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  • alabaster (mineral)

    Alabaster, fine-grained, massive gypsum that has been used for centuries for statuary, carvings, and other ornaments. It normally is snow-white and translucent but can be artificially dyed; it may be made opaque and similar in appearance to marble by heat treatment. Florence, Livorno, and Milan, in

  • Alabaster, William (English scholar)

    William Alabaster, English poet, mystic, and scholar in Latin and Hebrew, author of a Latin tragedy, Roxana (1597, published 1632), which the 18th-century critic Samuel Johnson thought was the finest Latin writing in England before John Milton’s elegies. Alabaster was educated at the University of

  • alabastron (flask)

    Alabastron, elongated, narrow-necked flask, used as a perfume or unguent container. The Greek alabastron has no handles but often lugs (ear-shaped projections), sometimes pierced with string holes. There are three types of classical alabastron: a basic Corinthian bulbous shape about 3 to 4 inches

  • Alaca Hüyük (archaeological site, Turkey)

    Alaca Hüyük, ancient Anatolian site northeast of the old Hittite capital of Hattusa at Bo?azk?y, north-central Turkey. Its excavation was begun by Makridi Bey in 1907 and resumed in 1935 by the Turkish Historical Society. Inside a sphinx gate, traces of a large Hittite building were discovered.

  • Alacah?yük (archaeological site, Turkey)

    Alaca Hüyük, ancient Anatolian site northeast of the old Hittite capital of Hattusa at Bo?azk?y, north-central Turkey. Its excavation was begun by Makridi Bey in 1907 and resumed in 1935 by the Turkish Historical Society. Inside a sphinx gate, traces of a large Hittite building were discovered.

  • Alacaluf (people)

    Alacaluf, South American Indian people, very few (about 10) in number, living on the eastern coast of Isla Wellington in southern Chile. Their culture closely resembles that of the extinct Chono (q.v.) to the north and the Yámana (q.v.) to the south. The Alacaluf environment is a wild and rugged

  • Alacant (Spain)

    Alicante, port city, capital of Alicante provincia (province), in the comunidad autónoma (autonomous community) of Valencia, southeastern Spain. It is located on Alicante Bay of the Mediterranean Sea. Founded as Akra Leuke (“White Summit”) by Phocaean Greeks (from the west coast of Asia Minor) in

  • Alacoque, Saint Margaret Mary (French saint)

    Blessed Claude La Colombière: …1682, Paray-le-Monial), Jesuit who assisted St. Margaret Mary Alacoque in establishing the devotion to the Sacred Heart.

  • ALAD (gene)

    lead poisoning: Susceptibility and treatment: …in a gene known as ALAD (delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase) results in the production of an enzyme called ALAD2, which has an abnormally high binding affinity for lead. Both the normal enzyme, known as ALAD1, and the variant enzyme function in heme biosynthesis and therefore play an underlying role in the formation…

  • ALAD1 (enzyme)

    lead poisoning: Susceptibility and treatment: …the normal enzyme, known as ALAD1, and the variant enzyme function in heme biosynthesis and therefore play an underlying role in the formation of red blood cells. In the presence of lead, however, the activity of either form of the enzyme is inhibited, and, following lead exposure, individuals with the…

  • ALAD2 (enzyme)

    lead poisoning: Susceptibility and treatment: …production of an enzyme called ALAD2, which has an abnormally high binding affinity for lead. Both the normal enzyme, known as ALAD1, and the variant enzyme function in heme biosynthesis and therefore play an underlying role in the formation of red blood cells. In the presence of lead, however, the…

  • Alada? (mountain, Turkey)

    Taurus Mountains: Alada? (10,935 feet [3,333 m]) in the Taurus proper and Mount Erciyes in the outlying offshoot of the Nur Mountains are the highest peaks; many other peaks reach between 10,000 and 12,000 feet (3,000 to 3,700 m).

