You are using an outdated browser. Please upgrade your browser to improve your experience and security.
  • Ahikar, The Story of (Pseudepigrapha)

    The Story of Ahikar, folktale of Babylonian or Persian origin, about a wise and moral man who supposedly served as one of the chief counselors of Sennacherib, king of Assyria (704–681 bc). Like the biblical Job, Ahikar was a prototype of the just man whose righteousness was sorely tested and

  • Ahimaaz (biblical figure)

    biblical literature: Theological and political biases: …the shrine of Shiloh), or Ahimaaz, a son of Zadok (who originally may have been a priest of the Jebusite city of Jerusalem that David made his capital). The chapters in I Samuel are sometimes called the “Saul” source because it is in them that Saul’s charismatic leadership is legitimized…

  • ahimsa (religious doctrine)

    Ahimsa, (Sanskrit: “noninjury”) in the Indian religions of Jainism, Hinduism, and Buddhism, the ethical principle of not causing harm to other living things. In Jainism, ahimsa is the standard by which all actions are judged. For a householder observing the small vows (anuvrata), the practice of

  • ahi?sā (religious doctrine)

    Ahimsa, (Sanskrit: “noninjury”) in the Indian religions of Jainism, Hinduism, and Buddhism, the ethical principle of not causing harm to other living things. In Jainism, ahimsa is the standard by which all actions are judged. For a householder observing the small vows (anuvrata), the practice of

  • Ahinski Canal (canal, Belarus)

    Dnieper River: …Bug, and Vistula rivers; the Ahinski Canal by way of the Pripet and the Neman; and the Byarezina water system by way of the Byarezina and the Western Dvina. These canals later became obsolete.

  • Ahīr (Hindu subcaste)

    Ahīr, cattle-tending caste widespread in northern and central India. Considerable historical interest attaches to this caste, because its members are thought to be identical with the ābhīras of Sanskrit literature, who are mentioned repeatedly in the great epic the Mahābhārata. Some scholars

  • Ahiram (king of Byblos)

    Phoenicia: …was the limestone sarcophagus of Ahiram, king of Byblos at the end of the 11th century.

  • Ahiram (king of Tyre)

    Hiram, Phoenician king of Tyre (reigned 969–936 bc), who appears in the Bible as an ally of the Israelite kings David and Solomon. Hiram maintained friendly relations with Israel, supplying Solomon with men and materials for the construction of the Temple at Jerusalem and cooperating with him in

  • Ahithophel (biblical figure)

    Ahithophel, in the Old Testament, one of King David’s most trusted advisers. He took a leading part in the revolt of David’s son Absalom, and Ahithophel’s defection was a severe blow to David. Having consulted Ahithophel about his plans to proceed against David, Absalom then sought advice from H

  • Ahklun Mountains (mountains, Alaska, United States)

    Alaskan mountains: Physiography of the central ranges: …are now present, but the Ahklun Mountains at the sector’s southwestern extremity are the largest formerly glaciated area in central Alaska; the Wood River–Tikchik region along the east side of the range has beautiful parallel glacial lakes and is considered one of the most-scenic areas in the state.

  • Ahl al-Bayt (Islam)

    Ahl al-Bayt, (Arabic: “People of the House,”) designation in Islam for the holy family of the Prophet Muhammad, particularly his daughter Fā?imah, her husband ?Alī (who was also Muhammad’s cousin), their sons al-?usayn and ?asan, and their descendants. The Shi?ah closely identify this family with

  • ahl al-haqiqah (Islam)

    Sufism, mystical Islamic belief and practice in which Muslims seek to find the truth of divine love and knowledge through direct personal experience of God. It consists of a variety of mystical paths that are designed to ascertain the nature of humanity and of God and to facilitate the experience

  • Ahl al-kahf (drama by al-?akīm)

    Tawfīq al-?akīm: …fame as a dramatist with Ahl al-kahf (1933; “The People of the Cave”), which was ostensibly based on the story of the Seven Sleepers of Ephesus but which was actually a study of the human struggle against time. This introduced his series of “dramas of ideas,” or of “symbolism.” They…

  • Ahl al-Kitāb (Islam)

    Ahl al-Kitāb, (Arabic: People of the Book) in Islamic thought, those religionists—Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians, as well as the imprecisely defined group referred to as Sabians—who are possessors of divine books (i.e., the Torah, the Gospel, and the Avesta), as distinguished from those whose

