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  • Algezira Sucro (Spain)

    Alzira, city, Valencia provincia (province), in the comunidad autónoma (autonomous community) of Valencia, eastern Spain. It lies in the Ribera district, south of the city of Valencia. It originated as the Iberian settlement of Algezira Sucro (“Island of Sucro”), so named because of its insular

  • Alghero (Italy)

    Alghero, town and episcopal see, northwestern Sardinia, Italy, southwest of Sassari city. It was founded in 1102 by the Doria family of Genoa and became a Catalan colony under Peter IV of Aragon in 1354. Emperor Charles V took up residence there in 1541. It is the only Italian town where the

  • Algiers (national capital, Algeria)

    Algiers, capital and chief seaport of Algeria. It is the political, economic, and cultural centre of the country. Algiers is built on the slopes of the Sahel Hills, which parallel the Mediterranean Sea coast, and it extends for some 10 miles (16 km) along the Bay of Algiers. The city faces east and

  • Algiers Agreement (1975, Iran-Iraq)

    Iraq: Foreign policy 1968–80: …Iraq and Iran signed the Algiers Agreement, in which Iraq agreed to move the maritime boundary between the two countries to the thalweg—conditioned on Iran’s withdrawal of support for the Iraqi Kurds. This was followed by improved relations with most gulf states, and in 1975 Egypt’s new president, Anwar Sadat,…

  • Algiers, Bay of (bay, Algeria)

    Algiers: …miles (16 km) along the Bay of Algiers. The city faces east and north and forms a large amphitheatre of dazzling white buildings that dominate the harbour and the bay. The city takes its name (Arabic: “The Islands”) from several small islands that formerly existed in the bay, all but…

  • algin (biochemistry)

    brown algae: …still an important source of algin, a colloidal gel used as a stabilizer in the baking and ice-cream industries. Certain species are also used as fertilizer, and several are eaten as a vegetable (e.g., Laminaria) in East Asia and elsewhere.

  • alginate (biochemistry)

    algae: Ecological and commercial importance: Alginates are extracted primarily from brown seaweeds, and agar and carrageenan are extracted from red seaweeds. These phycocolloids are polymers of chemically modified sugar molecules, such as galactose in agars and carrageenans, or organic acids, such as mannuronic acid and glucuronic acid in alginates. Most…

  • Algirdas (grand duke of Lithuania)

    Algirdas, grand duke of Lithuania from 1345 to 1377, who made Lithuania one of the largest European states of his day. His son Jogaila became W?adys?aw II Jagie??o, king of united Poland and Lithuania. Algirdas was one of the sons of the country’s ruler, Gediminas, and he began his long political

  • Algo pasa en la calle (work by Quiroga)

    Spanish literature: The novel: …employing a dead protagonist in Algo pasa en la calle (1954; “Something’s Happening in the Street”) to examine domestic conflict aggravated by Franco’s outlawing of divorce. Quiroga’s novels typically portrayed women and children. Her crowning achievement is the novelistic cycle of Tadea: Tristura (1960; “Sadness”), Escribo tu nombre (1965; “I…

  • Algodones Dunes (dunes, Arizona, United States)

    North American Desert: Geology: …sands known as ergs—the extensive Algodones Dunes of the Colorado-Yuma desert are a notable example—are found at lower elevations, with the shallow troughs of arroyos carrying intermittent streams from surrounding uplands to be lost in the sands.

  • algodonite (mineral)

    domeykite: …that is often intergrown with algodonite, another copper arsenide. Both are classified among the sulfide minerals, although they contain no sulfur. They occur in Chile, in Keweenaw County, Mich., and in other localities. Domeykite crystallizes in the isometric system. For detailed physical properties, see sulfide mineral (table).

  • ALGOL (computer language)

    ALGOL, computer programming language designed by an international committee of the Association of Computing Machinery (ACM), led by Alan J. Perlis of Carnegie Mellon University, during 1958–60 for publishing algorithms, as well as for doing computations. Like LISP, ALGOL had recursive

  • Algol (star)

    Algol, prototype of a class of variable stars called eclipsing binaries, the second brightest star in the northern constellation Perseus. Its apparent visual magnitude changes over the range of 2.1 to 3.4 with a period of 2.87 days. Even at its dimmest it remains readily visible to the unaided eye.