  • ālādāgh (mountain range, Iran)

    Elburz Mountains: …the range merges into the ālādāgh, the more southerly of the two principal ranges there. More commonly, however, the westernmost part of the range is called the Talish (Talysh, Talesh, or Tavālesh) Range, or the Bogrov Dāgh. The Elburz Range, in its strictest sense, forms part of the central stretch…

  • Aladdin (film by Ritchie [2019])

    Will Smith: …genie in the family comedy Aladdin (2019). He played two roles in Gemini Man (2019): a retired assassin and his younger clone, the latter a digitally recreated version of Smith in his 20s. Smith’s other credits from 2019 included the animated Spies in Disguise, in which he supplied the voice…

  • ALADDIN (American computer science project)

    Manuel Blum: …they were part of the ALADDIN (algorithm adaptation dissemination and integration) project, which received funding from the U.S. National Science Foundation for matching algorithms developed in academia with potential industrial applications.

  • Aladdin (fictional hero)

    Aladdin, hero of one of the best-known stories in The Thousand and One Nights. The son of a deceased Chinese tailor and his poor widow, Aladdin is a lazy, careless boy who meets an African magician claiming to be his uncle. The magician brings Aladdin to the mouth of a cave and bids him enter and

  • Aladdin (animated film by Clements [1992])

    Alan Menken: …would become another Disney success, Aladdin (1992), and Menken subsequently teamed up with lyricist Tim Rice. Aladdin became one of Disney’s biggest animated hits, and it netted Menken two more Academy Awards. Newsies (1992), a live-action Disney musical for which Menken wrote songs (with lyricist Jack Feldman), was less successful.…

  • Aladdin (work by Oehlenschl?ger)

    Adam Gottlob Oehlenschl?ger: …cycles of lyric poems and Aladdin, a poetic drama on the writer’s own life, with the lamp of the story symbolizing intuitive poetic genius. Oehlenschl?ger was by now recognized as an important Romantic poet and an able practitioner of what Friedrich Schlegel termed Universalpoesie, a universal, historical, comparative approach to…

  • ALADI (international organization)

    Latin American Integration Association, organization that was established by the Treaty of Montevideo (August 1980) and became operational in March 1981. It seeks economic cooperation among its members. Original members were Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Paraguay,

  • Aladins Problem (work by Jünger)

    Ernst Jünger: In such later books as Aladins Problem (1983), he tended to condemn the militaristic attitudes that had led to Germany’s disastrous participation in the World Wars. Jünger’s S?mtliche Werke (“Complete Works”) were published in 18 volumes from 1978 to 1983.

  • Aladura (Nigerian religion)

    Aladura, (Yoruba: “Owners of Prayer”), religious movement among the Yoruba peoples of western Nigeria, embracing some of the independent prophet-healing churches of West Africa. The movement, which in the early 1970s had several hundred thousand adherents, began about 1918 among the younger elite

  • Alaeddin Ali A??k Pa?a (Turkish author)

    A??k Pa?a, poet who was one of the most important figures in early Turkish literature. Very little about his life is known. A wealthy and respected figure in his community, he apparently was also a very religious sheikh (mystic leader, hence his name, A??k, which means lover, given to an ecstatic m

  • Alafroísk?otos (work by Sikelianos)

    Angelos Sikelianós: Sikelianós’ first important work, the Alafroísk?otos (“The Light-Shadowed”), was published in 1909 and revealed his lyrical powers. It was followed by a group of outstanding lyrics. His next period was introduced by the philosophic poem Prólogos sti zoí (1917; “Prologue to Life”) and includes the long works Meter Theou (“Mother…

  • Alagakonara (Sinhalese family)

    Sri Lanka: Political changes: Meanwhile, the Alagakonara, a powerful Sinhalese family, attained a strong position at Rayigama, near the west coast; the Muslim traveler Ibn Ba??ū?ah, who visited Sri Lanka in 1344, referred to one of the Alagakonaras as a sultan named Alkonar. In 1412 the capital was taken by Parakramabahu…

  • Alaghez, Mount (mountain, Armenia)

    Mount Aragats, mountain in Armenia, northwest of Yerevan and north of the Ararat Plain. The highest point in both Armenia and the Lesser Caucasus range (13,418 feet [4,090 m]), Aragats is a circular, shieldlike mountain composed of both lavas and tufas. A volcanic cone of recent geologic age lies

  • Alagiyavanna Maho??āla (Sinhalese poet)

    South Asian arts: Sinhalese literature: 10th century ad to 19th century: …exempla by the 17th-century poet Alagiyavanna Moho??āla.