  • Ahl as-Sunnah (Islam)

    Sunni, member of one of the two major branches of Islam, the branch that consists of the majority of that religion’s adherents. Sunni Muslims regard their denomination as the mainstream and traditionalist branch of Islam—as distinguished from the minority denomination, the Shi?ah. The Sunnis

  • Ahl-e ?aqq (Islam)

    Ahl-e ?aqq, (Arabic: “People of Truth,” or “People of God”), a secret, syncretistic religion, derived largely from Islām, whose adherents are found in western Iran, with enclaves in Iraq. They retain the 12 imams of the Ithnā ?Asharīyah sect and such aspects of Islāmic mysticism as the communal

  • Ahlers, Conrad (West German journalist)

    Conrad Ahlers, West German journalist who in 1962 precipitated a political crisis (known as the Spiegel affair) in West Germany with an article he wrote as an editor of the weekly newsmagazine Der Spiegel. The piece—which reported that, in one NATO commander’s opinion, West German forces were only

  • Ahlfors, Lars Valerian (Finnish mathematician)

    Lars Valerian Ahlfors, Finnish mathematician who was awarded one of the first two Fields Medals in 1936 for his work with Riemann surfaces. He also won the Wolf Prize in 1981. Ahlfors received his Ph.D. from the University of Helsinki in 1932. He held an appointment there from 1938 to 1944, then

  • Ahlgren, Ernst (Swedish author)

    Victoria Benedictsson, writer noted for her natural and unpretentious stories of Swedish folk life and her novels dealing with social issues. Having grown up in a home marred by marital discord, she married, at an early age, a widower much older than herself. Her marriage was unhappy. After an

  • Ahlin, Lars (Swedish author)

    Lars Ahlin, influential Swedish novelist of the mid-20th century. Ahlin’s family struggled financially, and he left school at age 13 to work, although he later attended several folk high schools. He eventually settled in Stockholm, where he began his career as a writer. The early novel T?bb med

  • Ahlquist, Raymond (American scientist)

    drug: Autonomic nervous system drugs: …carried out by American pharmacologist Raymond Ahlquist, who suggested that these agents acted on two principal receptors. A receptor that is activated by the neurotransmitter released by an adrenergic neuron is said to be an adrenoceptor. Ahlquist called the two kinds of adrenoceptor alpha (α) and beta (β). This theory…

  • Ahly, Al- (Egyptian football club)

    Al-Ahly, (Arabic: “The National”) Egyptian professional football (soccer) club based in Cairo. Al-Ahly is one of Africa’s most successful and best-supported football clubs. The team is nicknamed the “Red Devils” for its red jerseys. In December 2000 the Confédération Africaine de Football (CAF)

  • A?mad (prophet of Islam)

    Muhammad, the founder of Islam and the proclaimer of the Qur?ān. Muhammad is traditionally said to have been born in 570 in Mecca and to have died in 632 in Medina, where he had been forced to emigrate to with his adherents in 622. The Qur?ān yields little concrete biographical information about

  • A?mad (Sāmānid governor)

    Sīmjūrid Dynasty: …the family was a certain A?mad, originally a slave of the Sāmānid king Esmā?īl. A?mad was appointed governor of Seistan by the Sāmānids in c. 912. His descendant Ebrāhīm Sīmjūrī became governor of Khorāsān during the reign of the Sāmānid Nū? I. Ebrāhīm’s son Abū ol-?asan Sīmjūrī created a virtually…

  • A?mad (bey of Tunisia)

    A?mad, 10th ruler of the ?usaynid dynasty of Tunisia. Succeeding his brother as the ruler of Tunis in 1837, A?mad began at once to modernize his armed forces: Tunisian cadets were sent to France, a military and technical academy was established, and European instructors invited to Tunis. He

  • A?mad (imam of Yemen [?an?ā?])