  • ALGOL 60 (computer language)

    John Warner Backus: …contributed to the development of ALGOL 60, an international scientific programming language.

  • algology (biology)

    Phycology, the study of algae, a large heterogeneous group of chiefly aquatic plants ranging in size from microscopic forms to species as large as shrubs or trees. The discipline is of immediate interest to humans because of algae’s importance in ecology. Certain algae, especially planktonic (i.e.,

  • Algoma Central (Canadian railway system)

    railroad: Canadian railroads: …two northern lines are the Algoma Central, which runs from Sault Ste. Marie through the Agawa Canyon, resplendent with hardwoods in the fall, and the Northland, which cuts through the mineral-rich Canadian Shield to Moosonee, close to an old fur-trading post on James Bay. In Quebec the line running north…

  • Algoma-type banded-iron formation deposit

    mineral deposit: Iron deposits: …of BIF, known as an Algoma type, formed over a much wider time range than the Lake Superior type (from 3.8 billion to a few hundred million years ago). Algoma-type BIFs are also finely layered intercalations of silica and an iron mineral, generally hematite or magnetite, but the individual layers…

  • Algoma-type BIF deposit

    mineral deposit: Iron deposits: …of BIF, known as an Algoma type, formed over a much wider time range than the Lake Superior type (from 3.8 billion to a few hundred million years ago). Algoma-type BIFs are also finely layered intercalations of silica and an iron mineral, generally hematite or magnetite, but the individual layers…

  • Algonkian (people)

    Algonquin, North American Indian tribe of closely related Algonquian-speaking bands originally living in the dense forest regions of the valley of the Ottawa River and its tributaries in present-day Quebec and Ontario, Canada. The tribe should be differentiated from the Algonquian language family,

  • Algonkian languages

    Algonquian languages, North American Indian language family whose member languages are or were spoken in Canada, New England, the Atlantic coastal region southward to North Carolina, and the Great Lakes region and surrounding areas westward to the Rocky Mountains. Among the numerous Algonquian

  • Algonkin (people)

    Algonquin, North American Indian tribe of closely related Algonquian-speaking bands originally living in the dense forest regions of the valley of the Ottawa River and its tributaries in present-day Quebec and Ontario, Canada. The tribe should be differentiated from the Algonquian language family,

  • Algonquian (people)

    Algonquin, North American Indian tribe of closely related Algonquian-speaking bands originally living in the dense forest regions of the valley of the Ottawa River and its tributaries in present-day Quebec and Ontario, Canada. The tribe should be differentiated from the Algonquian language family,

  • Algonquian languages

    Algonquian languages, North American Indian language family whose member languages are or were spoken in Canada, New England, the Atlantic coastal region southward to North Carolina, and the Great Lakes region and surrounding areas westward to the Rocky Mountains. Among the numerous Algonquian

  • Algonquin (people)

    Algonquin, North American Indian tribe of closely related Algonquian-speaking bands originally living in the dense forest regions of the valley of the Ottawa River and its tributaries in present-day Quebec and Ontario, Canada. The tribe should be differentiated from the Algonquian language family,

  • Algonquin language

    Algonquian languages: The term Algonquin (often spelled this way to differentiate it from the family) refers to a dialect of Ojibwa. Algonquian languages have been classified by some scholars as belonging to a larger language group, the Macro-Algonquian phylum. See also Macro-Algonquian languages.

  • Algonquin Provincial Park (park, Ontario, Canada)

    Algonquin Provincial Park, wilderness area, southeastern Ontario, Canada. It lies about 140 miles (225 km) northeast of Toronto and covers an area of 2,955 square miles (7,653 square km). Established in 1893, the park, once a lumbering area, is a hilly wildlife refuge for bears, beaver, deer,

  • Algonquin Round Table (literary group)

    Algonquin Round Table, informal group of American literary men and women who met daily for lunch on weekdays at a large round table in the Algonquin Hotel in New York City during the 1920s and ’30s. The Algonquin Round Table began meeting in 1919, and within a few years its participants included m

  • Algonquin, Lake (ancient lake, North America)