  • Alagna, Roberto (French opera singer)

    Roberto Alagna, French operatic lyric tenor who became known for both his vocal qualities and his flamboyant acting style. Alagna was born to Sicilian parents in a suburb of Paris and was discovered while he was singing for tips in a Paris pizzeria. Although he was mostly self-taught, his first

  • Alagoas (state, Brazil)

    Alagoas, estado (state) of northeastern Brazil. It is the second smallest of Brazil’s states and is an agricultural region in the early stages of industrialization. Situated on the northern bank of the S?o Francisco River, it is bounded on the north and west by the state of Pernambuco, on the east

  • Alagoinhas (Brazil)

    Alagoinhas, city, northeastern Bahia estado (state), northeastern Brazil, lying 35 miles (56 km) inland from the Atlantic coast at 607 feet (185 metres) above sea level. It was elevated to city rank in 1880, and its municipality is one of the largest orange-producing regions in the state. Bananas,

  • Alagonakkara (king of Sri Lanka)

    Zheng He: Naval expeditions: …the south—but encountered treachery from King Alagonakkara of Ceylon. Zheng defeated Alagonakkara’s forces and took the king back to Nanjing as a captive. In October 1409 Zheng He set out on his third voyage. This time, going beyond the seaports of India, he sailed to Hormuz on the Persian Gulf.…

  • Alag?z, Mount (mountain, Armenia)

    Mount Aragats, mountain in Armenia, northwest of Yerevan and north of the Ararat Plain. The highest point in both Armenia and the Lesser Caucasus range (13,418 feet [4,090 m]), Aragats is a circular, shieldlike mountain composed of both lavas and tufas. A volcanic cone of recent geologic age lies

  • Alain (French philosopher)

    Alain, French philosopher whose work profoundly influenced several generations of readers. Graduating in philosophy, he taught at lycées in a number of towns, including Rouen, where he became involved in politics and began contributing a daily short article of 600 words to a Radical newspaper. The

  • Alain de Lille (French theologian)

    Alain de Lille, theologian and poet so celebrated for his varied learning that he was known as “the universal doctor.” Alain studied and taught at Paris, lived for some time at Montpellier, and later joined the Cistercians in C?teaux. As a theologian, he shared in the mystic reaction of the second

  • Alain le Grand (French lord)

    Albret Family: …grandson, Alain, was known as Alain le Grand (1440–1522). The surname refers not to his deeds but to the vast domains over which he ruled as one of the last feudal lords. A daughter, Charlotte (1480–1514), was married to Cesare Borgia. Alain’s son, Jean (d. 1516), became king of Navarre…

  • Alain-Fournier (French author)

    Alain-Fournier, French writer whose only completed novel, Le Grand Meaulnes (1913; The Wanderer, or The Lost Domain), is a modern classic. Based on his happy childhood in a remote village in central France, Alain-Fournier’s novel reflects his longing for a lost world of delight. The hero, an

  • Alais (France)

    Alès, town, Gard département, Occitanie région, southeastern France. It lies along a bend of the Gardon d’Alès River, at the foot of the Cévennes mountains, north-northwest of N?mes. The town’s name meant “industry” in the language of its 10th-century-bce Phoenician founders. Alestium was its Roman

  • Alais, Peace of (French history)

    Huguenot: …Huguenots were defeated, and the Peace of Alès was signed on June 28, 1629, whereby the Huguenots were allowed to retain their freedom of conscience but lost all their military advantages. No longer a political entity, the Huguenots became loyal subjects of the king. Their remaining rights under the Edict…

  • Alajuela (Costa Rica)

    Alajuela, city, northwestern Costa Rica. It lies in the Valle Central at an elevation of 3,141 feet (957 metres). Known in colonial days as Villahermosa, the town was active in support of independence from Spain in 1821; five years later it suffered from a plot to restore Spanish control over Costa

  • Alajuela, Lago (lake, Panama)