    Yemen: The age of imperialism: …the plotters, however, Ya?yā’s son A?mad succeeded in bringing together many of the tribal elements of the north, overthrew the new government, and installed himself as imam. Although Imam A?mad ibn Ya?yā had indicated that he supported many of the popular political, economic, and social demands (e.g., creation of a…

  • A?mad al-Badawī (Muslim saint)

    A?madiyyah: …that of Egypt named after A?mad al-Badawī, one of the greatest saints of Islam (died 1276). Al-Badawī achieved great fame for his knowledge of Islamic sciences, but he eventually abandoned speculative theology and devoted himself to contemplation in seclusion. Soon he became known as a miracle-working saint and had thousands…

  • A?mad al-Man?ūr (ruler of Morocco)

    A?mad al-Man?ūr, sixth ruler of the Sa?dī dynasty, which he raised to its zenith of power by his policy of centralization and astute diplomacy. Al-Man?ūr resisted the demands of his nominal suzerain, the Ottoman sultan, by playing off the European powers, namely, France, Portugal, Spain, and

  • A?mad al-Mutawakkil (Zaydī imām of ?an?ā?)

    Najā?id Dynasty: …the Zaydī imām of ?an?ā?, A?mad al-Mutawakkil, and to agree to recognize him as ruler of Zabīd. The Ethiopians were, however, defeated, and ?Ali ibn Mahdī took the Najā?id capital in 1159.

  • A?mad al-Raisūlī (Moroccan governor)

    Morocco: The Spanish Zone: …of the former Moroccan governor A?mad al-Raisūnī (Raisūlī), who was half patriot and half brigand. The Spanish government found it difficult to tolerate his independence; in March 1913 al-Raisūnī retired into a refuge in the mountains, where he remained until his capture 12 years later by another Moroccan leader, Abd…

  • A?mad al-Raisūnī (Moroccan governor)

    Morocco: The Spanish Zone: …of the former Moroccan governor A?mad al-Raisūnī (Raisūlī), who was half patriot and half brigand. The Spanish government found it difficult to tolerate his independence; in March 1913 al-Raisūnī retired into a refuge in the mountains, where he remained until his capture 12 years later by another Moroccan leader, Abd…

  • A?mad ar-Rifā?ī (Muslim mystic)

    Rifā?īyah: …established in Basra, Iraq, by A?mad ar-Rifā?ī (d. 1187), the order preserved his stress on poverty, abstinence, and self-mortification. It also performed the ritual prayer (dhikr) essential to all ?ūfī orders in a distinct manner: members link arms to form a circle and throw the upper parts of their bodies…

  • A?mad At-Tijānī (?ūfī mystic)

    Tijānīyah: Founded by A?mad At-Tijānī (1737–1815), formerly of the Khalwatī order, about 1781 in Fez, Mor., it places great emphasis on good intentions and actions rather than on elaborate or extreme ritual.

  • A?mad Bābā (Islamic author and jurist)

    A?mad Bābā, jurist, writer, and a cultural leader of the western Sudan. A descendant of a line of jurists, A?mad Bābā was educated in Islāmic culture, including jurisprudence. When Timbuktu was conquered by the Sultan of Morocco in 1591, he was accused of refusing to recognize the Sultan’s a

  • Ahmad Ben Salah (Tunisian government official)

    Tunisia: Domestic development: In 1961 Ahmad Ben Salah took charge of planning and finance. His ambitious efforts at forced-pace modernization, especially in agriculture, were foiled, however, by rural and conservative opposition. Expelled from the party and imprisoned in 1969, Ben Salah escaped in 1973 to live in exile. His fall…

  • A?mad ebn Buwayh (Būyid ruler)

    ?Imād ad-Dawlah: ?Alī and his brothers A?mad and ?asan were followers of Mardāvīz ebn Zeyār of northern Iran. In 934 ?Alī revolted against local Zeyārid rulers and conquered Fārs province in southern Iran. He made Shīrāz his capital, ruling there until his death. After A?mad established control over the ?Abbāsid caliphate…

  • A?mad ebn Buyeh (Būyid ruler)

    ?Imād ad-Dawlah: ?Alī and his brothers A?mad and ?asan were followers of Mardāvīz ebn Zeyār of northern Iran. In 934 ?Alī revolted against local Zeyārid rulers and conquered Fārs province in southern Iran. He made Shīrāz his capital, ruling there until his death. After A?mad established control over the ?Abbāsid caliphate…

  • A?mad ebn ?asan Meymandī (Iranian minister)

    Ferdowsī: …good offices of the minister A?mad ebn ?asan Meymandī was able to secure the sultan’s acceptance of the poem. Unfortunately, Ma?mūd then consulted certain enemies of the minister as to the poet’s reward. They suggested that Ferdowsī should be given 50,000 dirhams, and even this, they said, was too much,…

