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  • Alexandroúpolis (Greece)

    Alexandroúpoli, seaport and dímos (municipality), East Macedonia and Thrace (Modern Greek: Anatolikí Makedonía kai Thráki) periféreia (region), northeastern Greece. It is situated in the Greek portion of the ancient and modern region of Thrace northwest of the Maritsa (évros) River estuary on the

  • Alexandrovich, Michael, Grand Duke (Russian noble)

    Russian Provisional Government: Creation of the Provisional Government: When his brother Grand Duke Michael refused the throne, the Romanov dynasty came to an end. The demise of the empire saw the emergence of two separate authorities, both claiming to speak for the people but neither representing more than a section of it: the Provisional Government and…

  • Alexe?eff, Alexandre (French animator)

    Alexandre Alexe?eff, Russian-born French filmmaker who invented the pinscreen method of animation with his collaborator (later his wife), the animator Claire Parker (1910–81). Alexe?eff spent his childhood near Istanbul and studied at a naval college in St. Petersburg. After the Russian Revolution

  • alexia (pathology)

    Dyslexia, an inability or pronounced difficulty to learn to read or spell, despite otherwise normal intellectual functions. Dyslexia is a chronic neurological disorder that inhibits a person’s ability to recognize and process graphic symbols, particularly those pertaining to language. Primary

  • Alexia, Princess (princess of The Netherlands)

    Máxima: …was born in December 2003; Princess Alexia and Princess Ariane were born in June 2005 and April 2007, respectively. On April 30, 2013, Willem-Alexander’s mother, Queen Beatrix, formally abdicated, and he became king of the Netherlands. Upon his accession to the throne, Máxima became queen consort, and Catharina-Amalia became princess…

  • Alexiad (work by Anna Comnena)

    John Cinnamus: …the period 1118–76, continuing the Alexiad of Anna Comnena, covers the reigns of John II and Manuel I, down to the unsuccessful campaign against the Turks of Iconium when the Byzantines were routed (1176) at Myriocephalon. Cinnamus was probably an eyewitness to the events of the last 10 years of…

  • Alexianus Bassianus (Roman emperor)

    Severus Alexander, Roman emperor from ad 222 to 235, whose weak rule collapsed in the civil strife that engulfed the empire for the next 50 years. His maternal grandmother, Julia Maesa, was a sister-in-law of the emperor Septimius Severus (reigned 193–211). In 218 the legions in Syria proclaimed as

  • Alexie, Jr., Sherman Joseph (American author)

    Sherman Alexie, Native American writer whose poetry, short stories, novels, and films about the lives of American Indians won him an international following. Alexie was born to Salish Indians—a Coeur d’Alene father and a Spokane mother. He suffered from congenital hydrocephalus and underwent

  • Alexie, Sherman (American author)

    Sherman Alexie, Native American writer whose poetry, short stories, novels, and films about the lives of American Indians won him an international following. Alexie was born to Salish Indians—a Coeur d’Alene father and a Spokane mother. He suffered from congenital hydrocephalus and underwent

  • Alexievich, Svetlana (Belarusian journalist and prose writer)

    Svetlana Alexievich, Belarusian journalist and prose writer, a Russian-language author of meticulously crafted works of depth and introspection that provided a compelling and uncompromising portrayal of the social and political upheaval within the Soviet Union from the postwar era to the fall of

  • Alexios I Komnenos (Byzantine emperor)

    Alexius I Comnenus, Byzantine emperor (1081–1118) at the time of the First Crusade who founded the Comnenian dynasty and partially restored the strength of the empire after its defeats by the Normans and Turks in the 11th century. The third son of John Comnenus and a nephew of Isaac I (emperor

  • Alexios II Komnenos (Byzantine emperor)

    Alexius II Comnenus , Byzantine emperor from 1180 to 1183. Alexius was the son of Manuel I Comnenus and Maria, daughter of Raymond, prince of Antioch. When his father died on September 24, 1180, Alexius became emperor at the age of 11, with his mother as regent. She, in turn, entrusted the

  • Alexios III Angelos (Byzantine emperor)