    Panama Canal: The canal: …waters from Alajuela Lake (Lake Madden; formed by the Madden Dam), covers an area of 166 square miles (430 square km). The channel through the lake varies in depth from 46 to 85 feet (14 to 26 metres) and extends for about 23 miles (37 km) to Gamboa. Gaillard…

  • Alakaluf (people)

    Alacaluf, South American Indian people, very few (about 10) in number, living on the eastern coast of Isla Wellington in southern Chile. Their culture closely resembles that of the extinct Chono (q.v.) to the north and the Yámana (q.v.) to the south. The Alacaluf environment is a wild and rugged

  • alake (African official)

    Ogun: …Ake, the residence of the alake (the traditional ruler of Egbaland), built in 1854 and noted for its collection of antiquities and relics; and the Centenary Hall, all in Abeokuta. There are teacher training colleges in the state and a university of agriculture at Abeokuta. Area 6,472 square miles (16,762…

  • Alaknanda River (river, India)

    Ganges River: Physiography: Its five headstreams—the Bhagirathi, the Alaknanda, the Mandakini, the Dhauliganga, and the Pindar—all rise in the mountainous region of northern Uttarakhand state. Of those, the two main headstreams are the Alaknanda (the longer of the two), which rises about 30 miles (50 km) north of the Himalayan peak of Nanda…

  • Alakol, Lake (lake, Kazakhstan)

    Lake Alakol, salt lake in Kazakhstan, 110 miles (180 km) east of Lake Balqash, near the border with the Uighur Autonomous Region of Sinkiang, China. Lake Alakol has a drainage basin of about 26,500 square miles (68,700 square km), an area of 1,025 square miles, reaches a depth of about 148 feet (45

  • Alak?l, Lake (lake, Kazakhstan)

    Lake Alakol, salt lake in Kazakhstan, 110 miles (180 km) east of Lake Balqash, near the border with the Uighur Autonomous Region of Sinkiang, China. Lake Alakol has a drainage basin of about 26,500 square miles (68,700 square km), an area of 1,025 square miles, reaches a depth of about 148 feet (45

  • Alakol, Ozero (lake, Kazakhstan)

    Lake Alakol, salt lake in Kazakhstan, 110 miles (180 km) east of Lake Balqash, near the border with the Uighur Autonomous Region of Sinkiang, China. Lake Alakol has a drainage basin of about 26,500 square miles (68,700 square km), an area of 1,025 square miles, reaches a depth of about 148 feet (45

  • ‘alalā (bird)

    crow: moneduloides) and the ‘alalā, or Hawaiian crow (C. hawaiiensis)—use stick-type foraging tools to obtain food from small holes and crevices. Such sophisticated tool use is only practiced by a handful of animal species.

  • Alalakh (ancient Syrian city, Turkey)

    Alalakh, ancient Syrian city in the Orontes (Asi) valley, southern Turkey. Excavations (1936–49) by Sir Leonard Woolley uncovered numerous impressive buildings, including a massive structure known as the palace of Yarim-Lim, dating from c. 1780 bc, when Alalakh was the chief city of the district of

  • Alalkha (ancient Syrian city, Turkey)

    Alalakh, ancient Syrian city in the Orontes (Asi) valley, southern Turkey. Excavations (1936–49) by Sir Leonard Woolley uncovered numerous impressive buildings, including a massive structure known as the palace of Yarim-Lim, dating from c. 1780 bc, when Alalakh was the chief city of the district of

  • Alalu (Anatolian god)

    Teshub: …the pantheon after the gods Alalu, Anu, and Kumarbi had successively been deposed and banished to the netherworld. Another myth, the “Song of Ullikummi,” describes the struggle between Teshub and a stone monster that grew out of the sea. Teshub’s consort was Hebat (Queen of Heaven), and they had a…

  • Alam al-Halfa, Battle of (European history)

    World War II: Libya and Egypt, autumn 1941–summer 1942: …the southwest of the ridge ?Alam al-Halfa?. Shortage of fuel on the German side and reinforced defense on the British, together with intensification of the British bombing, spelled the defeat of the offensive, and Rommel on September 2 decided to make a gradual withdrawal.