    Lake Algonquin, large glacial lake that once existed in North America and covered most of the area now occupied by three Great Lakes (Superior, Michigan, and Huron). Lake Algonquin was present in the Pleistocene Epoch (approximately 2.6 million to 11,700 years ago), a geologic glacial period when

  • algorismus (mathematical text)

    mathematics: The transmission of Greek and Arabic learning: Western texts called algorismus (a Latin form of the name al-Khwārizmī) introduced the Hindu-Arabic numerals and applied them in calculations. Thus, modern numerals first came into use in universities and then became common among merchants and other laymen. It should be noted that, up to the 15th century,…

  • algorithm (mathematics)

    Algorithm, systematic procedure that produces—in a finite number of steps—the answer to a question or the solution of a problem. The name derives from the Latin translation, Algoritmi de numero Indorum, of the 9th-century Muslim mathematician al-Khwarizmi’s arithmetic treatise “Al-Khwarizmi

  • algorithmic information theory (mathematics)

    information theory: Algorithmic information theory: In the 1960s the American mathematician Gregory Chaitin, the Russian mathematician Andrey Kolmogorov, and the American engineer Raymond Solomonoff began to formulate and publish an objective measure of the intrinsic complexity of a message. Chaitin, a research scientist at IBM, developed the…

  • Algorithmic Language (computer language)

    ALGOL, computer programming language designed by an international committee of the Association of Computing Machinery (ACM), led by Alan J. Perlis of Carnegie Mellon University, during 1958–60 for publishing algorithms, as well as for doing computations. Like LISP, ALGOL had recursive

  • algorithms, analysis of (computer science)

    Analysis of algorithms, Basic computer-science discipline that aids in the development of effective programs. Analysis of algorithms provides proof of the correctness of algorithms, allows for the accurate prediction of program performance, and can be used as a measure of computational complexity.

  • algorithms, theory of (logic)

    history of logic: Theory of recursive functions and computability: In addition to proof theory and model theory, a third main area of contemporary logic is the theory of recursive functions and computability. Much of the specialized work belongs as much to computer science as to logic. The origins…

  • Algoritmi de numero Indorum (work by al-Khwārizmī)

    mathematics: Mathematics in the 9th century: …book explaining Hindu arithmetic, the Book of Addition and Subtraction According to the Hindu Calculation. In another work, the Book of Restoring and Balancing, he provided a systematic introduction to algebra, including a theory of quadratic equations. Both works had important consequences for Islamic mathematics. Hindu Calculation began a tradition…

  • Algren, Nelson (American writer)

    Nelson Algren, American writer whose novels of the poor are lifted from routine naturalism by his vision of their pride, humour, and unquenchable yearnings. He also caught with poetic skill the mood of the city’s underside: its jukebox pounding, stench, and neon glare. The son of a machinist,

  • alguacile

    bullfighting: Act one: …or two mounted bailiffs (alguaciles) in 16th-century costume (sometimes cowboy costume in Mexico) with plumed hats ride across the ring to the box of the president (often a local dignitary) and doff their hats. The official, who returns the gesture and thereby grants permission for the corrida to begin,…

  • Alguma Poesia (work by Andrade)

    Carlos Drummond de Andrade: …his numerous collections of poetry, Alguma poesia (1930; “Some Poetry”), demonstrates both his affinity with the Modernist movement and his own strong poetic personality.

  • Algunas obras de Fernando de Herrera (work by Herrera)

    Fernando de Herrera: …his own poetry, published as Algunas obras de Fernando de Herrera (1582; “Some Works of Fernando de Herrera”), he elaborated on the style of Garcilaso and began to move toward culteranismo (an ornate and affected poetic style that flourished in Spain in the 16th and 17th centuries and finally developed,…

  • ALH84001 (meteorite)

    ALH84001, meteorite determined to have come from Mars and the subject of a contentious scientific claim that it contains the remains of ancient life indigenous to the planet. Recovered from the Allan Hills ice field of Antarctica in 1984, the 1.9-kg (4.2-pound) igneous rock is thought to have

  • Alhagi maurorum (plant)

    manna: Certain resins produced by the camel’s thorn plant (Alhagi maurorum) are known as manna; it is a spiny-branched shrub less than 1 metre (about 3 feet) tall and is native to Turkey. An edible white honeylike substance known as manna forms drops on the stem of salt cedars, or French…