  • A?mad Fu?ād Pasha (king of Egypt)

    Fu?ād I, the first king of Egypt (1922–36) following its independence from Great Britain. The youngest son of Ismā?īl Pasha, Fu?ād spent most of his childhood with his exiled father in Naples. Following his education at the military academy in Turin, Italy, he served in a number of administrative

  • A?mad Grā? (Somalian Muslim leader)

    A?mad Grā?, leader of a Muslim movement that all but subjugated Ethiopia. At the height of his conquest, he held more than three-quarters of the kingdom, and, according to the chronicles, the majority of men in these conquered areas had converted to Islam. Once A?mad Grā? had gained control of the

  • A?mad ibn Abū Ya?qūb ibn Ja?far ibn Wahb ibn Wā?i? al-Ya?qūbī (Arab historian and geographer)

    Al-Ya?qūbī, Arab historian and geographer, author of a history of the world, Tā?rīkh ibn Wā?i? (“Chronicle of Ibn Wā?i?”), and a general geography, Kitāb al-buldān (“Book of the Countries”). Until 873 al-Ya?qūbī lived in Armenia and Khorāsān, under the patronage of the Iranian dynasty of the

  • A?mad ibn ?anbal (Muslim scholar)

    A?mad ibn ?anbal, Muslim theologian, jurist, and martyr for his faith. He was the compiler of the Traditions of the Prophet Mu?ammad (Musnad) and formulator of the ?anbalī, the most strictly traditionalist of the four orthodox Islāmic schools of law. His doctrine influenced such noted followers as

  • A?mad ibn Ibrāhīm al-Ghāzī (Somalian Muslim leader)

    A?mad Grā?, leader of a Muslim movement that all but subjugated Ethiopia. At the height of his conquest, he held more than three-quarters of the kingdom, and, according to the chronicles, the majority of men in these conquered areas had converted to Islam. Once A?mad Grā? had gained control of the

  • A?mad ibn Ismā?īl (Rasūlid ruler)

    Rasūlid dynasty: A?mad ibn Ismā?īl (reigned 1400–24) regained temporary control and offered Mamlūk trade in the Red Sea keen competition, but, soon after his death, internal unrest, revolts of slaves, and the plague hastened the fall of the dynasty. Yemen then passed into the hands of the…

  • A?mad ibn Mahraz (Moroccan leader)

    Ismā?īl: …and death of his nephew A?mad ibn Mahraz.

  • A?mad ibn Mu?ammad ibn Abū Bakr ibn Sa?īd (Fulani Muslim leader)

    Shehu Ahmadu Lobbo, Fulani Muslim leader in western Africa who established a theocratic state in the Macina region of what is now Mali. Influenced by the teachings of the Islamic reformer Usman dan Fodio, he began a holy war (jihad) in 1818 or possibly as early as 1810. He defeated the forces of

  • A?mad ibn Mu??afa (bey of Tunisia)

    A?mad, 10th ruler of the ?usaynid dynasty of Tunisia. Succeeding his brother as the ruler of Tunis in 1837, A?mad began at once to modernize his armed forces: Tunisian cadets were sent to France, a military and technical academy was established, and European instructors invited to Tunis. He

  • A?mad ibn Sa?īd (imam of Oman)

    āl Bū Sa?īd dynasty: A?mad ibn Sa?īd, who had been governor of ?u?ār, Oman, in the 1740s under the Persian Ya?rubids, managed to displace the Ya?rubids by about 1749 and become imam of Oman and of Zanzibar, Pemba, and Kilwa in East Africa. His successors—known as sayyids or, later,…

  • A?mad ibn ?ūlūn (governor of Egypt)

    A?mad ibn ?ūlūn, the founder of the ?ūlūnid dynasty in Egypt and the first Muslim governor of Egypt to annex Syria. As a child A?mad was taken into slavery and placed in the private service of the ?Abbāsid caliph at the new capital of Sāmarrā?. Later he studied theology in the city of Tarsus (now

  • A?mad ibn ?ūlūn, Mosque of (building, Cairo, Egypt)

    Mosque of A?mad ibn ?ūlūn, huge and majestic red brick building complex built in 876 by the Turkish governor of Egypt and Syria. It was built on the site of present-day Cairo and includes a mosque surrounded by three outer ziyādahs, or courtyards. Much of the decoration and design recalls the

  • A?mad ibn Ya?yā al-Balādhurī (Muslim historian)

