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  • Abdullah, Sheikh Muhammad (Indian political leader)

    Sheikh Muhammad Abdullah, a prominent figure in India’s struggle for independence from British rule, who fought for the rights of the Kashmir region and won a semiautonomous status for Jammu and Kashmir state within independent India. Abdullah was educated at the Prince of Wales College (Jammu) and

  • ?Abdullahi (Sudanese religious leader)

    ?Abd Allāh, political and religious leader who succeeded Mu?ammad A?mad (al-Mahdī) as head of a religious movement and state within the Sudan. ?Abd Allāh followed his family’s vocation for religion. In about 1880 he became a disciple of Mu?ammad A?mad, who announced that he had a divine mission, b

  • Abdullahi dan Fodio (Islamic scholar and leader)

    Usman dan Fodio: Growing leadership: …him were his younger brother, Abdullahi, who was one of his first pupils, and his son, Muhammad Bello, both distinguished teachers and writers. But his own scholarly clan was slow to come over to him. Significant support appears to have come from the Hausa peasantry. Their economic and social grievances…

  • Abdülmecid I (Ottoman sultan)

    Abdülmecid I, Ottoman sultan from 1839 to 1861 who issued two major social and political reform edicts known as the Hatt-? ?erif of Gülhane (Noble Edict of the Rose Chamber) in 1839 and the Hatt-? Hümayun (Imperial Edict) in 1856, heralding the new era of Tanzimat (“Reorganization”). Well educated,

  • Abdülmecid II (Ottoman prince and caliph)

    Abdülmecid II, the last caliph and crown prince of the Ottoman dynasty of Turkey. Following Ottoman custom, Abdülmecid was confined to the palace until he was 40, during which time his father, Abdülaziz, and three of his cousins reigned. When his fourth cousin took the throne as Mehmed VI in 1918,

  • Abdurahman, Abdullah (South African politician)

    South Africa: Black, Coloured, and Indian political responses: Under the presidency of Abdullah Abdurahman, this body lobbied for Coloured rights and had links at times with other black political groups. Indians in the Transvaal, led by Mohandas K. Gandhi, also resisted discriminatory legislation. Gandhi spent the years 1893 to 1914 in South Africa as a legal agent…

  • Abe Isoo (Japanese social leader)

    Abe Isoo, one of the founders of the Japanese socialist movement and titular head of the Social Mass Party (Shakai Taishūtō) from its inception in 1932 until 1940. He is also remembered for introducing the game of baseball to Japan. Abe was attracted to socialism while studying for the ministry in

  • Abe Kimifusa (Japanese author)

    Abe Kōbō, Japanese novelist and playwright noted for his use of bizarre and allegorical situations to underline the isolation of the individual. He grew up in Mukden (now Shenyang), in Manchuria, where his father, a physician, taught at the medical college. In middle school his strongest subject

  • Abe Kōbō (Japanese author)

    Abe Kōbō, Japanese novelist and playwright noted for his use of bizarre and allegorical situations to underline the isolation of the individual. He grew up in Mukden (now Shenyang), in Manchuria, where his father, a physician, taught at the medical college. In middle school his strongest subject

  • Abe Lincoln in Illinois (play by Sherwood)

    Abe Lincoln in Illinois, drama in 12 scenes by Robert E. Sherwood, first produced in 1938 and published in 1939 with extended commentary by the playwright. The play, which in 1939 was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for drama, concerns Lincoln’s life and career—from his early, unsuccessful days as a

  • Abe Lincoln in Illinois (film by Cromwell [1940])

    John Cromwell: From The Prisoner of Zenda to Caged: Abe Lincoln in Illinois (1940) was based on the Pulitzer Prize-winning play by Robert E. Sherwood. The moving drama featured an Academy Award-nominated performance by Raymond Massey as the future president; Ruth Gordon was Mary Todd Lincoln, and Cromwell played John Brown.

  • Abe Masahiro (Japanese statesman)

    Abe Masahiro, statesman who negotiated the opening of Japan to trade and communication with Western nations after the arrival of Commodore Matthew C. Perry and his U.S. Navy fleet. Born into an influential noble family, Abe was only 25 years old when he was appointed head of the rōjū (senior

  • Abe Shintaro (Japanese politician)

    Japan: Political developments: On December 26 Abe Shinzo—who had become head of the LDP in September 2012—was selected to be the next prime minister by the LDP-dominated lower house.

