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  • Agricultural Research Service (United States government agency)

    United States National Arboretum: Department of Agriculture’s Agricultural Research Service. The arboretum was established in 1927 by an act of Congress and occupies 446 acres (180 hectares) on the west bank of the Anacostia River. Among the more than 7,000 kinds of plants are special collections of azaleas, bonsai, camellias, hollies, apple…

  • agricultural revolution (English history)

    Agricultural revolution, gradual transformation of the traditional agricultural system that began in Britain in the 18th century. Aspects of this complex transformation, which was not completed until the 19th century, included the reallocation of land ownership to make farms more compact and an

  • agricultural sciences

    Agricultural sciences, sciences dealing with food and fibre production and processing. They include the technologies of soil cultivation, crop cultivation and harvesting, animal production, and the processing of plant and animal products for human consumption and use. Food is the most basic human

  • Agricultural Societies of Social Interest (Peruvian organization)

    land reform: Latin America: …estates are run by the Agricultural Societies of Social Interest (SAIS), a mechanism devised to avoid breaking up economically efficient enterprises rather than to modify the tenure institutions.

  • Agricultural Society (Polish organization)

    Poland: The January 1863 uprising and its aftermath: …and the creation of the Agricultural Society to tackle the peasant question. Simultaneously, Alexander II warned the Poles against political “daydreaming.” The Agricultural Society, a union of reformist landowners headed by the popular Hrabia (count) Andrzej Zamoyski, debated changes in the agrarian sector but found it hard to avoid politics.…

  • agricultural subsidy

    agricultural sciences: Agricultural economics: Agricultural policy is concerned with the relations between agriculture, economics, and society. Land ownership and the structure of farm enterprises were traditionally regarded as primarily social problems. The growth of agricultural production in the 20th century, accompanied by a decline in size of the rural…

  • Agricultural Technical Institute (school, Wooster, Ohio, United States)

    The Ohio State University: …Mansfield, Marion, Newark, and the Agricultural Technical Institute in Wooster. The institute and the branches in Mansfield and Newark are primarily two-year colleges. The main campus in Columbus is a comprehensive research institution with land-grant status. It comprises some two dozen schools and colleges, including colleges of food, agriculture, and…

  • agricultural technology

    Agricultural technology, application of techniques to control the growth and harvesting of animal and vegetable products. Mechanical processing of soil so that it is in the proper physical condition for planting is usually referred to as tilling; adding nutrients and trace elements is called

  • agriculture

    Origins of agriculture, the active production of useful plants or animals in ecosystems that have been created by people. Agriculture has often been conceptualized narrowly, in terms of specific combinations of activities and organisms—wet-rice production in Asia, wheat farming in Europe, cattle

  • Agriculture and Education, The Brook Farm Institute of (communal experiment, West Roxbury, Massachusetts, United States)

    Brook Farm, short-lived utopian experiment in communal living (1841–47). The 175-acre farm was located in West Roxbury, Mass. (now in Boston). It was organized and virtually directed by George Ripley, a former Unitarian minister, editor of The Dial (a critical literary monthly), and a leader in

  • Agriculture and Mechanic Arts, College of (university system, South Carolina, United States)

    University of South Carolina, coeducational U.S. state university system based in South Carolina’s capital city of Columbia. In addition to the main campus at Columbia, there are four-year branch campuses at Aiken and Spartanburg and two-year regional campuses at Union, Sumter, Beaufort, Lancaster,

  • Agriculture College of Colorado (university, Colorado, United States)

    Colorado State University, public, coeducational institution of higher learning in Fort Collins, Colorado, U.S. It is a land-grant university and a part of Colorado’s state university system. Colorado State consists of the colleges of Agricultural Sciences, Applied Human Sciences, Business,

  • Agriculture College of Pennsylvania (university system, Pennsylvania, United States)

    Pennsylvania State University, coeducational state-supported system of higher education in Pennsylvania, U.S. The main campus, at University Park, is the system’s largest branch and is the focus of its graduate and four-year undergraduate education. The system also includes the four-year school