    Al-Balādhurī, Muslim historian best known for his history of the formation of the Arab Muslim empire. Al-Balādhurī lived most of his life in Baghdad and studied there and in Syria. He was for some time a favoured visitor at the Baghdad court of the ?Abbāsid caliphs. His chief extant work, a

  • A?mad ibn ?Alī al-Thānī, Sheikh (sultan of Qatar)

    Sheikh Khalīfah ibn ?amad al-Thānī: …1972 by deposing his cousin Sheikh A?mad ibn ?Alī al-Thānī, whose profligate spending habits had aroused popular opposition. Khalīfah’s family, including his sons and brothers, virtually controlled the government, holding 10 of 15 ministries in 1975.

  • A?mad ibn ?īsā al-Muhājir (?Alawī ruler)

    history of Arabia: The Zaydīs and ?Alawīs: …refugee from disturbances in Iraq, A?mad ibn ?īsā al-Muhājir, arrived in Hadhramaut, then under Ibā?ite domination, and founded the ?Alawite (?Alawī) Sayyid house, which was instrumental in spreading the Shāfi?ite (Shāfi?ī) school of Islamic law to India, Indonesia, and East Africa.

  • A?mad II (Bahmanī ruler)

    India: External and internal rivalries: …the new sultan, ?Alā? al-Dīn A?mad II (reigned 1436–58). Even though A?mad II had to face a rebellion by one of his brothers, a precedent was set for a rule of primogeniture, which seemed to alleviate the problem of succession disputes for the rest of the century. Unfortunately for later…

  • A?mad III (Bahmanī ruler)

    India: External and internal rivalries: … (reigned 1458–61) and Ni?ām al-Dīn A?mad III (reigned 1461–63) sought the help of Mu?ammad Begarā of Gujarat against Malwa and warded off the invasions.

  • A?mad Jalāyir (Jalāyirid ruler)

    Iraq: īl-Khanid successors (1335–1410): …during the reign of Sultan A?mad Jalāyir, Timur (Tamerlane), a new conqueror from Central Asia, took Baghdad and Tikrīt. A?mad was able to reoccupy his capital briefly, but Timur again besieged and sacked Baghdad in 1401, dealing it a blow from which it did not recover until modern times. Timurid…

  • Ahmad Khan, Sir Sayyid (Muslim scholar)

    Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan, Muslim educator, jurist, and author, founder of the Anglo-Mohammedan Oriental College at Alīgarh, Uttar Pradesh, India, and the principal motivating force behind the revival of Indian Islām in the late 19th century. His works, in Urdu, include Essays on the Life of Mohammed

  • A?mad Mūsā (Iranian painter)

    A?mad Mūsā, painter active at the court of the Il Khans at Tabrīz. He is said to have learned painting from his father and to have “drawn the veil from the face of painting and invented the art of the Persian miniature.” He was active under Abū Sa?īd (ruled 1316–35), the last of the Mongol sultans

  • A?mad Shah (Mughal emperor)

    A?mad Shah, ineffectual Mughal emperor of India from 1748 to 1754, who has been characterized as good-natured but incompetent and without personality, training, or qualities of leadership. He was entirely dominated by others, including the queen mother, Udham Bai, and the eunuch superintendent of

  • A?mad Shāh (Iranian ruler)

    Ahmad Qavam: …plotting against the life of A?mad Shah, the last of the Qājār monarchs, and was exiled until 1928. He was again prime minister in 1942 during the early reign of Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi but resigned the following year after bread riots broke out in Tehrān. Restored to office in…

  • A?mad Shah Abdālī (ruler of Afghanistan)

    A?mad Shah Durrānī, founder of the state of Afghanistan and ruler of an empire that extended from the Amu Darya (ancient Oxus River) to the Indian Ocean and from Khorāsān into Kashmir, the Punjab, and Sindh. Head of the central government, with full control of all departments of state in domestic

  • A?mad Shāh Bahmanī (Bahmanī sultan)

    Bidar: …of the Bahmanīs, whose ruler A?mad Shah Bahmanī moved the site of his capital from Gulbarga (now Kalaburagi) to Bidar about 1425. He rebuilt and extended the fort that still dominates the city’s layout. Bidar became an independent sultanate in 1531 under the Barīd Shāhī dynasty. The city was annexed…

  • A?mad Shah Durrānī (ruler of Afghanistan)