  • Abe Shinzo (prime minister of Japan)

    Abe Shinzo, Japanese politician, who twice was prime minister of Japan (2006–07 and 2012– ). Abe was a member of a prominent political family. His grandfather Kishi Nobusuke served as Japan’s prime minister from 1957 to 1960, and his great-uncle Sato Eisaku held the same post from 1964 to 1972.

  • abecedarian verse (literature)

    Abecedarius, a type of acrostic in which the first letter of each line of a poem or the first letter of the first word of each stanza taken in order forms the alphabet. Examples of these are some of the Psalms (in Hebrew), such as Psalms 25 and 34, where successive verses begin with the letters of

  • Abecedarium Anglo-Latinum (dictionary by Huloet)

    dictionary: From Classical times to 1604: …Richard Huloet’s work of 1552, Abecedarium Anglo-Latinum, for it contained a greater number of English words than had before appeared in any similar dictionary. In 1556 appeared the first edition by John Withals of A Short Dictionary for Young Beginners, which gained greater circulation (to judge by the frequency of…

  • abecedarius (literature)

    Abecedarius, a type of acrostic in which the first letter of each line of a poem or the first letter of the first word of each stanza taken in order forms the alphabet. Examples of these are some of the Psalms (in Hebrew), such as Psalms 25 and 34, where successive verses begin with the letters of

  • Abéché (Chad)

    Abéché, town located in eastern Chad, between the wadis Chao and Sao. Historically, it was the site of the capital of the Muslim sultanate of Ouadda?, which dominated much of the area of Chad before the French conquest in 1912. The remains of the ancient capital include a palace, tombs of former

  • Abedi Ayew Pelé (Ghanaian athlete)

    Abedi Ayew Pelé, Ghanaian football (soccer) player who was the only man to have won the African Player of the Year award three consecutive times (1991–93). As an attacking midfielder with Olympique de Marseille in France, Abedi Pelé was one of the first African players to have an impact on club

  • Abedin, Zainul (Bangladeshi artist)

    Bangladesh: Visual art and architecture: …behind the art movement was Zainul Abedin, who first attracted attention with his sketches of the Bengal famine of 1943. After the partition of Pakistan from India in 1947, he was able to gather around him a school of artists who experimented with various forms, both orthodox and innovative.

  • Abeel, John (Seneca leader)

    Cornplanter, Seneca Indian leader who aided white expansion into Indian territory in the eastern United States. Cornplanter’s father was a white trader of English or Dutch ancestry named John O’Bail, and his mother was a Seneca Indian. Little is known of his early life. During the American

  • Abegg, Richard Wilhelm Heinrich (German chemist)

    Richard Wilhelm Heinrich Abegg, physical chemist whose work contributed to the understanding of valence (the capacity of an atom to combine with another atom) in light of the newly discovered presence of electrons within the atom. Abegg became professor of chemistry at the University of Breslau,

  • Abegweit (province, Canada)

    Prince Edward Island (P.E.I.), one of the Maritime Provinces of Canada. Curving from North Cape to East Point, “the Island,” as Prince Edward Islanders refer to the province, is about 140 miles (225 km) long, ranging from 2 to 40 miles (3 to 65 km) in width. It lies between 46° and 47° N latitude

  • Abeilardus, Petrus (French theologian and poet)

    Peter Abelard, French theologian and philosopher best known for his solution of the problem of universals and for his original use of dialectics. He is also known for his poetry and for his celebrated love affair with Hélo?se. The outline of Abelard’s career is well known, largely because he

  • Abejas phase (Mexican pre-history)

    Mexico: Pre-Columbian Mexico: During the Abejas phase (3400–2300 bc), use of cultivated plants increased at the expense of wild plants and, probably, at the expense of hunting. In addition, pumpkins and the common bean were introduced. Toward the end of the phase, more-permanent settlements seem to have developed as pit-house…

  • Abel (biblical figure)

    Abel, in the Old Testament, second son of Adam and Eve, who was slain by his older brother, Cain (Genesis 4:1–16). According to Genesis, Abel, a shepherd, offered the Lord the firstborn of his flock. The Lord respected Abel’s sacrifice but did not respect that offered by Cain. In a jealous rage,

  • Abel Prize (mathematics award)

    Abel Prize, award granted annually for research in mathematics, in commemoration of the brilliant 19th-century Norwegian mathematician Niels Henrik Abel. The Niels Henrik Abel Memorial Fund was established on Jan. 1, 2002, and it is administered by the Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research.