    Alexius III Angelus, Byzantine emperor from 1195 to 1203. He was the second son of Andronicus Angelus, grandson of Alexius I. In 1195 he was proclaimed emperor by the troops; he captured his brother, the emperor Isaac II, at Stagira in Macedonia and had him blinded and imprisoned. Crowned in April

  • Alexios IV Angelos (Byzantine emperor)

    Alexius IV Angelus, Byzantine emperor from 1203 to 1204. Alexius was the son of Emperor Isaac II. He regained control of his rights to the Byzantine throne with the help of the Fourth Crusade but was deposed soon after by a palace coup. Imprisoned in 1195 with his father (who had been blinded) by

  • Alexios V Doukas (Byzantine emperor)

    Alexius V Ducas Mourtzouphlus, Byzantine emperor in 1204, son-in-law of Alexius III Angelus. He led a revolt against the coemperors Isaac II and Alexius IV, who were supported by the Fourth Crusade. He then became the last emperor of Byzantium before its overthrow and partition by the Crusaders. In

  • Alexis (tsar of Russia)

    Alexis, tsar of Russia from 1645 to 1676. The son of Michael, the first Romanov monarch of Russia (reigned 1613–45), Alexis received a superficial education from his tutor Boris Ivanovich Morozov before acceding to the throne at the age of 16. Morozov, who was also Alexis’ brother-in-law, i

  • Alexis (Greek writer)

    Alexis, one of the foremost writers of Middle and New Comedy at Athens, a low form of comedy that succeeded the Old Comedy of Aristophanes. Alexis came from Thurii but apparently lived most of his long life in Athens; he was said to have been Menander’s uncle. According to Plutarch, he lived to the

  • Alexis (prince of Russia [1904–1918])

    Alexis, only son of Nicholas II, the last tsar of Russia, and the tsarina Alexandra. He was the first male heir born to a reigning tsar since the 17th century. Alexis was a hemophiliac, and at that time there was no medical treatment that could alleviate his condition or lessen his vulnerability to

  • Alexis (prince of Russia [1690-1718])

    Alexis, heir to the throne of Russia, who was accused of trying to overthrow his father, Peter I the Great. After his mother, Eudoxia, was forced to enter a convent (1698), Alexis was brought up by his aunts and, after 1702, was educated by the tutor Baron Heinrich von Huyssen. Although he d

  • Alexis Falconieri, Saint (Italian friar)

    Seven Holy Founders: …Founders are Saints Bonfilius, Alexis Falconieri, John Bonagiunta, Benedict dell’Antella, Bartholomew Amidei, Gerard Sostegni, and Ricoverus Uguccione. Formally Ordo Fratrum Servorum Sanctae Mariae (“Order of Friar Servants of St. Mary”), the order is a Roman Catholic congregation of mendicant friars dedicated to apostolic work.

  • Alexis I (patriarch of Moscow)

    Alexis I, Russian Orthodox Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia (1945–70) whose allegiance to the Soviet government helped him strengthen the structure of the church within an officially atheistic country. Born to an aristocratic family, Simansky received a law degree from the University of Moscow

  • Alexis und Dora (work by Goethe)

    Johann Wolfgang von Goethe: Friendship with Schiller (1794–1805): …his finest poems, the “idyll” Alexis und Dora. In the autumn he began an epic in the Homeric manner but set in contemporary Germany and dealing with the response of ordinary small-town people to the French Revolution and the associated wars: Herrmann und Dorothea, published in 1797, one of the…

  • Alexis, Paul (French author)

    French literature: Naturalism: Henry Céard, Léon Hennique, and Paul Alexis. The Naturalists purported to take a more scientifically analytic approach to the presentation of reality than had their predecessors, treating dissection as a prerequisite for description. Hence Zola’s attachment to the term naturalisme, borrowed from Hippolyte Taine, the positivist philosopher who claimed for…

  • Alexis, Saint (metropolitan of Moscow)

    Saint Alexis, ; canonized 1448; feast day Oct. 5), metropolitan of Moscow from 1354 to 1378 and the first representative of the Russian Orthodox church to take a truly active role in governing Russia. Alexis became regent during the short reign of Ivan the Fair (1353–59), great-great-grandson of

  • Alexis, Willibald (German writer)