  • Alhague (star)

    astronomical map: Star names and designations: (“the Follower”), Algenib (“the Side”), Alhague (“the Serpent Bearer”), and Algol (“the Demon”). A conspicuous exception is Albireo in Cygnus, possibly a corruption of the words ab ireo in the first Latin edition of the Almagest in 1515. Most star names are in fact Arabic and are frequently derived from…

  • Alhambra (fortress, Granada, Spain)

    Alhambra, palace and fortress of the Moorish monarchs of Granada, Spain. The name Alhambra, signifying in Arabic “the red,” is probably derived from the reddish colour of the tapia (rammed earth) of which the outer walls were built. Constructed on a plateau that overlooks the city of Granada, the

  • Alhambra (California, United States)

    Alhambra, city, Los Angeles county, California, U.S. Alhambra lies in the San Gabriel Valley, south of Pasadena. Laid out in 1874 by Benjamin D. Wilson on land once part of Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, it developed as an agricultural community with a unique irrigation system using the first piped

  • Alhambra, The (work by Irving)

    Alhambra: …of Wilson’s favourite books—Washington Irving’s The Alhambra (1832), which popularized the Moorish palace of the same name in Granada, Spain (see Alhambra)—the city grew as a residential base for nearby Los Angeles industries. The city is the site of one of eight campuses of Alliant International University (formed in 2001…

  • Alhazen (Arab astronomer and mathematician)

    Ibn al-Haytham, mathematician and astronomer who made significant contributions to the principles of optics and the use of scientific experiments. Conflicting stories are told about the life of Ibn al-Haytham, particularly concerning his scheme to regulate the Nile. In one version, told by the

  • Alhucemas (Spanish enclave, Morocco)

    Alhucemas, Spanish exclave on the Mediterranean coast of Morocco, comprising a bay, three islets, and a small port. The bay, a semicircular inlet (9 miles [14 km] wide and 5 miles [8 km] long), is protected by Cap Nuevo; its sandy bottom is an extension of the Nekor River alluvial plain. The

  • Alhucemas (Morocco)

    Al-Hoce?ma, city, northern Morocco. The city, founded by Spaniards in 1926 as Villa Sanjurjo, still has a large Spanish population. Situated on Al-Hoce?ma Bay, it is a small fishing port, food-processing centre, and beach resort just northwest of the islets of the Spanish plaza (enclave) of

  • ?Alī (Muslim caliph)

    ?Alī, cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad, the Prophet of Islam, and fourth of the “rightly guided” (rāshidūn) caliphs, as the first four successors of Muhammad are called. Reigning from 656 to 661, he was the first imam (leader) of Shi?ism in all its forms. The question of his right to the caliphate

  • Ali (Dulkadir ruler)

    Dulkadir Dynasty: When Ali, the last Dulkadir prince, was overthrown by his grand vizier in 1522, the principality was incorporated into the Ottoman Empire, the Dulkadir family was accorded vassal status, and its members were appointed to high offices.

  • Ali (film by Mann [2001])

    Michael Mann: …narrative lifted from real life, Ali (2001), with Will Smith as the boxer Muhammad Ali.

  • ?Alī (Tunisian ruler)

    Tunisia: The growth of European influence: …of Mu?ammad al-?ādiq, his successor, ?Alī, was forced to introduce administrative, judicial, and financial reforms that the French government considered useful. This agreement, known as the Convention of Al-Marsa, was signed in 1883 and solidified French control over Tunisia.