  • Abel Sanchez (work by Unamuno)

    Miguel de Unamuno: …una historia de pasión (1917; Abel Sanchez), a modern re-creation of the biblical story of Cain and Abel, which centres on the painfully conflicting impulses of the character representing Cain. His other novels include Amor y pedagogía (1902; “Love and Pedagogy”), which describes a father’s attempt to raise his son…

  • Abel Sánchez: una historia de pasión (work by Unamuno)

    Miguel de Unamuno: …una historia de pasión (1917; Abel Sanchez), a modern re-creation of the biblical story of Cain and Abel, which centres on the painfully conflicting impulses of the character representing Cain. His other novels include Amor y pedagogía (1902; “Love and Pedagogy”), which describes a father’s attempt to raise his son…

  • Abel Tasman National Park (national park, New Zealand)

    Abel Tasman National Park, wildlife preserve in northwestern South Island, New Zealand. Established in 1942, it was named for Abel Tasman, the Dutch navigator. With an area of 55,699 acres (22,541 hectares), it extends inland for about 6 miles (10 km) from the beaches of Tasman Bay on its western

  • Abel’s test (mathematics)

    Abel’s test, in analysis (a branch of mathematics), a test for determining if an infinite series converges to some finite value. The test is named for the Norwegian mathematician Niels Henrik Abel (1802–29). Starting with any known convergent series, say Σ an (i.e., a1 + a2 + a3 + ?), Abel proved

  • Abel’s theorem (mathematics)

    Niels Henrik Abel: His central result, known as Abel’s theorem, is the basis for the later theory of Abelian integrals and Abelian functions, a generalization of elliptic function theory to functions of several variables. However, Abel’s visit to Paris was unsuccessful in securing him an appointment, and the memoir he submitted to the…

  • Abel, Carl Friedrich (German composer)

    Carl Friedrich Abel, symphonist of the pre-Classical school and one of the last virtuosos of the viola da gamba. After playing in the Dresden court orchestra (1743–58), Abel went to London in 1759, where he was appointed chamber musician to Queen Charlotte in 1764. When J.C. Bach arrived in London

  • Abel, John Jacob (American physiological chemist)

    John Jacob Abel, American pharmacologist and physiological chemist who made important contributions to a modern understanding of the ductless, or endocrine, glands. He isolated adrenaline in the form of a chemical derivative (1897) and crystallized insulin (1926). He also invented a primitive

  • Abel, Niels Henrik (Norwegian mathematician)

    Niels Henrik Abel, Norwegian mathematician, a pioneer in the development of several branches of modern mathematics. Abel’s father was a poor Lutheran minister who moved his family to the parish of Gjerstad, near the town of Ris?r in southeast Norway, soon after Niels Henrik was born. In 1815 Niels

  • Abel, Rudolf (Soviet spy)

    Rudolf Abel, Soviet intelligence officer, convicted in the United States in 1957 for conspiring to transmit military secrets to the Soviet Union. He was exchanged in 1962 for the American aviator Francis Gary Powers, who had been imprisoned as a spy in the Soviet Union since 1960. Genrich Fischer

  • Abel, Rudolf Ivanovich (Soviet spy)

    Rudolf Abel, Soviet intelligence officer, convicted in the United States in 1957 for conspiring to transmit military secrets to the Soviet Union. He was exchanged in 1962 for the American aviator Francis Gary Powers, who had been imprisoned as a spy in the Soviet Union since 1960. Genrich Fischer

  • Abel, Sid (Canadian ice hockey player)

    Sidney Gerald Abel, (“Sid”), Canadian ice hockey player and coach (born Feb. 22, 1918, Melville, Sask.—died Feb. 8, 2000, Farmington Hills, Mich.), was a longtime star with the Detroit Red Wings, helping the team to win three Stanley Cup titles (1943, 1950, 1952) and four consecutive r

