia (province), in the comunidad autónoma (autonomous community) of Valencia, southeastern Spain. It is located on Alicante Bay of the Mediterranean Sea. Founded as Akra Leuke (“White Summit”) by Phocaean Greeks (from the west coast of Asia Minor) in

  • Alicante (province, Spain)

    Alicante, provincia (province) in Valencia comunidad autónoma (autonomous community), southeastern Spain. It was formed in 1833 from parts of the historical provinces of Valencia and Murcia. The barren mountain terrain of the north and northwest stands in contrast to the densely populated southern

  • alicatado (mosaic)

    Alicatado, mosaic formed of polygonal, coloured glazed tiles. Made up into geometric patterns, they have been used mostly for paving Spanish and Moorish patios but also for wall surfaces. The expansion of the lands under Christian control in Spain in the 13th century led to a mixture of Gothic and

  • Alice (South Africa)

    Alice, town, Eastern Cape province, South Africa. It lies on the southwestern bank of the Tyume River, west-northwest of East London, at an elevation of 1,720 feet (524 m). Alice began as a mission station established by the Glasgow Missionary Society for the Xhosa people in 1824. It was named

  • Alice (theatrical work)

    Robert Wilson: …Rider (1990) and continued with Alice (1992), a retelling of the Lewis Carroll books, both with music by Tom Waits. The final installment, Time Rocker (1996), had more to do with Wilson’s minimalist decor and lighting and less with music (by Lou Reed) and dialogue (by Darryl Pinckney). Dubbed “art…

  • Alice (film by ?vankmajer)

    Jan ?vankmajer: …film, Něco z Alenky (1988; Alice), is a sinister adaptation of Lewis Carroll’s Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland (1865). The film combines animation, puppetry, and live action to evoke a fantasy-like quality while distorting these elements to create an ominous atmosphere.

  • Alice (film by Allen [1990])

    Woody Allen: The 1990s: Alice (1990), an extremely quiet film, received indifferent reviews, but it arguably contained Farrow’s best performance in any of Allen’s films as a wealthy woman who is sent down a fantasy rabbit hole by an ancient Chinese sage. After performing opposite Bette Midler in Paul…

  • Alice Adams (film by Stevens [1935])

    George Stevens: Swing Time, Gunga Din, and Woman of the Year: …given his first high-profile assignment, Alice Adams, an adaptation of Booth Tarkington’s Pulitzer Prize-winning novel. It starred Katharine Hepburn as a lonely small-town woman who tries desperately to become a member of the elite social circle; Fred MacMurray was her upper-class beau and Hattie McDaniel her hired maid. The film…

  • Alice Adams (novel by Tarkington)

    Alice Adams, novel by Booth Tarkington, published in 1921. The story of the disintegration of a lower-middle-class family in a small Midwestern town, Alice Adams was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for best novel in 1922. A social climber, the title character is ashamed of her unsuccessful family.

  • Alice Cooper (American rock group)

    Alice Cooper, American hard rock band that shared its name with its leader. In addition to producing a string of hits in the 1970s, Alice Cooper was among the first rock groups to infuse their performances with theatrics. The members were Alice Cooper (original name Vincent Furnier; b. Feb. 4,

  • Alice Doesn’t Live Here Anymore (film by Scorsese [1974])

    Martin Scorsese: Films of the 1970s: Mean Streets, Taxi Driver, and New York, New York: …mainstream studio picture, the tamer Alice Doesn’t Live Here Anymore (1974), which had little of the pyrotechnic invention of Mean Streets. But in its own subdued way, Alice Doesn’t Live Here Anymore was an effective drama about a widow, Alice (Ellen Burstyn), who strikes out from New Mexico to California…

  • Alice in Cartoonland (American animated film)

    Disney Company: Early years and Mickey Mouse: …Disney produced the short subject Alice in Cartoonland, a film combining both live action and animation that was intended to be the pilot film in a series. Within weeks of its completion, Disney filed for bankruptcy and left Kansas City to establish himself in Hollywood as a cinematographer. Alice in…

  • Alice in Sunderland (work by Talbot)

    graphic novel: The graphic novel grows up: Brian Talbot’s Alice in Sunderland (2007) attempts to draw closer association with theatre, with the text becoming a site of performance, whereas some of Alan Moore’s comics, such as The Birth Caul (1999) and Snakes and Ladders (2001), explore psychogeography and take on a lyrical, poetic form…

  • Alice in Wonderland (film by Burton [2010])

    Avril Lavigne: …“Alice” for Tim Burton’s film Alice in Wonderland (2010). In 2007 two songwriters sued Lavigne over her hit song “Girlfriend,” which they claimed had been plagiarized from their 1979 song “I Wanna Be Your Boyfriend.” The case was settled out of court.