    Willibald Alexis, German writer and critic best known for his historical novels about Brandenburg and Prussia. Alexis grew up in Berlin. After service as a volunteer in the campaign of 1815, he studied law at Berlin and Breslau but abandoned his legal career for writing after the success of his

  • Alexius Ducas Murtzuphlus (Byzantine emperor)

    Alexius V Ducas Mourtzouphlus, Byzantine emperor in 1204, son-in-law of Alexius III Angelus. He led a revolt against the coemperors Isaac II and Alexius IV, who were supported by the Fourth Crusade. He then became the last emperor of Byzantium before its overthrow and partition by the Crusaders. In

  • Alexius I Comnenus (Byzantine emperor)

    Alexius I Comnenus, Byzantine emperor (1081–1118) at the time of the First Crusade who founded the Comnenian dynasty and partially restored the strength of the empire after its defeats by the Normans and Turks in the 11th century. The third son of John Comnenus and a nephew of Isaac I (emperor

  • Alexius II Comnenus (Byzantine emperor)

    Alexius II Comnenus , Byzantine emperor from 1180 to 1183. Alexius was the son of Manuel I Comnenus and Maria, daughter of Raymond, prince of Antioch. When his father died on September 24, 1180, Alexius became emperor at the age of 11, with his mother as regent. She, in turn, entrusted the

  • Alexius III Angelus (Byzantine emperor)

    Alexius III Angelus, Byzantine emperor from 1195 to 1203. He was the second son of Andronicus Angelus, grandson of Alexius I. In 1195 he was proclaimed emperor by the troops; he captured his brother, the emperor Isaac II, at Stagira in Macedonia and had him blinded and imprisoned. Crowned in April

  • Alexius IV Angelus (Byzantine emperor)

    Alexius IV Angelus, Byzantine emperor from 1203 to 1204. Alexius was the son of Emperor Isaac II. He regained control of his rights to the Byzantine throne with the help of the Fourth Crusade but was deposed soon after by a palace coup. Imprisoned in 1195 with his father (who had been blinded) by

  • Alexius V Ducas Mourtzouphlus (Byzantine emperor)

    Alexius V Ducas Mourtzouphlus, Byzantine emperor in 1204, son-in-law of Alexius III Angelus. He led a revolt against the coemperors Isaac II and Alexius IV, who were supported by the Fourth Crusade. He then became the last emperor of Byzantium before its overthrow and partition by the Crusaders. In

  • Aley River (river, Central Asia)

    Ob River: Physiography: …receiving another left-bank tributary, the Aley River, and widening its floodplain as the valley widens. Turning westward again at Barnaul, the river receives a right-bank tributary, the Chumysh River, from the Salair Ridge. The valley there is 3 to 6 miles (5 to 10 km) wide, with steeper ground on…

  • Aleyrodidae (insect)

    Whitefly, any sap-sucking member of the insect family Aleyrodidae (order Homoptera). The nymphs, resembling scale insects, are flat, oval, and usually covered with a cottony substance; the adults, 2–3 mm (0.08–0.12 inch) long, are covered with a white opaque powder and resemble tiny moths. The four

  • Alf laylah wa laylah (Asian literature)

    The Thousand and One Nights, collection of largely Middle Eastern and Indian stories of uncertain date and authorship. Its tales of Aladdin, Ali Baba, and Sindbad the Sailor have almost become part of Western folklore, though these were added to the collection only in the 18th century in European

  • ALFA (Italian car manufacturer)

    Alfa Romeo SpA, Italian manufacturer of high-priced sports cars and other vehicles. The company was operated by the Italian government through its state holding company, IRI (Istituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale), until 1986, when it was sold to Fiat SpA. Headquarters are in Milan. The

  • alfa (plant)

    Esparto, either of two species of gray-green needlegrasses (Stipa tenacissima and Lygeum spartum) in the family Poaceae that are indigenous to southern Spain and northern Africa; the term also denotes the fibre obtained from those grasses. Esparto fibre has great strength and flexibility, and both

  • Alfa Romeo SpA (Italian car manufacturer)

    Alfa Romeo SpA, Italian manufacturer of high-priced sports cars and other vehicles. The company was operated by the Italian government through its state holding company, IRI (Istituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale), until 1986, when it was sold to Fiat SpA. Headquarters are in Milan. The

  • Alfabet (work by Christensen)

    Inger Christensen: The volume Alfabet (1981; Alphabet) builds on her earlier analogies between language and physical reality by applying alphabetic and numeric structures, such as the Fibonacci numbers, as principles of creative order.