  • Alam ara (film by Irani [1931])

    Prithviraj Kapoor: …first sound film, Ardeshir Irani’s Alam ara (1931; “The Light of the World”), he demonstrated his greatest asset—a powerful, booming voice. Throughout the 1930s Kapoor played lead roles in Hindi films produced by the New Theatres, a studio based in Calcutta (now Kolkata). The 1932 film Rajrani Meera, directed by…

  • ?ālam Shah, ?Alā?-al-Dīn (Sayyid ruler)

    India: The rise of regional states: The last Sayyid ruler, ?Alā? al-Dīn ?ālam Shah (reigned 1445–51), peacefully surrendered Delhi to his nominal vassal, the Afghan Bahlūl Lodī (reigned 1451–89), and retired to the Badaun district, which he retained until his death in 1478. Before he moved to Delhi, Bahlūl Lodī had already carved out a…

  • ?ālam, Shāh (Mughal emperor)

    Treaties of Banaras: …result of the Mughal emperor Shah ?ālam’s cession of Allahabad and Kora to the warlike Marathas as the price of their support. Warren Hastings, the British governor, ceded Allahabad and Kora to Shujā? and promised to support him against the menacing Afghan Rohillas in return for cash payments. This move,…

  • Alamán, Lucas (Mexican politician)

    Lucas Alamán, politician and historian, the leader of Mexican conservatives for nearly 30 years and the spokesman for a strong, centralized government that would support industrialization, educational expansion, and agricultural modernization. Living during a corrupt and brutal period of Mexican

  • Alamance Battleground State Historic Site (historical site, North Carolina, United States)

    Burlington: Nearby is the Alamance Battleground State Historic Site, where the Regulators, a group of dissident colonists, were defeated (May 16, 1771) by militia dispatched by the royal governor. Elon College (1889) is nearby. Inc. 1893. Pop. (2000) 44,917; Burlington Metro Area, 130,800; (2010) 49,963; Burlington Metro Area, 151,131.

  • Alamani (people)

    Alemanni, a Germanic people first mentioned in connection with the Roman attack on them in ad 213. In the following decades, their pressure on the Roman provinces became severe; they occupied the Agri Decumates c. 260, and late in the 5th century they expanded into Alsace and northern Switzerland,

  • Alamanni (people)

    Alemanni, a Germanic people first mentioned in connection with the Roman attack on them in ad 213. In the following decades, their pressure on the Roman provinces became severe; they occupied the Agri Decumates c. 260, and late in the 5th century they expanded into Alsace and northern Switzerland,

  • Alamanni, Luigi (Italian author)

    Italian literature: Poetry: …poet Virgil’s Georgics, and by Luigi Alamanni, in six books on agriculture and rustic life called La coltivazione (1546).

  • ālambana-pratyaya (Buddhist philosophy)

    pratyaya: …object as a cause (ālambana-pratyaya), since the object present in the preceding moment becomes the cause of the mental activity for functioning; and (4) the superior cause (adhipati-pratyaya), which refers to all causes, except those stated above, that are effective to produce a thing or not to hinder the…

  • Alamblak (people)

    Oceanic art and architecture: The Sepik River regions: …were figures carved by the Alamblak in the eastern Sepik Hills. The figures, known as yipwon, represent patron spirits of hunting and war. They are topped by a downcurved hook; directly beneath this is a human face, and below that is a vertical series of downcurved hooks. An oval element,…

  • alambre (food)

    Alambre, a Mexican dish of chopped meats and vegetables, served with corn or flour tortillas. The most common meats used are beef, chicken, and pork, including bacon. Some regional variations, however, feature goat or chorizo. Other ingredients typically include onions, peppers, tomato, and cheese.