  • Alice in Wonderland (film by McLeod [1933])

    Norman Z. McLeod: Marx Brothers and W.C. Fields: In 1933 McLeod helmed Alice in Wonderland, an elaborate adaptation of Lewis Carroll’s classic novels. The film was a box-office disappointment despite featuring a number of notable actors—Cary Grant as the Mock Turtle, Cooper as the White Knight, Fields as Humpty Dumpty, and Edward Everett Horton as the

  • Alice in Wonderland (film by Geronimi, Jackson, and Luske [1951])

    Alice in Wonderland, American animated musical film, released in 1951, that was a madcap family classic based on Lewis Carroll’s Alice in Wonderland (1865) and included elements of his later sequel, Through the Looking-Glass (1871). It was produced by Walt Disney. The film centres on the adventures

  • Alice Nielsen Comic Opera Company (American opera company)

    Alice Nielsen: In 1897 she formed the Alice Nielsen Comic Opera Company. Her greatest successes with her own company were Victor Herbert’s The Fortune Teller (1898) and The Singing Girl (1899), both written for her.

  • Alice Springs (Northern Territory, Australia)

    Alice Springs, town, Northern Territory, Australia. It is the main focus of the Centre, a name given to approximately 100,000 square miles (260,000 square km) of central Australia that includes large areas of desert and rocky ridges. Alice Springs lies on the intermittent Todd River and the Stuart

  • Alice Through the Looking Glass (film by Bobin [2016])

    Sacha Baron Cohen: …portrayed the villainous Time in Alice Through the Looking Glass (2016). He then debuted the television series Who Is America? in 2018, once again creating several outlandish characters to interview unsuspecting politicians and celebrities to reveal their prejudices. The next year the comedian assumed a more serious role when he…

  • Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland (novel by Carroll)

    Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland, widely beloved British children’s book by Lewis Carroll, published in 1865. With its fantastical tales and riddles, it became one of the most popular works of English-language fiction. It was notably illustrated by British artist John Tenniel. The story centres on

  • Alice’s Adventures Underground (novel by Carroll)

    Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland, widely beloved British children’s book by Lewis Carroll, published in 1865. With its fantastical tales and riddles, it became one of the most popular works of English-language fiction. It was notably illustrated by British artist John Tenniel. The story centres on

  • Alice’s Restaurant (film by Penn [1969])

    Arthur Penn: Films of the later 1960s: …Clyde with the kinder, gentler Alice’s Restaurant (1969), the plot of which was based on singer-songwriter Arlo Guthrie’s 18-minute-long narrative song. Penn, who cowrote the screenplay, evocatively captured the flavour of that song and the hippie counterculture that it celebrated, earning another Academy Award nomination as best director.

  • Alice’s Restaurant (song by Guthrie)

    Arthur Penn: Films of the later 1960s: …based on singer-songwriter Arlo Guthrie’s 18-minute-long narrative song. Penn, who cowrote the screenplay, evocatively captured the flavour of that song and the hippie counterculture that it celebrated, earning another Academy Award nomination as best director.

  • Alicia Alonso Ballet Company (ballet company)

    ballet: Ballet in the cultural milieu: The Ballet Nacional de Cuba was founded in 1948 by Cuban ballerina Alicia Alonso, who also headed the National School of Ballet Alicia Alonso (founded 1950). It provides a good model of how a western European tradition is taken up and reinterpreted to suit national and…

  • alicyclic compound (chemical compound)

    Alicyclic compound, in chemistry, any of a large class of organic compounds in which three or more atoms of the element carbon are linked together in a ring. The bonds between pairs of adjacent atoms may all be of the type designated single bonds (involving two electrons), or some of them may be

  • ?Alīd family (Muslim dynastic family)

    Shi?i: Early development: …successor and, thereafter, members of ?Alī’s family. Others, however, maintained that with Muhammad’s death the link between God and humankind had ended and the community was to make its own way forward.

  • alidade (instrument)

    armillary sphere: …with diametric sight rules, or alidades, and it is likely that those made and used in the 12th century by Moors in Spain were the prototypes of all later European armillary spheres.