  • alfalfa (plant)

    Alfalfa, (Medicago sativa), perennial, cloverlike, leguminous plant of the pea family (Fabaceae), widely grown primarily for hay, pasturage, and silage. Alfalfa is known for its tolerance of drought, heat, and cold and for the remarkable productivity and quality of its herbage. The plant is also

  • alfalfa butterfly (insect)

    sulfur butterfly: For example, the alfalfa butterfly (Colias eurytheme) is usually orange with black wing margins, but some females are white with black margins. The larvae feed on clover and may seriously damage crops, including alfalfa and soybeans.

  • alfalfa weevil (insect)

    Alfalfa weevil, (Hypera postica), insect pest of the family Curculionidae (order Coleoptera) whose larvae damage crops, most often alfalfa and clover. Though originally from Asia, the alfalfa weevil was introduced from Europe into the United States in the early 20th century and is now present in

  • Alfama quarter (district, Lisbon, Portugal)

    fado: It arose in the city’s Alfama district, a socially and economically marginalized area that was a nexus of Iberian, South American (particularly Brazilian), and African peoples and traditions. A diverse array of dance traditions circulated within this milieu, including the Afro-Brazilian lundum; the Brazilian fado (distinct from the song genre…

  • Alfani, Gianni (Italian author)

    Italian literature: The new style: …the lesser poets Lapo Gianni, Gianni Alfani, and Dino Frescobaldi.

  • álfar (mythology)

    Elf, in Germanic folklore, originally, a spirit of any kind, later specialized into a diminutive creature, usually in tiny human form. In the Prose, or Younger, Edda, elves were classified as light elves (who were fair) and dark elves (who were darker than pitch); these classifications are r

  • Alfarabius (Muslim philosopher)

    Al-Fārābī, Muslim philosopher, one of the preeminent thinkers of medieval Islam. He was regarded in the medieval Islamic world as the greatest philosophical authority after Aristotle. Very little is known of al-Fārābī’s life, and his ethnic origin is a matter of dispute. He eventually moved from

  • Alfaro Siqueiros, David (Mexican painter)

    David Alfaro Siqueiros, Mexican painter and muralist whose art reflected his Marxist political ideology. He was one of the three founders of the modern school of Mexican mural painting (along with Diego Rivera and José Clemente Orozco). A political activist since his youth, Siqueiros studied at the

  • Alfaro, Eloy (president of Ecuador)

    Esmeralda Affair: As a result, Liberal Eloy Alfaro became president.

  • Alfaro, Emilio (Argentine actor and director)

    Emilio Alfaro, Argentine actor and director whose highly regarded career lasted nearly 50 years; from 1989 he served as director of the Teatro General San Martín in Buenos Aires (b. Jan. 20, 1933, Buenos Aires, Arg.--d. July 18, 1998, Buenos

  • Alfasi, Isaac ben Jacob (Jewish scholar)

    Isaac ben Jacob Alfasi, Talmudic scholar who wrote a codification of the Talmud known as Sefer ha-Halakhot (“Book of Laws”), which ranks with the great codes of Maimonides and Karo. Alfasi lived most of his life in Fès (from which his surname was derived) and there wrote his digest of the Talmud,

  • alférez (Spanish royal official)

    Spain: Society, economy, and culture: …the royal domain; and the alférez (Catalan: senyaler), also a magnate, who organized and directed the army under the king’s command. The merinos or, later, adelantados, who functioned as provincial governors in Castile, were also drawn from the nobility. The Catalan counties initially were part of the Carolingian empire, but…

  • Alferov, Zhores (Russian physicist)

    Zhores Alferov, Soviet physicist who, with Herbert Kroemer and Jack S. Kilby, was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 2000 for their work that laid the foundation for the modern era of computers and information technology. Alferov received a doctorate in physics and mathematics from the A.F.