  • Agriculture, U.S. Department of (United States government)

    U.S. Department of Agriculture, executive division of the U.S. federal government in charge of programs and policies relating to the farming industry and the use of national forests and grasslands. Formed in 1862, the USDA works to stabilize or improve domestic farm income, develop foreign markets,

  • Agrigan (island, Northern Mariana Islands)

    Agrihan, one of the Mariana Islands and part of the Northern Mariana Islands, a commonwealth of the United States. It lies in the western Pacific Ocean, 350 miles (560 km) north of Guam, and has an area of 18 square miles (47 square km. An active volcano that last erupted in 1917, it rises to 3,166

  • Agrigento (Italy)

    Agrigento, city, near the southern coast of Sicily, Italy. It lies on a plateau encircled by low cliffs overlooking the junction of the Drago (ancient Hypsas) and San Biagio (Acragas) rivers and is dominated from the north by a ridge with twin peaks. Agrigento was a wealthy ancient city founded

  • Agrigentum (Italy)

    Agrigento, city, near the southern coast of Sicily, Italy. It lies on a plateau encircled by low cliffs overlooking the junction of the Drago (ancient Hypsas) and San Biagio (Acragas) rivers and is dominated from the north by a ridge with twin peaks. Agrigento was a wealthy ancient city founded

  • Agrihan (island, Northern Mariana Islands)

    Agrihan, one of the Mariana Islands and part of the Northern Mariana Islands, a commonwealth of the United States. It lies in the western Pacific Ocean, 350 miles (560 km) north of Guam, and has an area of 18 square miles (47 square km. An active volcano that last erupted in 1917, it rises to 3,166

  • Agrilus planipennis (insect)

    ash: Pests and diseases: The emerald ash borer beetle (Agrilus planipennis) was introduced into North America from Asia in the early 2000s and is responsible for the deaths of tens of millions of ash trees in the United States. Similarly, the United Kingdom has experienced many ash tree deaths due…

  • Agrimonia (plant)

    Agrimony, (genus Agrimonia), genus of some 12–15 species of perennial herbs in the rose family (Rosaceae). Agrimony species are found primarily in the Northern Hemisphere and have historically been used in folk medicine. Agrimony plants are typically erect and bear toothed alternate leaves. The

  • Agrimonia eupatoria (plant)

    agrimony: Common species: Common agrimony, also known as church steeples (Agrimonia eupatoria), is a herbaceous hardy perennial that is native to Europe and North Africa but is widespread in other northern temperate regions. Inhabiting hedge banks and the borders of fields, the plant grows to about 120 cm…

  • Agrimonia gryposepala (plant)

    agrimony: Common species: Tall hairy agrimony (A. gryposepala) is a similar species that is widespread in the United States.

  • agrimony (plant)

    Agrimony, (genus Agrimonia), genus of some 12–15 species of perennial herbs in the rose family (Rosaceae). Agrimony species are found primarily in the Northern Hemisphere and have historically been used in folk medicine. Agrimony plants are typically erect and bear toothed alternate leaves. The

  • agrino (sheep)

    Cyprus: Plant and animal life: …animal now surviving is the agrino, a subspecies of wild sheep related to the mouflon of the western Mediterranean; it is under strict protection in a small forested area of the Troodos range. Small game is abundant but keenly hunted. Snakes were widespread in ancient times, giving the island the…

  • Agriocharis ocellata (bird)

    turkey: …Agriocharis (or Meleagris) ocellata, the ocellated turkey. For unrelated but similar birds, see bustard (Australian turkey), megapode (brush turkey), and snakebird (water turkey).

  • Agrionia (Greek religious festival)

    Agrionia, (from Greek agrios, “wild,” or “savage”), Greek religious festival celebrated annually at Orchomenus in Boeotia and elsewhere in honour of the wine god Dionysus. The Greek tradition is that the daughters of Minyas, king of Orchomenus, having despised the rites of the god, were driven mad

  • Agriornis (bird)

    tyrant flycatcher: The shrike-tyrants (Agriornis) of southern South America take prey as large as mice and small frogs. A number of tyrannids, especially the elaenias, feed extensively on berries and other fruit.