  • Alameda (California, United States)

    Alameda, city, Alameda county, California, U.S. It lies on a 6.5-mile- (11-km-) long by 1-mile- (1.6-km-) wide island in San Francisco Bay, across the Oakland Harbor Channel from Oakland, with which it is connected by bridges and underground tunnels. The site was originally a peninsula that was

  • Alamein, battles of El- (World War II)

    Battles of El-Alamein, (1–27 July 1942, 23 October—11 November 1942), World War II events. After the First Battle of El-Alamein, Egypt (150 miles west of Cairo), ended in a stalemate, the second one was decisive. It marked the beginning of the end for the Axis in North Africa. The charismatic Field

  • Alamein, El- (Egypt)

    El-Alamein, coastal town in northwestern Egypt, about 60 miles (100 km) west of Alexandria, that was the site of two major battles between British and Axis forces in 1942 during World War II. El-Alamein is the seaward (northern) end of a 40-mile-wide bottleneck that is flanked on the south by the

  • ?ālamgīr (Mughal emperor)

    Aurangzeb, emperor of India from 1658 to 1707, the last of the great Mughal emperors. Under him the Mughal Empire reached its greatest extent, although his policies helped lead to its dissolution. Aurangzeb was the third son of the emperor Shah Jahān and Mumtāz Ma?al (for whom the Taj Mahal was

  • ?ālamgīr II (Mughal emperor)

    ?ālamgīr II, Mughal emperor of India who disgraced his reign (1754–59) by his weakness and his disregard for his subjects’ welfare. A son of the emperor Jahāndār Shah (reigned 1712–13), ?ālamgīr was always the puppet of more powerful men and was placed on the throne by the imperial vizier ?Imād

  • ālamgīrpur (archaeological site, India)

    India: Extent: …the Himalayan foothills, where at Alamgirpur, north of Delhi, the easternmost Harappan (or perhaps, more properly, Late Harappan) settlement has been discovered and partly excavated. If the area covered by these sites is compared with that of the Early Harappan settlements, it will be seen that there is an expansion…

  • alamiqui (mammal family)

    Solenodon, (family Solenodontidae), either species of large shrewlike mammal found only on the islands of Cuba and Hispaniola. Solenodons have a chunky body with short, stocky legs. Various skin glands give it a goatlike odour. The elongate head has very small eyes and tapers to a long, flexible

  • Alamo (monument, San Antonio, Texas, United States)

    Alamo, (Spanish: “Cottonwood”) 18th-century Franciscan mission in San Antonio, Texas, U.S., that was the site of a historic resistance effort by a small group of determined fighters for Texan independence (1836) from Mexico. The building was originally the chapel of the Mission San Antonio de

  • Alamo (missile)

    rocket and missile system: Air-to-air: The AA-10 Alamo, a medium-range missile similar to the Amos, apparently had passive radar guidance designed to home onto carrier-wave emissions from U.S. aircraft firing the semiactive radar-homing Sparrow. The AA-11 Archer was a short-range missile used in combination with the Amos and Alamo.

  • Alamo Bowl (football game)

    Texas: Sports and recreation: … in El Paso, and the Alamo Bowl in San Antonio.

  • Alamo, Battle of the (San Antonio, Texas, United States [1836])

    Texas Revolution: Santa Anna responds: the Alamo and the Goliad Massacre: Determined to punish the rebellious Texans, whom he viewed as pirates who deserved to be executed, Santa Anna mounted a campaign to demonstrate his power by exacting the same kind of retribution upon them that he had visited upon Zacatecas.…

  • Alamo, The (film by Wayne [1960])

    The Alamo, American epic film, released in 1960, that was John Wayne’s dream project about the Battle of the Alamo (1836). Frontier legend Davy Crockett (played by Wayne) and his men arrive in San Antonio, Texas, and volunteer to help defend the Alamo, a hopelessly outgunned mission-turned-fort

  • Alamogordo (New Mexico, United States)

    Alamogordo, city, seat (1899) of Otero county, southern New Mexico, U.S. It lies at the western base of the Sacramento Mountains and east of the Tularosa Basin. Founded by John A. and Charles B. Eddy in 1898 and named for its large cottonwood trees (Spanish: alamo “cottonwood,” gordo “fat”), it

  • Alamosa (Colorado, United States)

    Alamosa, city, seat (1913) of Alamosa county, southern Colorado, U.S. It lies along the Rio Grande in the San Luis Valley, on the western flank of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains. Founded as Garland City near the site of a small encampment outside the gates of Fort Garland (1858), a cavalry post

  • Alamuddin, Amal (Lebanese-English lawyer)

    George Clooney: …he wed Lebanese English lawyer Amal Alamuddin. The couple had twins, Alexander and Ella, in 2017.