  • Alfie (film by Gilbert [1966])

    Alfie, British romantic comedy film, released in 1966, that featured a breakout performance from Michael Caine and caused a sensation with its frank depiction of casual sex. The film—based on a radio play turned stage play turned novel—presents Alfie (played by Caine) as a streetwise, self-absorbed

  • Alfie (play by Naughton)

    Bill Naughton: …in the 1960s, most notably Alfie (1963; filmed 1966), an episodic, unsentimental tale of an egocentric Cockney womanizer.

  • alfiere (chess)

    chess: The pragmatists: …was a depreciation of the bishop: The Hypermoderns had attacked Tarrasch’s high opinion of an unobstructed bishop and said a bishop could profitably be traded for a knight. The post-Soviet players often traded bishop for knight for minimal compensation. They also often exchanged their good bishop, the one less encumbered…

  • Alfieri, Vittorio, Conte (Italian author)

    Vittorio, Count Alfieri, Italian tragic poet whose predominant theme was the overthrow of tyranny. In his tragedies, he hoped to provide Italy with dramas comparable to those of other European nations. Through his lyrics and dramas he helped to revive the national spirit of Italy and so earned the

  • Alfiós Potamós (river, Greece)

    Alpheus River, river, the longest of the Peloponnese (Modern Greek: Pelopónnisos), Greece, rising near Dhaviá in central Arcadia (Arkadía), with a course of about 70 miles (110 km). Leaving the plain of Megalópolis in a rugged gorge, above which it is known as the Elísson, the Alpheus turns

  • Alfisol (soil type)

    Alfisol, one of the 12 soil orders in the U.S. Soil Taxonomy. Alfisols are arable soils with water content adequate for at least three consecutive months of the growing season. Prior to cultivation they are covered with natural broad-leaved deciduous forest vegetation, sometimes interspersed with

  • Alf?ld (region, Europe)

    Great Alfold, a flat, fertile lowland, southeastern Hungary, also extending into eastern Croatia, northern Serbia, and western Romania. Its area is 40,000 square miles (100,000 square km), about half in Hungary. In its natural state the Great Alfold is a steppeland broken up with floodplain groves

  • Alfonsín Foulkes, Raúl Ricardo (president of Argentina)

    Raúl Alfonsín, civilian president of Argentina (1983–89), elected after eight years of military rule, and leader of the moderate Radical Civic Union (Spanish: Unión Cívica Radical, or UCR). Alfonsín attended the Liceo Militar (military academy) General San Martin, obtained a law degree from the

  • Alfonsín, Raúl (president of Argentina)

    Raúl Alfonsín, civilian president of Argentina (1983–89), elected after eight years of military rule, and leader of the moderate Radical Civic Union (Spanish: Unión Cívica Radical, or UCR). Alfonsín attended the Liceo Militar (military academy) General San Martin, obtained a law degree from the

  • Alfonsine Tables (astronomy)

    Alfonsine Tables, the first set of astronomical tables prepared in Christian Europe. They enabled calculation of eclipses and the positions of the planets for any given time based on the Ptolemaic theory, which assumed that the Earth was at the centre of the universe. The introduction states that

  • alfonsino (fish)

    Alfonsino, any of the eight species of exclusively marine fishes constituting the family Berycidae (order Beryciformes). The family contains two genera, Beryx and Centroberyx. Representatives occur in deep-sea habitats of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian oceans. B. splendens of the North Atlantic

  • Alfonso d’Avalos, Marques del Vasto (work by Titian)

    Titian: Portraits: A splendid example is Alfonso d’Avalos, Marques del Vasto (1533), brilliantly rendered in gleaming armour ornamented with gold. He is accompanied by a small page whose head reaches his waist. The introduction of a secondary figure to give scale is a device frequently adopted by Titian. Another refulgent portrait…

  • Alfonso de Carillo (Spanish archbishop)

    Francisco, Cardinal Jiménez de Cisneros: The archbishop, Alfonso de Carillo, refused to accept the letter and, in 1473, when Jiménez insisted on his rights, threw him into prison. Refusing release at the price of giving up his claims, Jiménez remained in prison until 1479, when Carillo gave way. In 1482 Cardinal Pedro…