  • Abel, Sidney Gerald (Canadian ice hockey player)

    Sidney Gerald Abel, (“Sid”), Canadian ice hockey player and coach (born Feb. 22, 1918, Melville, Sask.—died Feb. 8, 2000, Farmington Hills, Mich.), was a longtime star with the Detroit Red Wings, helping the team to win three Stanley Cup titles (1943, 1950, 1952) and four consecutive r

  • Abel, Sir Frederick Augustus (British chemist)

    Sir Frederick Augustus Abel, English chemist and explosives specialist who, with the chemist Sir James Dewar, invented cordite (1889), later adopted as the standard explosive of the British army. Abel also made studies of dust explosions in coal mines, invented a device for testing the flash point

  • Abel, Theodora Mead (American psychologist and educator)

    Theodora Mead Abel, American clinical psychologist and educator who combined sociology and psychology in her work. Abel was educated at Vassar College (B.A., 1921), Columbia University (M.A., 1924), and the University of Paris, where she received a diploma in psychology (1923). After earning a

  • Abelam (people)

    Oceanic art and architecture: The Sepik River regions: The art of the Abelam tribe, which lived in the Prince Alexander Mountains, was tied to a vigorous ceremonial life. It thus presents a far more spectacular scene. Their pyramidal ceremonial houses, centres for cults of yam growing and initiation, were built on the grandest scale known in New…

  • Abelard, Peter (French theologian and poet)

    Peter Abelard, French theologian and philosopher best known for his solution of the problem of universals and for his original use of dialectics. He is also known for his poetry and for his celebrated love affair with Hélo?se. The outline of Abelard’s career is well known, largely because he

  • Abélard, Pierre (French theologian and poet)

    Peter Abelard, French theologian and philosopher best known for his solution of the problem of universals and for his original use of dialectics. He is also known for his poetry and for his celebrated love affair with Hélo?se. The outline of Abelard’s career is well known, largely because he

  • Abele spelen (German medieval drama)

    Dutch literature: Songs, drama, and the rhetoricians: …the first extant plays—the 14th-century Abele spelen (“seemly plays”)—were entirely secular (and may have been the first of such in Europe), incorporating romantic themes from the earlier songs, there is reason to attribute the emergence of drama in the Netherlands as much to mime and song as to liturgical action.…

  • Abeles, Sir Emil Herbert Peter (Australian business executive)

    Sir Peter Abeles, Hungarian-born Australian business executive who immigrated to Australia in 1949 and soon after cofounded Alltrans Pty Ltd., a small transport company with two trucks; by 1999 Alltrans had merged with or taken over several other firms, and the resulting multinational corporation,

  • Abelia (plant genus)

    Caprifoliaceae: Major genera and species: The genus Abelia has about 30 species, which are native to East Asia and Mexico. Given this unusual geographical distribution, the taxonomy of the genus is contentious. Mexican abelia (A. floribunda) is cultivated as an ornamental and has bright green oval leaves and small clusters of fragrant…

  • Abelia floribunda (shrub)

    Caprifoliaceae: Major genera and species: Mexican abelia (A. floribunda) is cultivated as an ornamental and has bright green oval leaves and small clusters of fragrant pinkish purple tubular flowers. It may reach 1.8 metres (6 feet) but usually is shorter. The glossy abelia (A. ×grandiflora) has pinkish white blooms and…

  • Abelia grandiflora (shrub)

    Caprifoliaceae: Major genera and species: The glossy abelia (A. ×grandiflora) has pinkish white blooms and is evergreen in warm climates.

  • Abelian group (mathematics)

    modern algebra: Group theory: …group is called commutative, or Abelian; for such Abelian groups, operations are sometimes written α + β instead of αβ, using addition in place of multiplication.