  • alien (extraterrestrial life)

    Alien, hypothetical intelligent extraterrestrial being. See extraterrestrial intelligence. See also extraterrestrial life; unidentified flying

  • alien (law)

    Alien, in national and international law, a foreign-born resident who is not a citizen by virtue of parentage or naturalization and who is still a citizen or subject of another country. In early times, the tendency was to look upon the alien as an enemy and to treat him as a criminal or outlaw.

  • Alien (film by Scott [1979])

    John Hurt: …role in the science-fiction film Alien (1979), Hurt starred, under layers of makeup, as the famously disfigured Joseph Merrick (called John in the film) in The Elephant Man (1980) and garnered another BAFTA Award and his second Oscar nomination.

  • Alien 3 (film by Fincher [1992])

    David Fincher: …his feature-film directorial debut with Alien 3. The movie had a troubled production, and it did poorly both critically and commercially. The experience soured Fincher on big-budget film franchises, and his next movie was the relatively small-scale thriller Se7en (1995), which revolves around two detectives (played by Morgan Freeman and…

  • Alien and Sedition Acts (American history)

    Alien and Sedition Acts, (1798), four internal security laws passed by the U.S. Congress, restricting aliens and curtailing the excesses of an unrestrained press, in anticipation of an expected war with France. After the XYZ Affair (1797), war with France had appeared inevitable. Federalists, aware

  • Alien Compliance Order (1969, Ghana)

    Africa: Migrations: …as the enforcement of the Alien Compliance Order of 1969 in Ghana.

  • Alien Registration Act (United States [1940])

    Smith Act, U.S. federal law passed in 1940 that made it a criminal offense to advocate the violent overthrow of the government or to organize or be a member of any group or society devoted to such advocacy. The first prosecutions under the Smith Act, of leaders of the Socialist Workers Party (SWP),

  • alien species (ecology)

    conservation: Introduced species: The case histories previously discussed often implicate introduced species as a cause of species extinctions. Humans have spread species deliberately as they colonized new areas, just one example being the Polynesians as they settled the eastern Pacific islands. New Yorkers in the 1890s…

  • Alien Tort Claims Act (United States [1789])

    Alien Tort Claims Act (ATCA), U.S. law, originally a provision of the Judiciary Act of 1789, that grants to U.S. federal courts original jurisdiction over any civil action brought by an alien (a foreign national) for a tort in violation of international law or a U.S. treaty. (A tort is any wrongful

  • Alien Tort Statute (United States [1789])

    Alien Tort Claims Act (ATCA), U.S. law, originally a provision of the Judiciary Act of 1789, that grants to U.S. federal courts original jurisdiction over any civil action brought by an alien (a foreign national) for a tort in violation of international law or a U.S. treaty. (A tort is any wrongful

  • Alien: Covenant (film by Scott [2017])

    Ridley Scott: Scott’s films from 2017 included Alien: Covenant and All the Money in the World, about the 1973 kidnapping of oil baron and philanthropist J. Paul Getty’s grandson. The movie was finished in October 2017—some two months before its scheduled release—when Kevin Spacey, who played Getty, was accused of sexual harassment.…

  • alienation (society)

    Alienation, in social sciences, the state of feeling estranged or separated from one’s milieu, work, products of work, or self. Despite its popularity in the analysis of contemporary life, the idea of alienation remains an ambiguous concept with elusive meanings, the following variants being most

  • alienation (property law)

    property law: Subsequent acquisition: …of contract and freedom of alienation of property (i.e., the rights to enter freely into enforceable contracts on terms agreed to by the parties and to transfer property to whomever the owner wishes, on terms of his choosing) are the twin foundations of a market economy, and, despite the challenges…

  • alienation effect (theatre)

    Alienation effect, idea central to the dramatic theory of the German dramatist-director Bertolt Brecht. It involves the use of techniques designed to distance the audience from emotional involvement in the play through jolting reminders of the artificiality of the theatrical performance. Examples

  • Aliénor d’Aquitaine (queen consort of France and England)

    Eleanor of Aquitaine, queen consort of both Louis VII of France (1137–52) and Henry II of England (1152–1204) and mother of Richard I (the Lion-Heart) and John of England. She was perhaps the most powerful woman in 12th-century Europe. Eleanor was the daughter and heiress of William X, duke of

  • Aliénor de Guyenne (queen consort of France and England)