  • ALI (American organization)

    conflict of laws: Applications in the United States: The American Law Institute (ALI), a private association of lawyers, judges, and law professors, drafts so-called “restatements” of specific areas of the law. Bearing some resemblance to European codes in their form and structure, the ALI’s restatements synthesize all U.S. state case laws on a particular…

  • ?Alī al-Hādī (Shī?ite imām)
  • ?Alī al-Ri?ā (Shī?ite imam)

    ?Alī al-Ri?ā, eighth imam of the Twelver Shī?ites, noted for his piety and learning. In 817 the caliph al-Ma?mūn, in an attempt to heal the division between the majority Sunnis and the Shī?ites, appointed him his successor. The appointment aroused varying reactions—few of them, even among the

  • ?Ali an-Nā?ir (Berber ruler)

    ?ammūdid dynasty: …Sulaymān al-Musta?īn awarded Sabtah to ?Alī ibn ?ammūd and Algeciras, Tangier, and Asilah to ?Alī’s brother al-Qāsim in payment for their help in returning him to the throne. ?Alī, however, claiming to be the rightful heir to Hishām II, al-Musta?īn’s predecessor, marched into Córdoba in July 1016 and deposed al-Musta?īn.…

  • ?Alī Asghar (Persian painter)

    Rezā ?Abbāsī: He was the son of ?Alī Asghar of Kashān, who painted at the court of Prince Ibrāhīm Mīrzā, the ?afavid viceroy at Meshhed, which was then (1556–77) the leading Iranian centre of the cultivation of the arts. While Rezā was still young, his virtuosity brought him to the attention of…

  • Ali Baba (fictional character)

    Ali Baba, fictional character, the hero of “Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves,” one of the best-known stories in The Thousand and One Nights. Ali Baba is a poor woodcutter who secretly watches as 40 thieves hide their booty in a cave, the door to which can be opened only by the verbal command of

  • ?Alī Bābā (fictional character)

    Ali Baba, fictional character, the hero of “Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves,” one of the best-known stories in The Thousand and One Nights. Ali Baba is a poor woodcutter who secretly watches as 40 thieves hide their booty in a cave, the door to which can be opened only by the verbal command of

  • Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves (Asian literature)

    Ali Baba: …character, the hero of “Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves,” one of the best-known stories in The Thousand and One Nights. Ali Baba is a poor woodcutter who secretly watches as 40 thieves hide their booty in a cave, the door to which can be opened only by the…

  • Ali Baba Goes to Town (film by Butler [1937])

    David Butler: …Century-Fox included Pigskin Parade (1936); Ali Baba Goes to Town (1937), a clever musical featuring Eddie Cantor; Kentucky (1938), starring Loretta Young, Richard Greene, and Walter Brennan; and Kentucky Moonshine (1938; also called Three Men and a Girl), an uninspired outing with the Ritz Brothers.

  • Ali Bash Hamba (Tunisian leader)

    Young Tunisians: The party, headed by Ali Bash Hamba and Bashir Sfar, demanded complete Tunisian control of the government and administration of the country and full citizenship rights for both Tunisians and Frenchmen. The party attracted a following among the young, educated, professional Muslims, but the liberal attitudes and European ways…

  • ?Alī Bey (Mamlūk governor of Egypt)

    ?Alī Bey, Mamlūk governor of Egypt under Ottoman suzerainty who attempted to throw off the Ottoman Turkish rule. ?Alī Bey was an enslaved Caucasian who was made a gift to Ibrāhīm Katkhudā, an emir who was the virtual ruler of Egypt. ?Alī earned the confidence of his master, who later freed him and

  • Ali Bongo (British magician)

    Ali Bongo, (William Oliver Wallace), British magician (born Dec. 8, 1929, Bangalore, British India—died March 8, 2009, London, Eng.), delighted audiences of all ages with his tricks and illusions, as well as with the garish costumes and zany stage business that earned him the nickname “the Shriek

  • ?Ali Dīnār (Darfur sultan)

    Darfur: History: …of the Sudan recognized ?Ali Dīnār as sultan of Darfur (1899). A rebellion led by ?Ali Dīnār in 1915 provoked the British to launch a punitive expedition, in which he was killed (November 1916). Thereafter Darfur became a province (and later three provinces) of the Sudan.

  • Ali G (fictional character)

    Sacha Baron Cohen: …which he created the character Ali G, a “hip-hop journalist” who was aggressively stupid. With his over-the-top attire—a brightly coloured tracksuit, tinted sunglasses, and designer skullcap—mangled English, and outlandish questions, Ali G interviewed unsuspecting actual politicians and celebrities and in the process revealed their prejudices and ignorance. His phenomenal popularity…

  • Ali G Show, Da (British television series)

    Seth Rogen: …the Sacha Baron Cohen showcase Da Ali G Show. Rogen also surfaced in an episode of the teen-centred drama Dawson’s Creek.