  • Abelian theorem (mathematics)

    Niels Henrik Abel: His central result, known as Abel’s theorem, is the basis for the later theory of Abelian integrals and Abelian functions, a generalization of elliptic function theory to functions of several variables. However, Abel’s visit to Paris was unsuccessful in securing him an appointment, and the memoir he submitted to the…

  • Abell, A. S. (American journalist)

    A.S. Abell, newspaper editor and publisher, and founder, with two other investors, of the Philadelphia Public Ledger and the Baltimore Sun. Abell left school at the age of 14 to become a clerk in a store dealing in West Indian wares. He had hoped to become a printer, and in 1822 he was taken on as

  • Abell, Arunah Shepardson (American journalist)

    A.S. Abell, newspaper editor and publisher, and founder, with two other investors, of the Philadelphia Public Ledger and the Baltimore Sun. Abell left school at the age of 14 to become a clerk in a store dealing in West Indian wares. He had hoped to become a printer, and in 1822 he was taken on as

  • Abell, Kjeld (Danish dramatist)

    Kjeld Abell, dramatist and social critic, best known outside Denmark for two plays, Melodien der blev v?k (1935; English adaptation, The Melody That Got Lost, 1939) and Anna Sophie Hedvig (1939; Eng. trans., 1944), which defends the use of force by the oppressed against the oppressor. Abell studied

  • Abelmoschus esculentus (plant)

    Okra, (Abelmoschus esculentus), herbaceous hairy annual plant of the mallow family (Malvaceae) and its edible fruit. It is native to the tropics of the Eastern Hemisphere and is widely cultivated or naturalized in the tropics and subtropics of the Western Hemisphere. Only the tender unripe fruit is

  • Abelmoschus moschatus (plant, Abelmoschus species)

    Musk mallow, (Abelmoschus moschatus), annual or biennial plant of the mallow family (Malvaceae), native to India. Musk mallow is cultivated for its seeds, which are used in perfumes as a replacement for musk, and is a source of an essential oil that is used in traditional medicine and to flavour

  • abelmosk (plant, Abelmoschus species)

    Musk mallow, (Abelmoschus moschatus), annual or biennial plant of the mallow family (Malvaceae), native to India. Musk mallow is cultivated for its seeds, which are used in perfumes as a replacement for musk, and is a source of an essential oil that is used in traditional medicine and to flavour

  • Abelson, Frank (British singer)

    Frankie Vaughan, (Frank Abelson), British theatre and cabaret singer who was one of the most popular romantic crooners of the 1950s through the ’90s; darkly handsome and elegantly dressed, “Mr. Moonlight” (as he was known from his signature tune, “Give Me the Moonlight”) also appeared on television

  • Abelson, Philip Hauge (American scientist)

    Philip Hauge Abelson, American physical chemist who proposed the gas diffusion process for separating uranium-235 from uranium-238 and in collaboration with the U.S. physicist Edwin Mattison McMillan discovered the element neptunium. After receiving a Ph.D. (1939) in nuclear physics from the

  • Abemama Atoll (atoll, Kiribati)

    Abemama Atoll, coral atoll of the northern Gilbert Islands, part of Kiribati, in the west-central Pacific Ocean. Capt. Charles Bishop, who reached the atoll in 1799, named it Roger Simpson Island for one of his associates. Seat of the area’s ruling family in the 19th century, the atoll was the site

  • Abenaki (people)

    Abenaki, Algonquian-speaking North American Indian tribe that united with other tribes in the 17th century to furnish mutual protection against the Iroquois Confederacy. The name refers to their location “toward the dawn.” In its earliest known form, the Abenaki Confederacy consisted of tribes or

  • Abenaki Confederacy (Native American history)

    Abenaki: …its earliest known form, the Abenaki Confederacy consisted of tribes or bands living east and northeast of present-day New York state, including Abenaki, Passamaquoddy and Penobscot in present-day Maine, Malecite and Mi’kmaq (Micmac) in present-day Maritime Provinces, and Cowasuck, Sokoki, and others in present-day Vermont and New Hampshire. Later the…

  • Abendmusiken (music)

    Dietrich Buxtehude: …were written for the famous Abendmusiken, concerts of mixed vocal and instrumental music held in St. Mary’s in the late afternoons on five Sundays in the year. These performances, instituted by Buxtehude in 1673, became the pride of Lübeck, and their tradition was continued into the 19th century.