    Eleanor of Aquitaine, queen consort of both Louis VII of France (1137–52) and Henry II of England (1152–1204) and mother of Richard I (the Lion-Heart) and John of England. She was perhaps the most powerful woman in 12th-century Europe. Eleanor was the daughter and heiress of William X, duke of

  • Aliens (film by Cameron [1986])

    James Cameron: …and big-budget pictures followed, including Aliens (1986) and The Abyss (1989), each of which received an Oscar for best visual effects, Terminator 2: Judgment Day (1991), and True Lies (1994). In 1992 Cameron formed his own production company, Lightstorm Entertainment, and the following year he cofounded Digital Domain, a state-of-the-art…

  • Aliens Act (Great Britain [1705])

    United Kingdom: Whigs and Tories: Godolphin passed the Aliens Act (1705), which would have prohibited all trade between England and Scotland—no mere scare tactic in light of the commercial policy that was crippling the Irish economy. Rather than risk economic strangulation, Scottish leaders negotiated for a permanent union, a compact the English monarchy…

  • aliettite (mineral)

    clay mineral: Interstratified clay minerals: hydrobiotite (trioctahedral mica/vermiculite), aliettite (talc/saponite), and kulkeite (talc/chlorite). Other than the ABAB . . . type with equal numbers of the two component layers in a structure, many modes of layer-stacking sequences ranging from nearly regular to completely random are possible. The following interstratifications of two components are…

  • Aliev, Geidar (president of Azerbaijan)

    Heydar Aliyev, (Geidar Ali Reza ogly Aliev), Azerbaijani politician (born May 10, 1923, Nakhichevan region, Transcaucasian S.F.S.R., U.S.S.R. [now an autonomous region of Azerbaijan]—died Dec. 12, 2003, Cleveland, Ohio), was one of the most powerful men in Azerbaijan for more than 30 years, as d

  • alife (computer simulation)

    Artificial life, computer simulation of life, often used to study essential properties of living systems (such as evolution and adaptive behaviour). Artificial life became a recognized discipline in the 1980s, in part through the impetus of American computer scientist Christopher Langton, who named

  • Aligarh (India)

    Aligarh, city, western Uttar Pradesh state, northern India. It lies at the southern edge of the Upper Ganges-Yamuna Doab, about 65 miles (100 km) southeast of Delhi and some 25 miles (40 km) southwest of the Ganges (Ganga) River. The city itself is usually called Koil or Kol; Aligarh is the name of

  • Aligarh Muslim University (university, Aligarh, India)

    Uttar Pradesh: Education: …universities in Uttar Pradesh are Aligarh Muslim University (1875), founded by Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan; Banaras Hindu University (1916) in Varanasi, founded by Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya; and the University of Lucknow (1921). Among the state’s many institutes for specialized studies and research are the Indian Institute of Technology at…

  • Aliger, Margarita Iosifovna (Russian writer, and Soviet propagandist)

    Margarita Iosifovna Aliger, Russian poet, journalist, and Soviet propagandist. Born into a poor family, Aliger was a committed communist from an early age. She studied writing in Moscow from 1934 to 1937 at what later became the Gorky Literary Institute. In the late 1930s she wrote prose sketches

  • Alighieri, Dante (Italian poet)

    Dante, Italian poet, prose writer, literary theorist, moral philosopher, and political thinker. He is best known for the monumental epic poem La commedia, later named La divina commedia (The Divine Comedy). Dante’s Divine Comedy, a landmark in Italian literature and among the greatest works of all

  • alignment (megalith)

    Alignment, monument consisting of multiple rows of large upright stones, primarily located in Brittany and built during Neolithic and Early Bronze times. See

  • alignment (engineering)

    roads and highways: Alignment and profile: After a route has been selected, a three-dimensional road alignment and its associated cross-sectional profiles are produced. In order to reduce the amount of earth to be moved, the alignment is adjusted where practical so that the earth to be excavated is…

  • alignment chart (mathematics)

    Nomograph, calculating chart with scales that contain values of three or more mathematical variables, widely used in engineering, industry, and the natural and physical sciences. In the most common form, a nomograph consists of three parallel graduated lines, known values on any two scales d

  • alii (Polynesian nobility)

    nature worship: Nature as a sacred totality: The ariki, or alii, the nobility of Polynesia, have more mana than commoners, and both their land and the insignia associated with them have mana. Besides areas and symbolic elements that are associated with the ariki, many objects and animals having special relationships with chiefs, warriors,…

  • ?ālim (Islam)