    A?mad Shah Durrānī, founder of the state of Afghanistan and ruler of an empire that extended from the Amu Darya (ancient Oxus River) to the Indian Ocean and from Khorāsān into Kashmir, the Punjab, and Sindh. Head of the central government, with full control of all departments of state in domestic

  • A?mad Sirhindī, Shaykh (Indian mystic and theologian)

    Shaykh A?mad Sirhindī, Indian mystic and theologian who was largely responsible for the reassertion and revival in India of orthodox Sunnite Islam as a reaction against the syncretistic religious tendencies prevalent during the reign of the Mughal emperor Akbar. Shaykh A?mad, who through his

  • A?mad the Jalāyirid (Jalāyirid ruler)

    Iraq: īl-Khanid successors (1335–1410): …during the reign of Sultan A?mad Jalāyir, Timur (Tamerlane), a new conqueror from Central Asia, took Baghdad and Tikrīt. A?mad was able to reoccupy his capital briefly, but Timur again besieged and sacked Baghdad in 1401, dealing it a blow from which it did not recover until modern times. Timurid…

  • A?mad the Left-handed (Somalian Muslim leader)

    A?mad Grā?, leader of a Muslim movement that all but subjugated Ethiopia. At the height of his conquest, he held more than three-quarters of the kingdom, and, according to the chronicles, the majority of men in these conquered areas had converted to Islam. Once A?mad Grā? had gained control of the

  • A?mad Yasawī (Turkish author)

    Ahmed Yesevi, poet and Sufi (Muslim mystic), an early Turkish mystic leader who exerted a powerful influence on the development of mystical orders throughout the Turkish-speaking world. Very little is known about his life, but legends indicate that his father died when the boy was young and his

  • A?mad ?Urābī Pasha (Egyptian nationalist)

    ?Urābī Pasha, Egyptian nationalist who led a social-political movement that expressed the discontent of the Egyptian educated classes, army officials, and peasantry with foreign control. ?Urābī, the son of a village sheikh, studied in Cairo at al-Azhar, the preeminent institution of Arabic and

  • A?mad, Shaykh (Muslim religious leader)

    Al-A?sā?ī, founder of the heterodox Shī?ite Muslim Shaykhī sect of Iran. After spending his early years studying the Islāmic religion and traveling widely in Persia and the Middle East, al-A?sā?ī in 1808 settled in Yazd, Persia, where he taught religion. His interpretation of the Shī?ite faith (one

  • Ahmadabad (India)

    Ahmadabad, city, eastern Gujarat state, west-central India. It lies along the Sabarmati River about 275 miles (440 km) north of Mumbai (Bombay). Ahmadabad is at the junction of the main roads leading to Mumbai and central India, the Kathiawar Peninsula, and the Rajasthan border. The city is also a

  • A?madī (Yemen)

    Al-?udaydah: …of the deepwater port at A?madī, several miles north. This port, with modern facilities for ships drawing up to 26 feet (8 metres) of water, is built in the lagoon of Al-Kathīb Bay and is protected from winds by a hook-shaped spit that culminates in Cape Al-Kathīb. The old port…

  • A?madī, Al- (Kuwait)

    Al-A?madī, town, southern Kuwait. The oasis town was built after 1946 with the development of the oil field in which it is located. Al-A?madī is the headquarters of the Kuwait Oil Company. Pipelines link it with Mīnā? (port) al-A?madī, on the Persian Gulf to the east, where a refinery and tanker

  • Ahmadinejad, Mahmoud (president of Iran)

    Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, Iranian political leader who served as president of Iran (2005–13). Ahmadinejad, the son of a blacksmith, grew up in Tehrān, where in 1976 he entered the Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST) to study civil engineering. During the Iranian Revolution (1978–79), he was

  • A?madiyyah (Islamic group)

    A?madiyyah, modern Islamic sect and a name shared by several Sufi (Muslim mystic) orders. The sect was founded in Qādiān in the Punjab, India, in 1889 by Mīrzā Ghulām A?mad (c. 1839–1908), who claimed to be the mahdī (a figure expected by some Muslims at the end of the world), the Christian

  • Ahmadnagar (India)

    Ahmadnagar, city, west-central Maharashtra state, western India. It lies in the Balaghat Range along the Sina River, 130 miles (210 km) east of Mumbai (Bombay). The city was known as Bhinar in early Yadava times. It was conquered by Malik A?mad Ni?ām Shah, founder of the Ni?ām Shāhī dynasty, in

  • Ahmadu Bello University (university, Zaria, Nigeria)

    Kaduna: Zaria has the Ahmadu Bello University (1962) and agricultural, livestock, and education institutes. Kaduna town has several colleges as well as institutes for trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) and eye diseases. The National Museum (1975), with archaeological and ethnographic exhibits, is also in the town.