  • Abendstunde eines Linsiedlers, Die (work by Pestalozzi)

    Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi: Die Abendstunde eines Linsiedlers (1780; “The Evening Hour of a Hermit”) outlines his fundamental theory that education must be “according to nature” and that security in the home is the foundation of man’s happiness. His novel Lienhard und Gertrud (1781–87; Leonard and Gertrude, 1801), written…

  • Abengourou (C?te d’Ivoire)

    Abengourou, town, eastern C?te d’Ivoire (Ivory Coast), on the road from Abidjan (the national capital) to Ghana. The major trading centre for a productive forest region, it is also the residence of the Anyi (Agni) paramount chief, who is the present king of Indénié (an Anyi kingdom founded in the

  • Abenhjertige fortielser: Erindringsglimt (work by Kristensen)

    Tom Kristensen: …the complete autobiography appeared as ?benhjertige fortielser: Erindringsglimt (“Candid Concealments: Flashes of Memory”).

  • ?benr? (Denmark)

    ?benr?, city, southeastern Jutland, Denmark, at the head of ?benr? Fjord. First mentioned in the 12th century when attacked by the Wends, it was granted a charter (1335) and grew from a fishing village into a thriving port in the 17th and 18th centuries. Medieval landmarks include the St. Nicholas

  • abenteuerliche Simplicissimus, Der (novel by Grimmelshausen)

    Simplicissimus, novel by Hans Jacob Christoph von Grimmelshausen, the first part of which was published in 1669 as Der abentheurliche Simplicissimus Teutsch (“The Adventurous Simplicissimus Teutsch”). Considered one of the most significant works of German literature, it contains a satirical and

  • Abenteuerroman (German literature)

    Abenteuerroman, (German: “adventure novel”) in German literature, a form of the picaresque novel. The Abenteuerroman is an entertaining story recounting the adventures of the hero, but it often incorporates a serious aspect. An example of the genre is the 17th-century Der Abentheurliche

  • Abeokuta (Nigeria)

    Abeokuta, town, capital of Ogun state, southwestern Nigeria. It is situated on the east bank of the Ogun River, around a group of rocky outcroppings that rise above the surrounding wooded savanna. It lies on the main railway (1899) from Lagos, 48 miles (78 km) south, and on the older trunk road

  • Abeokuta Ladies Club (Nigerian organization)

    Funmilayo Ransome-Kuti: …school, she helped organize the Abeokuta Ladies Club (ALC), initially a civic and charitable group of mostly Western-educated Christian women. The organization gradually became more political and feminist in its orientation, and in 1944 it formally admitted market women (women vendors in Abeokuta’s open-air markets), who were generally impoverished, illiterate,…

  • Abeokuta Women’s Union (Nigerian organization)

    Funmilayo Ransome-Kuti: …school, she helped organize the Abeokuta Ladies Club (ALC), initially a civic and charitable group of mostly Western-educated Christian women. The organization gradually became more political and feminist in its orientation, and in 1944 it formally admitted market women (women vendors in Abeokuta’s open-air markets), who were generally impoverished, illiterate,…

  • Aberbach, Jean (Austrian entrepreneur)

    Hill and Range: The King's Publishers: Jean and Julian Aberbach formed their Hill and Range publishing company in 1945, the name they chose made it clear which songwriters they were after—the country-and-western writers who had been long overlooked by the established publishers affiliated with the American Society of Composers, Authors, and…

  • Aberbach, Julian (Austrian entrepreneur)

    Hill and Range: The King's Publishers: …Austrian immigrant brothers Jean and Julian Aberbach formed their Hill and Range publishing company in 1945, the name they chose made it clear which songwriters they were after—the country-and-western writers who had been long overlooked by the established publishers affiliated with the American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers (ASCAP).…

  • Abercorn (Zimbabwe)

    Shamva, town, northeastern Zimbabwe. It was originally called Abercorn, and its present name was derived from a Shona word meaning “to become friendly.” Located at the site of a sandstone reef that once yielded large quantities of gold, the town is overshadowed by giant mine dumps at the foot of

  • Abercrombie & Fitch (American company)

    Abercrombie & Fitch, American clothing retailer marketing casual wear to preteens, teens, and young adults. Headquarters are in New Albany, Ohio. Abercrombie & Fitch originated in 1891 as a retail sporting goods concern based in New York City. It was famed for its wide variety of expensive and