  • ágrip (Scandinavian literature)

    Icelandic literature: The sagas: The ágrit, a summary of the histories, or sagas, of Norwegian kings, written in the vernacular in Norway, was particularly influential. The Fagrskinna (“Fine Skin”; Eng. trans. Fagrskinna) covered the same period in more detail, while the Morkinskinna (“Rotten Skin”; Eng. trans. Morkinskinna), probably written earlier,…

  • Agrippa (Greek philosopher)

    Agrippa, ancient Greek philosophical skeptic. He is famous for his formulation of the five tropes, or grounds for the suspension of judgment, that summarize the method of argument of Greek skeptics generally. Agrippa’s five arguments held that (1) there is a clash of opinions, both in daily life

  • Agrippa I (king of Judaea)

    Herod Agrippa I, king of Judaea (41–44 ce), a clever diplomat who through his friendship with the Roman imperial family obtained the kingdom of his grandfather, Herod I the Great. He displayed great acumen in conciliating the Romans and Jews. After Agrippa’s father, Aristobulus IV, was executed by

  • Agrippa II (king of Chalcis)

    Herod Agrippa II, king of Chalcis in southern Lebanon from 50 ce and tetrarch of Batanaea and Trachonitis in south Syria from 53 ce, who unsuccessfully mediated with the rebels in the First Jewish Revolt (66–70 ce). He was a great-grandson of Herod I the Great. Agrippa II was raised and educated at

  • Agrippa Postumus (Roman statesman)

    Augustus: Expansion of the empire: Agrippa Postumus, who had been named his coheir but was later banished, was put to death. The order to kill him may already have been given by Augustus, but this is not certain.

  • Agrippa von Nettesheim, Heinrich Cornelius (Renaissance scholar)

    Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa von Nettesheim, court secretary to Charles V, physician to Louise of Savoy, exasperating theologian within the Catholic Church, military entrepreneur in Spain and Italy, acknowledged expert on occultism, and philosopher. His tempestuous career also included teaching at

  • Agrippa, Marcus Julius (king of Judaea)

    Herod Agrippa I, king of Judaea (41–44 ce), a clever diplomat who through his friendship with the Roman imperial family obtained the kingdom of his grandfather, Herod I the Great. He displayed great acumen in conciliating the Romans and Jews. After Agrippa’s father, Aristobulus IV, was executed by

  • Agrippa, Marcus Vipsanius (Roman leader)

    Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, powerful deputy of Augustus, the first Roman emperor. He was chiefly responsible for the victory over Mark Antony at the Battle of Actium in 31 bc, and during Augustus’ reign he suppressed rebellions, founded colonies, and administered various parts of the Roman Empire. Of

  • Agrippa, Odeon of (ancient theatre, Rome, Italy)

    theatre: The odeum: …the ancient world, was the Odeon of Agrippa, named after the emperor Augustus’ civil administrator. This Roman building in the Athenian agora, dating from about 15 bc, is beautifully detailed, with an open southern exposure and a truncated curvilinear bank of seating. It achieves an atmosphere of great dignity and…

  • Agrippina (opera by Handel)

    George Frideric Handel: Life: His opera Agrippina enjoyed a sensational success at its premiere in Venice in 1710.

  • Agrippina the Elder (Roman patrician)

    Vipsania Agrippina, daughter of Marcus Agrippa and Julia (who was the daughter of the emperor Augustus), and a major figure in the succession struggles in the latter part of the reign of Tiberius (ruled ad 14–37). Agrippina was married to Germanicus Caesar (great-nephew of Augustus by adoption and

  • Agrippina the Younger (Roman patrician)

    Julia Agrippina, mother of the Roman emperor Nero and a powerful influence on him during the early years of his reign (54–68). Agrippina was the daughter of Germanicus Caesar and Vipsania Agrippina, sister of the emperor Gaius, or Caligula (reigned 37–41), and wife of the emperor Claudius (41–54).