  • Alfonso el Batallador (king of Aragon and Navarre)

    Alfonso I, king of Aragon and of Navarre from 1104 to 1134. Alfonso was the son of Sancho V Ramírez. He was persuaded by Alfonso VI of Leon and Castile to marry the latter’s heiress, Urraca, widow of Raymond of Burgundy. In consequence, when Alfonso VI died (1109) the four Christian kingdoms were

  • Alfonso el Benigno (king of Aragon)

    Alfonso IV, king of Aragon from 1327 to 1336, son of James II. He was well-intentioned but weak. His reign was marked by a serious revolt in Sardinia, which led to war with Genoa, and by the establishment of diplomatic relations with the Moorish kingdoms of North Africa. The failure of the king t

  • Alfonso el Bravo (king of Leon and Castile)

    Alfonso VI, king of Leon (1065–70) and king of reunited Castile and Leon (1072–1109), who by 1077 had proclaimed himself “emperor of all Spain” (imperator totius Hispaniae). His oppression of his Muslim vassals led to the invasion of Spain by an Almoravid army from North Africa (1086). His name is

  • Alfonso el Casto (king of Asturias)

    Alfonso II, king of Asturias from 791 to 842, the son of Fruela I. He had to face frequent and determined attacks by the armies of the emirate of Córdoba and was often defeated, but his doggedness saved Asturias from extinction. He built a new capital, Oviedo, on a strategic site in the mountains.

  • Alfonso el Católico (king of Asturias)

    Alfonso I, king of Asturias from 739 to 757, probably the son-in-law of the first Asturian king, Pelayo. The rebellion of the Berber garrisons in Islāmic Spain (741) and the civil strife there that followed gave him the opportunity to incorporate Galicia into his kingdom. He also campaigned far to

  • Alfonso el Emperador (king of Leon and Castile)

    Alfonso VII, king of Leon and Castile from 1126 to 1157, son of Raymond of Burgundy and the grandson of Alfonso VI, whose imperial title he assumed. Though his reign saw the apogee of the imperial idea in medieval Spain and though he won notable victories against the Moors, he remains a somewhat

  • Alfonso el Franco (king of Aragon)

    Alfonso III, king of Aragon from 1285 to 1291, son of Peter III. A weak king, he was involved in an unsuccessful constitutional struggle with the Aragonese nobles. In 1287 he was compelled to grant the so-called “Privilegio de la Unión,” which handed over a number of important royal prerogatives

  • Alfonso el Justiciero (king of Castile and Leon)

    Alfonso XI, king of Castile and Leon from 1312, who succeeded his father, Ferdinand IV, when he was only a year old. His minority was marked by violent strife between factions of nobles, but when he came of age, in 1325, he restored order with unprecedented vigour. He gave new powers to the

  • Alfonso el Liberal (king of Aragon)

    Alfonso III, king of Aragon from 1285 to 1291, son of Peter III. A weak king, he was involved in an unsuccessful constitutional struggle with the Aragonese nobles. In 1287 he was compelled to grant the so-called “Privilegio de la Unión,” which handed over a number of important royal prerogatives

  • Alfonso el Magnánimo (king of Aragon and Naples)

    Alfonso V, king of Aragon (1416–58) and king of Naples (as Alfonso I, 1442–58), whose military campaigns in Italy and elsewhere in the central Mediterranean made him one of the most famous men of his day. After conquering Naples, he transferred his court there. Alfonso was born and brought up in

  • Alfonso el Magno (king of Asturias)

    Alfonso III, king of Asturias from 866 to 910, son of Ordo?o I. Winning a contested succession, he moved his capital forward from Oviedo to the recently restored Roman city of León. Under him, Porto (Oporto) was occupied in 868, and Castile took shape around Burgos, drawing on his Basque allies. He

  • Alfonso el Monje (king of Leon and Asturias)

    Alfonso IV, king of Leon and Asturias from c. 926 to c. 932, the son of Ordo?o II and the successor of his uncle Fruela II. He became a monk, abdicated, and then thought better of it and tried to recover his throne. His short reign was, in consequence, one of political chaos, ending about

  • Alfonso el Noble (king of Leon)