  • ?Alī Gauhar (Mughal emperor)

    Shah ?ālam II, nominal Mughal emperor of India from 1759 to 1806. Son of the emperor ?ālamgīr II, he was forced to flee Delhi in 1758 by the minister ?Imād al-Mulk, who kept the emperor a virtual prisoner. He took refuge with Shujā? al-Dawlah, nawab of Oudh (Ayodhya), and after his father’s

  • Ali Haji bin Raja Amhad, Raja (Bugis-Malay prince, historian, and scholar)

    Raja Ali Haji bin Raja Amhad, Bugis-Malay prince who, as a scholar and historian, led a renaissance in Malay letters in the mid-19th century. A grandson of the famed Bugis leader Raja Haji, Raja Ali was born into the Bugis-Malay world of the Riau-Lingga archipelago, last legacy outside the Malay

  • ?Alī ?asan al-Majīd (Iraqi official)

    ?Alī ?asan al-Majīd, Iraqi Ba?th Party official and a cousin of Iraqi Pres. ?addām ?ussein. During his career he became known for brutal attacks on Iraqi citizens, especially Kurds and Shī?ites. In 1958 al-Majīd joined the Ba?th Party. With ?addām’s rise to power in the government of Pres. A?mad

  • ?Alī I ibn Mazyad (Iraqi ruler)

    Mazyadid Dynasty: …Sul?ān ad-Dawlah in Baghdad recognized ?Alī I ibn Mazyad as emir of the area. ?Alī died in 1018, leaving behind three sons, each of whom was eager to assume power, although Dubays I (reigned 1018–81) officially succeeded his father. Dubays’ brother al-Muqallad soon attempted to oust him but, failing, turned…

  • ?Alī ibn Abi ar-Rijāl (Tunisian scientist)

    Spain: Science: …were those of the Tunisian ?Alī ibn Abi al-Rijāl and another, anonymous scientist, who made a translation from Vulgar Latin into Arabic in the 8th century. This book was translated from Arabic into Spanish during the era of Alfonso the Learned under the title of Libro de las Cruces (“Book…

  • ?Alī ibn Abū ?ālib (Muslim caliph)

    ?Alī, cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad, the Prophet of Islam, and fourth of the “rightly guided” (rāshidūn) caliphs, as the first four successors of Muhammad are called. Reigning from 656 to 661, he was the first imam (leader) of Shi?ism in all its forms. The question of his right to the caliphate

  • ?Alī ibn Būyeh (Būyid ruler)

    ?Imād ad-Dawlah, one of the founders of the Būyid dynasty of Iran. ?Alī and his brothers A?mad and ?asan were followers of Mardāvīz ebn Zeyār of northern Iran. In 934 ?Alī revolted against local Zeyārid rulers and conquered Fārs province in southern Iran. He made Shīrāz his capital, ruling there

  • ?Alī ibn ?ammūd (Berber ruler)

    ?ammūdid dynasty: …Sulaymān al-Musta?īn awarded Sabtah to ?Alī ibn ?ammūd and Algeciras, Tangier, and Asilah to ?Alī’s brother al-Qāsim in payment for their help in returning him to the throne. ?Alī, however, claiming to be the rightful heir to Hishām II, al-Musta?īn’s predecessor, marched into Córdoba in July 1016 and deposed al-Musta?īn.…

  • ?Alī ibn Mahdī (Khārijite leader)

    history of Arabia: Yemen: Najā?id rule ended when ?Alī ibn Mahdī captured Zabīd in 1159.

  • ?Alī ibn Mu?ammad (Persian Khārijite)

    Zanj rebellion: In September 869, ?Alī ibn Mu?ammad, a Persian claiming descent from ?Alī, the fourth caliph, and Fā?imah, Mu?ammad’s daughter, gained the support of several slave-work crews—which could number from 500 to 5,000 men—by pointing out the injustice of their social position and promising them freedom and wealth. ?Alī’s…

  • ?Alī ibn Mu?ammad al-Jurjānī (Iranian theologian)

    Al-Jurjānī, leading traditionalist theologian of 15th-century Iran. Jurjānī received a varied education, first in Harāt and then in Egypt. He visited Constantinople in 1374, and, upon his return in 1377, he was given a teaching appointment in Shīrāz. In 1387 Shīrāz fell to Timur, the famous central

  • ?Alī ibn Mu?ammad al-?ulay?ī (?ulay?id ruler)

    Najā?id Dynasty: …chaos, allowing the ?ulay?id ruler ?Alī to take Zabīd, and reduced Najā?id history to a series of intrigues.