    ?ulamā?, the learned of Islam, those who possess the quality of ?ilm, “learning,” in its widest sense. From the ?ulamā?, who are versed theoretically and practically in the Muslim sciences, come the religious teachers of the Islamic community—theologians, canon lawyers (muftis), judges (qadis),

  • alimenta (ancient Rome)

    Nerva: …Nerva’s government, the system of alimenta, or trusts for the maintenance of poor children in Italy, may have been the work of Trajan. In order to secure the succession, Nerva in 97 adopted and took as his colleague Marcus Ulpius Trajanus (Trajan), governor of one of the German provinces, who…

  • alimentary bolus (biology)

    Bolus, food that has been chewed and mixed in the mouth with saliva. Chewing helps to reduce food particles to a size readily swallowed; saliva adds digestive enzymes, water, and mucus that help chemically to reduce food particles, hydrate them for taste, and lubricate them for easy swallowing. The

  • alimentary canal (anatomy)

    Gastrointestinal tract, pathway by which food enters the body and solid wastes are expelled. The gastrointestinal tract includes the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and anus. See

  • alimentary paste (food)

    Alimentary paste, a shaped and dried dough prepared from semolina, farina, wheat flour, or a mixture of these with water or milk and with or without egg or egg yolk. See

  • alimentary tract (anatomy)

    Gastrointestinal tract, pathway by which food enters the body and solid wastes are expelled. The gastrointestinal tract includes the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and anus. See

  • alimony (law)

    Alimony, in divorce law, compensation owed by one spouse to the other for financial support after divorce. Alimony aims at support of the one spouse, not punishment of the other. In some places, the term means simply a property settlement irrespective of future support. Alimony has traditionally

  • Alinagar, Treaty of (Great Britain-India [1757])

    Treaty of Alinagar, (Feb. 9, 1757), pact concluded in India by the British agent Robert Clive after his recovery of Calcutta on Jan. 2, 1757, from the nawab of Bengal, Sirāj-ud-Dawlah. The treaty was the prelude to the British seizure of Bengal. The Nawab had seized Calcutta in June 1756, but he

  • Aline, reine de Golconde (work by Boufflers)

    Stanislas-Jean, chevalier de Boufflers: …chiefly for his picaresque romance, Aline, reine de Golconde (“Aline, Queen of Golconde”).

  • Alinea (restaurant, Chicago, Illinois, United States)

    Grant Achatz: …(an enthusiastic Trio customer) launched Alinea, where Achatz had free rein for his increasingly inventive style. Within two years Gourmet magazine pronounced Alinea the country’s best restaurant. In 2008 the JBF named Achatz the best chef in the United States, and in 2010 Alinea was awarded a coveted three stars…

  • Alīngār (river, Asia)

    Hindu Kush: Drainage: …as the Panjshēr (Panjshīr), the Alīngār, the Konar, and the Panjkora, follow the northeast-to-southwest direction and are then suddenly deflected toward the east-west axis by the Kābul River, into which they flow. The Yarkhun and Ghizar river valleys also take the same east-to-west direction. The Chitral River drains the southern…

  • Alinsky, Saul (American activist)

    Saul Alinsky, American social organizer who stimulated the creation of numerous activist citizen and community groups. After college training in archaeology and criminology, Alinsky worked as a criminologist in Illinois for eight years. In 1938, he undertook his first community organizing campaign

  • Alinsky, Saul David (American activist)

    Saul Alinsky, American social organizer who stimulated the creation of numerous activist citizen and community groups. After college training in archaeology and criminology, Alinsky worked as a criminologist in Illinois for eight years. In 1938, he undertook his first community organizing campaign

  • Aliph (American company)

    Hosain Rahman: …of the wearable technology company Aliph (also known as Jawbone).

  • aliphatic compound (chemical compound)

    Aliphatic compound, any chemical compound belonging to the organic class in which the atoms are connected by single, double, or triple bonds to form nonaromatic structures. One of the major structural groups of organic molecules, the aliphatic compounds include the alkanes, alkenes, and alkynes and

  • AliphCom, Inc. (American company)

    Hosain Rahman: …of the wearable technology company Aliph (also known as Jawbone).

  • Alipore (India)

    Alipore, town, southeastern West Bengal state, northeastern India. It is a southern suburb of Kolkata (Calcutta) situated just south of the Hugli (Hooghly) River and is included within the municipality. Alipore has major industries including printing and bookbinding, cement manufacture, oilseed

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