  • Abercrombie, James (British general)

    James Abercrombie, British general in the French and Indian Wars, commander of the British forces in the failed attack on the French at Ticonderoga. A lieutenant colonel of the Royal Scots early in his military career, Abercrombie was promoted to colonel in 1746 and served in the Flemish campaign

  • Abercrombie, Lascelles (British author)

    Lascelles Abercrombie, poet and critic who was associated with Georgian poetry. He was educated at Malvern College, Worcestershire, and Owens College, Manchester, after which he became a journalist and began to write poetry. His first book, Interludes and Poems (1908), was followed by Mary and the

  • Abercrombie, Sir Leslie Patrick (British architect)

    Sir Patrick Abercrombie, British architect and town planner who redesigned London after it was devastated by enemy bombardment in World War II. The son of a Manchester stockbroker, Abercrombie was one of nine children; his younger brother Lascelles became a noted poet and critic. He was educated at

  • Abercrombie, Sir Patrick (British architect)

    Sir Patrick Abercrombie, British architect and town planner who redesigned London after it was devastated by enemy bombardment in World War II. The son of a Manchester stockbroker, Abercrombie was one of nine children; his younger brother Lascelles became a noted poet and critic. He was educated at

  • Abercromby, James (British general)

    James Abercrombie, British general in the French and Indian Wars, commander of the British forces in the failed attack on the French at Ticonderoga. A lieutenant colonel of the Royal Scots early in his military career, Abercrombie was promoted to colonel in 1746 and served in the Flemish campaign

  • Abercromby, Sir Ralph (British general)

    Sir Ralph Abercromby, soldier whose command restored discipline and prestige to the British army after the disastrous campaigns in the Low Countries between 1793 and 1799. He prepared the way for the successful campaign against Napoleon Bonaparte in Egypt. Entering the army in 1756, Abercromby

  • Aberdar (Wales, United Kingdom)

    Aberdare, town (community), Rhondda Cynon Taff county borough, historic county of Glamorgan (Morgannwg), southern Wales. It lies on the River Cynon. The community dates from the Middle Ages. Its Saint John’s Church was built about 1189. Aberdare’s main growth in the 19th century was based on iron

  • Aberdare (Wales, United Kingdom)

    Aberdare, town (community), Rhondda Cynon Taff county borough, historic county of Glamorgan (Morgannwg), southern Wales. It lies on the River Cynon. The community dates from the Middle Ages. Its Saint John’s Church was built about 1189. Aberdare’s main growth in the 19th century was based on iron

  • Aberdare National Park (national park, Kenya)

    Nyeri: …serves as the gateway to Aberdare National Park. The town is linked by road and rail with Nanyuki, about 36 miles (58 km) to the northeast, and Nairobi, about 60 miles (96 km) to the southwest. There is an airfield nearby. Pop. (1999) 46,969; (2009) 63,626.

  • Aberdare Range (mountain range, Kenya)

    Aberdare Range, mountain range, forming a section of the eastern rim of the Great Rift Valley in west-central Kenya, northeast of Naivasha and Gilgil and just south of the Equator. The range has an average elevation of 11,000 feet (3,350 metres) and culminates in Oldoinyo Lesatima (13,120 feet

  • Aberdaugleddau (Wales, United Kingdom)

    Milford Haven, port, historic and present county of Pembrokeshire (Sir Benfro), southwestern Wales. It lies on the north shore of a deep natural harbour of Milford Haven, an inlet of the Celtic Sea. For many centuries the inlet served as a landing and embarkation point on the route from

  • Aberdeen (Washington, United States)

    Aberdeen, city, Grays Harbor county, western Washington, U.S., on the Pacific estuaries of the Chehalis, Wishkah, and Hoquiam rivers (which together form Grays Harbor). With Hoquiam and Cosmopolis, Aberdeen forms a tri-city area. Captain Robert Gray navigated the inlet in the ship Columbia on May

  • Aberdeen (Maryland, United States)

    Aberdeen, city, Harford county, northeastern Maryland, U.S., near Chesapeake Bay, 26 miles (42 km) northeast of Baltimore. Settled about 1800, it was named for the city in Scotland. Aberdeen is the principal trading centre for the nearby 113-square-mile (293-square-km) Aberdeen Proving Ground

  • Aberdeen (council area, Scotland, United Kingdom)

    Aberdeenshire, council area and historic county of eastern Scotland. It projects shoulderlike eastward into the North Sea and encompasses coastal lowlands in the north and east and part of the Grampian Mountains in the west. The council area and the historic county occupy somewhat different areas.