  • Ahmadu Hammadi Bubu (Fulani Muslim leader)

    Shehu Ahmadu Lobbo, Fulani Muslim leader in western Africa who established a theocratic state in the Macina region of what is now Mali. Influenced by the teachings of the Islamic reformer Usman dan Fodio, he began a holy war (jihad) in 1818 or possibly as early as 1810. He defeated the forces of

  • Ahmadu ibn Hammadi (Fulani Muslim leader)

    Shehu Ahmadu Lobbo, Fulani Muslim leader in western Africa who established a theocratic state in the Macina region of what is now Mali. Influenced by the teachings of the Islamic reformer Usman dan Fodio, he began a holy war (jihad) in 1818 or possibly as early as 1810. He defeated the forces of

  • A?madu III (Fulani leader)

    ?Umar Tal: Military achievements.: …mission, proposed a duel with A?madu III, the leader of the Fulani army. But the latter refused the judgment of God. ?Umar won the battle, and A?madu was captured and beheaded.

  • Ahmadu Seku (Tukulor ruler)

    Ahmadu Seku, second and last ruler of the Tukulor empire in West Africa, celebrated for his resistance to the French occupation. Succeeding his father, al-?ājj ?Umar, in 1864, Ahmadu ruled over a great empire centred on the ancient Bambara kingdom of Segu, in present Mali. By the Treaty of Nango

  • Ahmar, Ali Mohsen al- (Yemeni military officer)

    Yemen Uprising of 2011–12: Uprising: Ali Mohsen al-Ahmar, commander of the army’s 1st Armoured Division, announced his support for the opposition and vowed to use his troops to protect the protesters. The defection of Ahmar, considered to be the most powerful military officer in Yemen, was quickly followed by similar…

  • A?mar, Tall al- (ancient city, Iraq)

    Mesopotamian art and architecture: Painting and decorative arts: …bce), a country palace at Til Barsip (modern Tall al-Ahmar) was decorated in this way, with the conventional motifs of relief designs rather clumsily adapted to this very different medium. A few years later, such paintings were extensively used to decorate both wall faces and ceilings in Sargon II’s palace…

  • Ahmed (Ottoman prince)

    Bayezid II: Bayezid, fearing that Ahmed might seek assistance from Shah Ismā?īl and unable to resist pressures from some of his advisers and from the corps of Janissaries, who favoured Selim, recalled Selim from Crimea and abdicated (April 1512) in his favour. Bayezid died the following month.

  • Ahmed (Mongol khan)

    Russia: Ivan III: …into increasing conflict with Khan Ahmed of the Golden Horde and became interested in an alliance with Moscow against Ahmed and Lithuania. Ivan, eager to dissolve the connection between Lithuania and Crimea but not wanting to alienate Ahmed, stalled for time. In 1481, when Ahmed died, Ivan was able to…

  • Ahmed Baba Institute (archives, Timbuktu, Mali)

    Mali: Cultural institutions: …is the Municipal Library; the Ahmed Baba Institute, a centre that houses and preserves a large collection of historical Arabic and African manuscripts, is located in Timbuktu. These institutions suffer from lack of funds and are often closed. The civilian government has sought outside funding for these cultural organizations in…

  • Ahmed Bey Zogu (king of Albania)

    Zog I, president of Albania from 1925 to 1928 and king from 1928 to 1939. Though able to manipulate Albania’s internal affairs to his own advantage, he came to depend heavily on Benito Mussolini’s Italy and was eventually ousted by the Italian dictator on the eve of World War II. Siding with

  • Ahmed Cemal Pa?a (Turkish political leader)

    Cemal Pa?a, Turkish army officer and a leading member of the Ottoman government during World War I. Cemal joined the secret Committee of Union and Progress while a staff officer, becoming a member of the military administration after the Revolution of 1908. A forceful provincial governor, he was

  • A?med Grā? (Somalian Muslim leader)