  • Alamūt (ancient fortress, Iran)

    Nizārī Ismā?īliyyah: …captured the hill fortress of Alamūt near Kazvin, Iran. By the end of the 11th century, ?asan, as grand master or leader of the sect, commanded from this centre both a chain of strongholds all over Iran and Iraq and also a network of propagandists and agents in enemy camps…

  • Alamut (novel by Bartol)

    Alamut, novel written by Slovenian writer Vladimir Bartol, published in 1938. The novel and its famed maxim—"Nothing is an absolute reality, all is permitted," later recast by William Burroughs as "Nothing is true, everything is permitted" in his novel The Naked Lunch—inspired the popular video

  • Alan Freed

    Alan Freed did not coin the phrase rock and roll; however, by way of his radio show, he popularized it and redefined it. Once slang for sex, it came to mean a new form of music. This music had been around for several years, but Freed’s primary accomplishment was the delivery of it to new—primarily

  • Alan Freeman

    Australian Alan (“Fluff”) Freeman was an announcer on Melbourne’s 3KZ when he visited the United Kingdom on vacation in 1957; he stayed on to become one of British radio’s most distinctive and durable broadcasters. Freeman was heard initially on Radio Luxembourg but joined the British Broadcasting

  • Alan of Lille (French theologian)

    Alain de Lille, theologian and poet so celebrated for his varied learning that he was known as “the universal doctor.” Alain studied and taught at Paris, lived for some time at Montpellier, and later joined the Cistercians in C?teaux. As a theologian, he shared in the mystic reaction of the second

  • Alan Smithee Film: Burn, Hollywood, Burn, An (film by Hiller [1997])

    Arthur Hiller: Later films: …comedy Carpool (1996), Hiller helmed An Alan Smithee Film: Burn Hollywood Burn (1997), a heavy-handed satire of Hollywood filmmaking that was written by Joe Eszterhas. Hiller had his name removed from the production, reportedly over objections to the final cut; some speculated his decision was meant to generate publicity, but,…

  • Alan, Ray (British ventriloquist and writer)

    Ray(mond) Alan, (Ray Whyberd), British ventriloquist and writer (born Sept. 18, 1930, London, Eng.—died May 24, 2010, Reigate, Surrey, Eng.), created numerous much-loved puppet characters, notably the drunken aristocrat Lord Charles and a boy and his pet duck named, respectively, Tich and Quackers.

  • Alan, Raymond (British ventriloquist and writer)

    Ray(mond) Alan, (Ray Whyberd), British ventriloquist and writer (born Sept. 18, 1930, London, Eng.—died May 24, 2010, Reigate, Surrey, Eng.), created numerous much-loved puppet characters, notably the drunken aristocrat Lord Charles and a boy and his pet duck named, respectively, Tich and Quackers.

  • Alanbrooke of Brookeborough, Alan Francis Brooke, 1st Viscount, Baron Alanbrooke of Brookeborough (British field marshal)

    Alan Francis Brooke, 1st Viscount Alanbrooke, British field marshal and chief of the Imperial General Staff during World War II. He was educated in France and at the Royal Military Academy (Woolwich) and served in the Royal Artillery during World War I. Between the World Wars, he distinguished

  • Alanbrooke, Alan Francis Brooke, 1st Viscount (British field marshal)

    Alan Francis Brooke, 1st Viscount Alanbrooke, British field marshal and chief of the Imperial General Staff during World War II. He was educated in France and at the Royal Military Academy (Woolwich) and served in the Royal Artillery during World War I. Between the World Wars, he distinguished

  • ?land Convention (Europe [1856])

    Sweden: Change in alliance policy: …that was gained was the ?land Convention, which forbade Russia to build fortifications or to have other military installations on ?land.