    Alfonso V, king of Leon from 999 to 1028, son of Bermudo II. He came to the throne because the devastating campaigns of Almanzor (see Man?ūr, Abū ?āmir al-) had forced his father to accept Almanzor’s de facto suzerainty over Leon. The Leonese were forced to take part in the Moorish campaign

  • Alfonso el Sabio (king of Castile and Leon)

    Alfonso X, king of Castile and Leon from 1252 to 1284. Alfonso’s father, Ferdinand III, conquered Andalusia and imposed tribute on the remaining Muslim states in Spain—Murcia and Granada. His mother, Beatrice, was granddaughter of the Holy Roman emperor Frederick I. Alfonso, already known as a

  • Alfonso I (king of Asturias)

    Alfonso I, king of Asturias from 739 to 757, probably the son-in-law of the first Asturian king, Pelayo. The rebellion of the Berber garrisons in Islāmic Spain (741) and the civil strife there that followed gave him the opportunity to incorporate Galicia into his kingdom. He also campaigned far to

  • Alfonso I (king of Aragon and Navarre)

    Alfonso I, king of Aragon and of Navarre from 1104 to 1134. Alfonso was the son of Sancho V Ramírez. He was persuaded by Alfonso VI of Leon and Castile to marry the latter’s heiress, Urraca, widow of Raymond of Burgundy. In consequence, when Alfonso VI died (1109) the four Christian kingdoms were

  • Alfonso I (duke of Ferrara [1505–1534])

    Alfonso I, duke of Ferrara from 1505, a noted Renaissance prince of the House of Este, an engineer and patron of the arts. Alfonso succeeded to the duchy at the death of his father, Ercole I. He employed the poet Ludovico Ariosto and the painters Titian and Giovanni Bellini, and made Ferrara’s

  • Alfonso I d’Este (duke of Ferrara [1505–1534])

    Alfonso I, duke of Ferrara from 1505, a noted Renaissance prince of the House of Este, an engineer and patron of the arts. Alfonso succeeded to the duchy at the death of his father, Ercole I. He employed the poet Ludovico Ariosto and the painters Titian and Giovanni Bellini, and made Ferrara’s

  • Alfonso II (king of Aragon)

    Alfonso II, count of Barcelona from 1162 and king of Aragon from 1164. The son of Ramón Berenguer IV, Alfonso succeeded his father as count of Barcelona and his mother as ruler of Aragon, thus associating the two countries under the house of Barcelona—a union that was destined to be permanent.

  • Alfonso II (duke of Ferrara [1559–1597])

    Torquato Tasso: Early life and works.: …court of Duke Alfonso II d’Este at Ferrara, where he enjoyed the patronage of the duke’s sisters, Lucrezia and Leonora, for whom he wrote some of his finest lyrical poems. In 1569 his father died; the following year Lucrezia left Ferrara, and Tasso followed the cardinal to Paris, where he…

  • Alfonso II (king of Asturias)

    Alfonso II, king of Asturias from 791 to 842, the son of Fruela I. He had to face frequent and determined attacks by the armies of the emirate of Córdoba and was often defeated, but his doggedness saved Asturias from extinction. He built a new capital, Oviedo, on a strategic site in the mountains.

  • Alfonso II d’Este (duke of Ferrara [1559–1597])

    Torquato Tasso: Early life and works.: …court of Duke Alfonso II d’Este at Ferrara, where he enjoyed the patronage of the duke’s sisters, Lucrezia and Leonora, for whom he wrote some of his finest lyrical poems. In 1569 his father died; the following year Lucrezia left Ferrara, and Tasso followed the cardinal to Paris, where he…

  • Alfonso III (king of Asturias)

    Alfonso III, king of Asturias from 866 to 910, son of Ordo?o I. Winning a contested succession, he moved his capital forward from Oviedo to the recently restored Roman city of León. Under him, Porto (Oporto) was occupied in 868, and Castile took shape around Burgos, drawing on his Basque allies. He

  • Alfonso III (king of Aragon)

    Alfonso III, king of Aragon from 1285 to 1291, son of Peter III. A weak king, he was involved in an unsuccessful constitutional struggle with the Aragonese nobles. In 1287 he was compelled to grant the so-called “Privilegio de la Unión,” which handed over a number of important royal prerogatives