    A?mad Grā?, leader of a Muslim movement that all but subjugated Ethiopia. At the height of his conquest, he held more than three-quarters of the kingdom, and, according to the chronicles, the majority of men in these conquered areas had converted to Islam. Once A?mad Grā? had gained control of the

  • Ahmed Ha?im (Turkish author)

    Ahmed Ha?im, writer, one of the most outstanding representatives of the Symbolist movement in Turkish literature. Born into a prominent family, Ha?im developed his knowledge of French literature and his fondness for poetry at Galatasaray Lycée in Constantinople (now Istanbul). After briefly

  • Ahmed I (Ottoman sultan)

    Ahmed I, Ottoman sultan from 1603 to 1617, whose authority was weakened by wars, rebellions, and misrule. The rebellions he was able to suppress; he executed some of the viziers and exiled many palace dignitaries for bribery and intrigue, and he introduced a new regulation for the improvement of

  • Ahmed I, Mosque of (mosque, Istanbul, Turkey)

    Mehmed A?a: …the Sultan Ahmed Cami (Blue Mosque) in Istanbul.

  • Ahmed II (Ottoman sultan)

    Ahmed II, Ottoman sultan (1691–95) whose reign was marked by the continuing war with the Holy League (Austria-Poland-Venice). Soon after his accession to the throne, Ahmed’s forces were defeated by the Austrians at Slankamen, Hung. The able grand vizier (chief minister) K?prülü Faz?l Mustafa Pa?a

  • Ahmed III (Ottoman sultan)

    Ahmed III, sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1703 to 1730. The son of Mehmed IV, he succeeded to the throne in 1703 upon the deposition of his brother Mustafa II. Ahmed III cultivated good relations with England and France and afforded refuge at his court to Charles XII of Sweden after his defeat

  • Ahmed Pa?a (Mamlūk leader)

    Iraq: The 18th-century Mamlūk regime: …from Istanbul, and his son Ahmed Pa?a (1724–47) established a Georgian mamlūk (slave) household, through which they exercised authority and administered the province. The mamlūks (Turkish: k?lemen) were mostly Christian slaves from the Caucasus who converted to Islam, were trained in a special school, and were then assigned to military…

  • Ahmed Pa?a, Humbaraci (French noble)

    Mahmud I: …by Comte de Bonneval (Humbaraci Ahmed Pa?a, a French convert to Islām), participated in political and military affairs and attempted a partial reform of the army. A patron of music and literature, he wrote poetry in Arabic.

  • Ahmed R?za (Turkish nationalist)

    Ottoman Empire: The Young Turk Revolution of 1908: …among those were Murad Bey, Ahmed R?za, and Prince Sabaheddin. As editor of Mizan (“Balance”), published first in Istanbul (1886) and later in Cairo and Geneva, Murad Bey preached liberal ideas combined with a strong Islamic feeling; that may have contributed to his defection and return to Istanbul in 1897.…

  • Ahmed Vefik Pa?a (Ottoman statesman and scholar)

    Ahmed Vefik Pa?a, Ottoman statesman and scholar who presided over the first Ottoman Parliament (1877) and who is known for his contributions to Turkish studies. Born into a family of diplomats, Ahmed Vefik was appointed (1849) imperial commissioner in the Danubian principalities and later

  • Ahmed Yasavi (Turkish author)

    Ahmed Yesevi, poet and Sufi (Muslim mystic), an early Turkish mystic leader who exerted a powerful influence on the development of mystical orders throughout the Turkish-speaking world. Very little is known about his life, but legends indicate that his father died when the boy was young and his

  • Ahmed Yesevi (Turkish author)

    Ahmed Yesevi, poet and Sufi (Muslim mystic), an early Turkish mystic leader who exerted a powerful influence on the development of mystical orders throughout the Turkish-speaking world. Very little is known about his life, but legends indicate that his father died when the boy was young and his

  • Ahmed, Abdullah Yusuf (president of Somalia)

    Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed, Somali warlord and political leader (born Dec. 15, 1934, Barta, Puntland region, Somalia—died March 23, 2012, Abu Dhabi, U.A.E.), was the autocratic president of Somalia’s semiautonomous region of Puntland (1998–2001; 2002–04) until Somalia’s parliament in exile elected him

Your preference has been recorded
Get a Premium membership for 30% off!
Save 30% with our Memorial Day Sale!
港台一级毛片免费观看