  • ?land Islands (islands, Finland)

    ?land Islands, archipelago constituting ?land (Ahvenanmaa) autonomous territory, southwestern Finland. The islands lie at the entrance to the Gulf of Bothnia, 25 miles (40 km) east of the Swedish coast, at the eastern edge of the ?land Sea. The archipelago has a land area of 599 square miles (1,551

  • ?land Sk?rg?rd (islands, Finland)

    ?land Islands, archipelago constituting ?land (Ahvenanmaa) autonomous territory, southwestern Finland. The islands lie at the entrance to the Gulf of Bothnia, 25 miles (40 km) east of the Swedish coast, at the eastern edge of the ?land Sea. The archipelago has a land area of 599 square miles (1,551

  • ?land, Congress of (Russian history)

    Russia: Peter’s youth and early reign: …led to protracted negotiations (Congress of ?land) that ultimately resulted in the Peace of Nystad (August 30 [September 10, New Style], 1721), under the terms of which Sweden acquiesced to Russian conquests on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea. Thereafter Russia was the dominant power in the Baltic…

  • Aland, Kurt (German biblical scholar)

    biblical literature: The two- and four-source hypotheses: …that of the German scholar Kurt Aland, Synopsis Quattuor Evangeliorum (1964; Synopsis of the Four Gospels, 1972), which includes the Gospel According to John and, as an appendix, the Gospel of Thomas, as well as ample quotations from noncanonical gospels and Jesus’ sayings preserved in the Church Fathers.

  • Alang language

    Halang language, language spoken chiefly in the central highlands of south-central Vietnam near Kon Tum. The number of speakers in Vietnam is estimated at some 10,000. Halang is a member of the North Bahnaric subbranch of the Mon-Khmer language family, which is a part of the Austroasiatic stock.

  • alang-alang (plant)

    Cogon grass, (Imperata cylindrica), species of perennial grass in the family Poaceae, native to temperate and tropical regions of the Old World. Cogon grass is a serious weed in cultivated areas of South Africa and Australia and is considered an invasive species in many areas outside its native

  • Alani (ancient people)

    Alani, an ancient nomadic pastoral people who occupied the steppe region northeast of the Black Sea. The Alani were first mentioned in Roman literature in the 1st century ce and were described later as a warlike people who specialized in horse breeding. They frequently raided the Parthian empire

  • alanine (chemical compound)

    Alanine, either of two amino acids, one of which, L-alanine, or alpha-alanine (α-alanine), is a constituent of proteins. An especially rich source of L-alanine is silk fibroin, from which the amino acid was first isolated in 1879. Alanine is one of several so-called nonessential amino acids for

  • Alans (ancient people)

    Alani, an ancient nomadic pastoral people who occupied the steppe region northeast of the Black Sea. The Alani were first mentioned in Roman literature in the 1st century ce and were described later as a warlike people who specialized in horse breeding. They frequently raided the Parthian empire

  • Alanus de Insulis (French theologian)

    Alain de Lille, theologian and poet so celebrated for his varied learning that he was known as “the universal doctor.” Alain studied and taught at Paris, lived for some time at Montpellier, and later joined the Cistercians in C?teaux. As a theologian, he shared in the mystic reaction of the second

  • Alaotra, Lake (lake, Madagascar)

    Madagascar: Drainage: Alaotra is the last surviving lake of the eastern slope. Lake Tsimanampetsotsa, near the coast south of Toliara (formerly Tuléar), is a large body of saline water that has no outlet.

  • Alaouite dynasty (Moroccan dynasty)

    al-Rashīd: …and thus formally establishing the ?Alawī dynasty. From Fès he proceeded to conquer the north, plundered and razed the Dila monastery, and seized control of Morocco’s Atlantic seaboard from its ruling marabouts. Turning his attention southwest, he occupied Marrakech in 1669 and conquered the Sous region and the Anti-Atlas Mountains.

  • alap (Indian music)

    Alapa, (Sanskrit: “conversation”) in the art musics of South Asia, improvised melody structures that reveal the musical characteristics of a raga. Variant forms of the word—alap in northern Indian music and alapana in Karnatak music (where the term ragam improvisation is also used)—are often found.

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