  • Agrippina, Julia (Roman patrician)

    Julia Agrippina, mother of the Roman emperor Nero and a powerful influence on him during the early years of his reign (54–68). Agrippina was the daughter of Germanicus Caesar and Vipsania Agrippina, sister of the emperor Gaius, or Caligula (reigned 37–41), and wife of the emperor Claudius (41–54).

  • Agrippina, Vipsania (Roman patrician)

    Vipsania Agrippina, daughter of Marcus Agrippa and Julia (who was the daughter of the emperor Augustus), and a major figure in the succession struggles in the latter part of the reign of Tiberius (ruled ad 14–37). Agrippina was married to Germanicus Caesar (great-nephew of Augustus by adoption and

  • ágrit (Scandinavian literature)

    Icelandic literature: The sagas: The ágrit, a summary of the histories, or sagas, of Norwegian kings, written in the vernacular in Norway, was particularly influential. The Fagrskinna (“Fine Skin”; Eng. trans. Fagrskinna) covered the same period in more detail, while the Morkinskinna (“Rotten Skin”; Eng. trans. Morkinskinna), probably written earlier,…

  • Agro Marshes (region, Italy)

    Pontine Marshes, reclaimed area in Latina provincia, Lazio (Latium) regione, south-central Italy, extending between the Alban Hills, the Lepini Mountains, and the Tyrrhenian Sea, and traversed by the Appian Way. Two tribes, the Pomptini and the Ufentini, lived in this district in early Roman t

  • Agro Pontino (region, Italy)

    Pontine Marshes, reclaimed area in Latina provincia, Lazio (Latium) regione, south-central Italy, extending between the Alban Hills, the Lepini Mountains, and the Tyrrhenian Sea, and traversed by the Appian Way. Two tribes, the Pomptini and the Ufentini, lived in this district in early Roman t

  • agro-industrial complex (farming)

    Bulgaria: Agriculture: …into even larger groupings, called agro-industrial complexes, that took advantage of integrated systems of automation, supply, and marketing.

  • Agrobacterium (bacterium genus)

    plant disease: General characteristics: …of plant pathogenic bacteria are Agrobacterium, Clavibacter, Erwinia, Pseudomonas, Xanthomonas, Streptomyces, and Xylella. With the exception of Streptomyces species, all are small, single, rod-shaped cells approximately 0.5 to 1.0 micrometre

  • Agrobacterium tumefaciens (bacterium)

    crown gall: …disease, caused by the bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens (synonym Rhizobium radiobacter). Thousands of plant species are susceptible. They include especially grape, members of the rose family (Rosaceae), shade and nut trees, many shrubs and vines, and perennial garden plants. Symptoms include roundish rough-surfaced galls

  • agrochemical (agricultural technology)

    Agrochemical, Any chemical used in agriculture, including chemical fertilizers, herbicides, and insecticides. Most are mixtures of two or more chemicals; active ingredients provide the desired effects, and inert ingredients stabilize or preserve the active ingredients or aid in application.

  • agroecology (agriculture)

    origins of agriculture: North America: …but who had developed an agroecosystem. In agroecosystems, people actively planted flora in order to increase the diversity of available plant resources. They also harvested wild grass seeds, separating the grain heads from the stalks by pulling or cutting. The stalks were gathered into sheaves. After harvesting, they burned the…

  • agroecosystem (agriculture)

    origins of agriculture: North America: …but who had developed an agroecosystem. In agroecosystems, people actively planted flora in order to increase the diversity of available plant resources. They also harvested wild grass seeds, separating the grain heads from the stalks by pulling or cutting. The stalks were gathered into sheaves. After harvesting, they burned the…

  • agroforestry

    Agroforestry, cultivation and use of trees and shrubs with crops and livestock in agricultural systems. Agroforestry seeks positive interactions between its components, aiming to achieve a more ecologically diverse and socially productive output from the land than is possible through conventional

  • agroikoi (Greek social class)

    Geōmoroi, class of citizens in ancient Greek society. In 7th-century-bc Attic society, geōmoroi were freemen, generally peasant farm holders, lower on the social and political scale than the eupatridae, the aristocracy, but above the dēmiourgoi, the artisans. The geōmoroi were ineligible for any