  • ?Alī ibn Rasūl (Turkmen Muslim leader)

    Rasūlid dynasty: …were of O?uz (Turkmen) origin, Rasūl having been a messenger (Arabic rasūl) for an ?Abbāsid caliph. His son ?Alī was governor of Mecca under the last Ayyūbid ruler of Yemen and succeeded him in the government of the whole country. ?Umar I ibn ?Alī (reigned 1229–50), Rasūl’s grandson, first established…

  • ?Alī ibn Shihāb ad-Dīn ibn Mu?ammad al-Hamadānī (Islamic mystic)

    Al-Hamadānī, mystic Persian theologian responsible for the propagation of the Kubrāwīyah order of Sufis (Islamic mystics) in Kashmir. A scion of a famous Persian family of Sayyids (descendants of the Prophet Muhammad), he became a dervish (itinerant holy man) and traveled extensively throughout the

  • ?Alī ibn Uthman al-Mazrui (Omani clan leader)

    eastern Africa: The Omani ascendancy: In 1746 a Mazrui notable, ?Alī ibn Uthman al-Mazrui, overthrew an Omani force that had murdered his brother. Soon after he seized Pemba and, but for a family quarrel, might have won Zanzibar; his successor, Mas?ūd ibn Nā?ir, initiated a pattern of cooperation with Pate, maintained close links with inland…

  • ?Alī ibn Yūsuf (Almoravid ruler)

    Almoravids: In the reign (1106–42) of ?Ali ibn Yūsuf the union between Spain and Africa was consolidated, and Andalusian civilization took root: administrative machinery was Spanish in pattern, writers and artists crossed the straits, and the great monuments built by ?Alī in the Maghrib were models of pure Andalusian art. But…

  • Ali Khan, Liaquat (prime minister of Pakistan)

    Liaquat Ali Khan, first prime minister of Pakistan (1947–51). Born the son of a landowner, Liaquat was educated at Aligarh, Allahabad, and Exeter College, Oxford. A barrister by profession, like his leader, Mohammed Ali Jinnah, he entered politics in 1923, being elected first to the provincial

  • ?Alī Khūrshīd āghā (governor-general of The Sudan)

    Sudan: Mu?ammad ?Alī and his successors: …repression until the appointment of ?Alī Khūrshīd āghā as governor-general in 1826. His administration marked a new era in Egyptian-Sudanese relations. He reduced taxes and consulted the Sudanese through the respected Sudanese leader ?Abd al-Qādir wad al-Zayn. Letters of amnesty were granted to fugitives. A more equitable system of taxation…

  • Ali Kosh (archaeological site, Iran)

    origins of agriculture: Southwest Asia: …than 1,000 years later, the Ali Kosh site (also in Iran) was settled. This site is located in a lower elevation zone than Ganj Dareh, outside the natural range of goats. Goat remains at Ali Kosh show clear signs of domestication—the females have no horns. Sheep and goats were herded…

  • ?Alī Kwame (king of Bono)

    Bono: 1450–75) and ?Alī Kwame (flourished c. 1550–60) are thought to have introduced new mining techniques from the western Sudan to the Akan fields, and Owusu Aduam (flourished c. 1650) is reported to have completely reorganized the industry. From the Akan fields the gold passed through the entrep?ts…

  • ?Alī Mardān Khān (Bakhtyārī leader)

    Iran: The Zand dynasty (1750–79): …alliance with the Bakhtyārī chief ?Alī Mardān Khan in an effort to seize E?fahān—then the political centre of Iran—from Shah Rokh’s vassal, Abū al-Fat? Bakhtyārī. Once this goal was achieved, Karīm Khan and ?Alī Mardān agreed that Shah Sul?ān ?usayn ?afavī’s grandson, a boy named Abū ?urāb, should be proclaimed…