  • Alfonso IV (king of Aragon)

    Alfonso IV, king of Aragon from 1327 to 1336, son of James II. He was well-intentioned but weak. His reign was marked by a serious revolt in Sardinia, which led to war with Genoa, and by the establishment of diplomatic relations with the Moorish kingdoms of North Africa. The failure of the king t

  • Alfonso IV (king of Leon and Asturias)

    Alfonso IV, king of Leon and Asturias from c. 926 to c. 932, the son of Ordo?o II and the successor of his uncle Fruela II. He became a monk, abdicated, and then thought better of it and tried to recover his throne. His short reign was, in consequence, one of political chaos, ending about

  • Alfonso IX (king of Leon)

    Alfonso IX, king of Leon from 1188 to 1230, son of Ferdinand II of Leon, and cousin of Alfonso VIII of Castile (next to whom he is numbered as a junior member of the family). A forceful personality, Alfonso IX was determined to recover Leonese territory lost to Castile; and, despite the fact that

  • Alfonso Munio (work by Gómez de Avellaneda)

    Gertrudis Gómez de Avellaneda: …on historic models; her play Alfonso Munio (1844; rev. ed., Munio Alfonso, 1869), based on the life of Alfonso X, and Saúl (1849), a biblical drama, achieved popular success. Her novels, such as Sab (1841), an antislavery work, are now almost completely forgotten. Twice widowed and with many lovers, she…

  • Alfonso the Battler (king of Aragon and Navarre)

    Alfonso I, king of Aragon and of Navarre from 1104 to 1134. Alfonso was the son of Sancho V Ramírez. He was persuaded by Alfonso VI of Leon and Castile to marry the latter’s heiress, Urraca, widow of Raymond of Burgundy. In consequence, when Alfonso VI died (1109) the four Christian kingdoms were

  • Alfonso the Brave (king of Leon and Castile)

    Alfonso VI, king of Leon (1065–70) and king of reunited Castile and Leon (1072–1109), who by 1077 had proclaimed himself “emperor of all Spain” (imperator totius Hispaniae). His oppression of his Muslim vassals led to the invasion of Spain by an Almoravid army from North Africa (1086). His name is

  • Alfonso the Candid (king of Aragon)

    Alfonso III, king of Aragon from 1285 to 1291, son of Peter III. A weak king, he was involved in an unsuccessful constitutional struggle with the Aragonese nobles. In 1287 he was compelled to grant the so-called “Privilegio de la Unión,” which handed over a number of important royal prerogatives

  • Alfonso the Catholic (king of Asturias)

    Alfonso I, king of Asturias from 739 to 757, probably the son-in-law of the first Asturian king, Pelayo. The rebellion of the Berber garrisons in Islāmic Spain (741) and the civil strife there that followed gave him the opportunity to incorporate Galicia into his kingdom. He also campaigned far to

  • Alfonso the Chaste (king of Asturias)

    Alfonso II, king of Asturias from 791 to 842, the son of Fruela I. He had to face frequent and determined attacks by the armies of the emirate of Córdoba and was often defeated, but his doggedness saved Asturias from extinction. He built a new capital, Oviedo, on a strategic site in the mountains.

  • Alfonso the Emperor (king of Leon and Castile)

    Alfonso VII, king of Leon and Castile from 1126 to 1157, son of Raymond of Burgundy and the grandson of Alfonso VI, whose imperial title he assumed. Though his reign saw the apogee of the imperial idea in medieval Spain and though he won notable victories against the Moors, he remains a somewhat

  • Alfonso the Great (king of Asturias)

    Alfonso III, king of Asturias from 866 to 910, son of Ordo?o I. Winning a contested succession, he moved his capital forward from Oviedo to the recently restored Roman city of León. Under him, Porto (Oporto) was occupied in 868, and Castile took shape around Burgos, drawing on his Basque allies. He

  • Alfonso the Just (king of Castile and Leon)

    Alfonso XI, king of Castile and Leon from 1312, who succeeded his father, Ferdinand IV, when he was only a year old. His minority was marked by violent strife between factions of nobles, but when he came of age, in 1325, he restored order with unprecedented vigour. He gave new powers to the

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