  • Aberdeen (Scotland, United Kingdom)

    Aberdeen, city and historic royal burgh (town) astride the Rivers Dee and Don on Scotland’s North Sea coast. Aberdeen is a busy seaport, the British centre of the North Sea oil industry, and the commercial capital of northeastern Scotland. Aberdeen’s primary industries were once fishing, textiles,

  • Aberdeen (South Dakota, United States)

    Aberdeen, city, seat (1880) of Brown county, northeastern South Dakota, U.S. It lies in the James River valley about 160 miles (260 km) northeast of Pierre. Established in 1881 as a junction of several railroads, it was named for Aberdeen in Scotland by Alexander Mitchell, president of the Chicago,

  • Aberdeen Angus (breed of cattle)

    Angus, breed of black, polled beef cattle, for many years known as Aberdeen Angus, originating in northeastern Scotland. Its ancestry is obscure, though the breed appears closely related to the curly-coated Galloway, sometimes called the oldest breed in Britain. The breed was improved and the

  • Aberdeen FC (Scottish football club)

    Alex Ferguson: …he became the manager of Aberdeen FC. Under Ferguson’s guidance, Aberdeen experienced the greatest period of success in club history, winning three Scottish Premier Division (the country’s top league) titles (1979–80, 1983–84, and 1984–85), four Scottish Cups (1982, 1983, 1984, and 1986), and a European Cup Winners’ Cup (1983). Ferguson’s…

  • Aberdeen Proving Ground (military test site, Aberdeen, Maryland, United States)

    Aberdeen: …for the nearby 113-square-mile (293-square-km) Aberdeen Proving Ground (established 1917), a U.S. Army test site for guns, ammunition, and military vehicles; one of the world’s largest collections of weapons is displayed there in the U.S. Army Ordnance Museum. There is also some light manufacturing. Inc. town, 1892; city, 1992. Pop.…

  • Aberdeen, George Hamilton-Gordon, 4th earl of (prime minister of United Kingdom)

    George Hamilton-Gordon, 4th earl of Aberdeen, British foreign secretary and prime minister (1852–55) whose government involved Great Britain in the Crimean War against Russia (1853–56). Orphaned at age 11, George Gordon (who added his deceased first wife’s family name to his own surname in 1818)

  • Aberdeen, George Hamilton-Gordon, 4th earl of, Viscount Gordon of Aberdeen, Viscount of Formartine, Lord Haddo, Methlick, Tarves, and Kellie (prime minister of United Kingdom)

    George Hamilton-Gordon, 4th earl of Aberdeen, British foreign secretary and prime minister (1852–55) whose government involved Great Britain in the Crimean War against Russia (1853–56). Orphaned at age 11, George Gordon (who added his deceased first wife’s family name to his own surname in 1818)

  • Aberdeen, University of (university, Aberdeen, Scotland, United Kingdom)

    John Boyd Orr, Baron Boyd-Orr of Brechin Mearns: …Rowett Research Institute) at the University of Aberdeen. However, the institute was not built when Boyd-Orr arrived in Aberdeen. He was given £5,000 to begin building the institute and was required to raise funds for its completion. Following a stint as a medical officer in the British army and navy…

  • Aberdeenshire (council area, Scotland, United Kingdom)

    Aberdeenshire, council area and historic county of eastern Scotland. It projects shoulderlike eastward into the North Sea and encompasses coastal lowlands in the north and east and part of the Grampian Mountains in the west. The council area and the historic county occupy somewhat different areas.

  • Aberewa (religion)

    Asase Yaa, in the indigenous religion of the Akan people of the Guinea Coast, the great female spirit of the earth, second only to Nyame (the Creator) in power and reverence. The Akan regard the earth as a female spirit because of its fertility and its power to bring forth life, and they further

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