  • ?Alī Mo?ammad of Shīrāz, Mīrzā (Iranian religious leader)

    The Bāb, merchant’s son whose claim to be the Bāb (Gateway) to the hidden imām (the perfect embodiment of Islamic faith) gave rise to the Bābī religion and made him one of the three central figures of the Bahā?ī Faith. At an early age, ?Alī Mo?ammad became familiar with the Shaykhī school of the

  • ?Alī Mu?ammad Khan Ruhela (Mughal leader)

    India: Nādir Shah’s invasion: …was seized by an adventurer, ?Alī Mu?ammad Khan Ruhela, who could not be suppressed by the feeble government of Delhi. The loss of Kabul opened the empire to the threat of invasions from the northwest; a vital line of defense had disappeared. The Punjab was again invaded, this time by…

  • Ali Pa?a Tepelen? (Ottoman leader)

    Ali Pa?a Tepelen?, Albanian brigand who, by murder and intrigue, became pasha, or provincial governor, of Janina from 1788. He extended his capricious rule within the Ottoman Empire over much of Albania and Macedonia, Epirus, Thessaly, and the Morea. His father, Veli, bey of Tepelen?, died a poor

  • ?li Pa?a, Mehmed Emin (Ottoman grand vizier)

    Mehmed Emin ?li Pa?a, Ottoman grand vizier (chief minister) distinguished for his westernizing reform policies. Together with Mustafa Re?id Pa?a and Fuad Pa?a, he was a main figure of the Tanzimat (Reorganization) period (1839–c. 1870) in Ottoman history. The son of a shopkeeper, ?li Pa?a entered

  • Ali Pasha (16th-century Ottoman admiral)

    Battle of Lepanto: …bay, adopted a similar formation: Ali Pasha, the commander, in the centre; Mohammed Saulak, governor of Alexandria, the right; and Uluch Ali, pasha of Algiers, the left.

  • ?Alī Qāpū, Palace of (palace, E?fahān, Iran)

    E?fahān: Historical city: …of the square is the ?Alī Qāpū (“Lofty Gate”), a high building in the form of an archway that is crowned in the forepart by an immense tālār, or covered balcony, that served as an audience hall and as a vantage point from which the shah and his courtiers or…

  • ?Alī Shāh (Nizārī imam)

    Aga Khan II, eldest son of the Aga Khan I. In 1881 he succeeded his father as imam, or spiritual leader, of the Nizārī Ismā?īlīte sect of Shī?ite Muslims, and, during his short imamate, sought to improve the conditions of the

  • ?Alī Shāh mosque (mosque, Tabrīz, Iran)

    Islamic arts: Architecture: …scale also accounted for the ?Alī Shāh mosque in Tabrīz, whose eyvān measuring 150 by 80 by 100 feet (45 by 25 by 30 metres) was meant to be the largest ever built. The eyvān vault collapsed almost immediately after it had been constructed, but its walls, 35 feet (10…

  • ?Alī Vardī Khān (nawab of Bengal)

    India: Revolution in Bengal: ?Alī Vardī Khan—the nawab and virtual ruler of Bengal—died in April 1756, leaving his power to his young grandson Sirāj al-Dawlah. The latter’s position was insecure because of discontent among his officers, both Hindu and Muslim, and because he himself was at the same time…

  • ?Alī Zayn al-?ābidīn (Shī?ite imam)
  • ?Alī ?Abd al-La?īf (Sudanese leader)

    Sudan: The early years of British rule: …manifestations occurred in 1921, when ?Alī ?Abd al-La?īf founded the United Tribes Society and was arrested for nationalist agitation. In 1924 he formed the White Flag League, dedicated to driving the British from the Sudan. Demonstrations followed in Khartoum in June and August and were suppressed. When the governor-general, Sir…

  • Ali, Ahmed (Pakistani writer)

    Ahmed Ali, Pakistani author whose novels and short stories examine Islamic culture and tradition in Hindu-dominated India. Proficient in both English and Urdu, he was also an accomplished translator and literary critic. Ali was educated at Aligarh Muslim University (1925–27) and at Lucknow

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