  • Agron (king of Illyria)

    Illyria: …most important rulers was King Agron (second half of the 3rd century bce), who, in alliance with Demetrius II of Macedonia, defeated the Aetolians (231). Agron, however, died suddenly, and during the minority of his son, his widow, Teuta, acted as regent. Queen Teuta attacked Sicily and the coastal Greek…

  • agronomy

    Agronomy, Branch of agriculture that deals with field crop production and soil management. Agronomists generally work with crops that are grown on a large scale (e.g., small grains) and that require relatively little management. Agronomic experiments focus on a variety of factors relating to crop

  • Agropolis (Romania)

    Targu Mure?, city, capital of Mure? jude? (county), north-central Romania. It lies in the valley of the Mure? River, in the southeastern part of the Transylvanian Basin. First mentioned in the early 14th century, it was a cattle and crop market town called Agropolis by Greek traders. In the 15th

  • Agropyron (plant)

    Wheatgrass, (genus Agropyron), genus of wheatlike grasses in the family Poaceae, found throughout the North Temperate Zone. Several species, including desert wheatgrass (Agropyron desertorum) and crested wheatgrass (A. cristatum), are good forage plants and are often used as soil binders in the

  • Agropyron cristatum (plant)

    wheatgrass: …desert wheatgrass (Agropyron desertorum) and crested wheatgrass (A. cristatum), are good forage plants and are often used as soil binders in the western United States. Wheatgrass is also the name of juice derived from seedlings of true wheat (Triticum aestivum), sometimes consumed as a health food.

  • Agropyron desertorum (plant)

    wheatgrass: Several species, including desert wheatgrass (Agropyron desertorum) and crested wheatgrass (A. cristatum), are good forage plants and are often used as soil binders in the western United States. Wheatgrass is also the name of juice derived from seedlings of true wheat (Triticum aestivum), sometimes consumed as a health…

  • Agropyron repens (plant)

    Quack grass, (Elymus repens), rapidly spreading grass of the family Poaceae. Quack grass is native to Europe and has been introduced to other north temperate areas for forage or erosion control. In cultivated lands, it is often considered a weed because of its persistence. The plant has been used

  • Agropyron smithii (plant)

    wheatgrass: … (Pseudoroegneria spicata, formerly Agropyron spicatum), western wheatgrass (Pascopyrum smithii, formerly A. smithii), and slender wheatgrass (Elymus trachycaulus, formerly A. trachycaulum), all of which are useful forage plants.

  • Agropyron spicatum (plant)

    wheatgrass: These include bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria spicata, formerly Agropyron spicatum), western wheatgrass (Pascopyrum smithii, formerly A. smithii), and slender wheatgrass (Elymus trachycaulus, formerly A. trachycaulum), all of which are useful forage plants.

  • Agropyron trachycaulum (plant)

    wheatgrass: smithii), and slender wheatgrass (Elymus trachycaulus, formerly A. trachycaulum), all of which are useful forage plants.

  • Agrosoma (insect)

    homopteran: Importance: …forewings of a brilliantly coloured Agrosoma leafhopper, found on bushes along streams.

  • Agrostis (plant)

    Bentgrass, (genus Agrostis), genus of about 150–200 species of annual and perennial grasses in the family Poaceae. Bentgrasses are distributed in temperate and cool parts of the world and at high altitudes in subtropical and tropical areas; at least 40 species are found in North America. Some are

  • Agrostis gigantea (plant)

    bentgrass: Redtop (Agrostis gigantea), 1 to 1.5 metres (about 3 to 5 feet) tall, was introduced into North America during colonial times as a hay and pasture grass. It spreads by rhizomes and has reddish flowers. The smaller creeping bent (A. stolonifera), the stolons of which…

  • Agrostis idahoensis (plant)

    bentgrass: 9 feet) per season, and Idaho bentgrass (A. idahoensis) are popular lawn grasses. Varieties of both species are planted in golf courses and bowling greens around the world; they are closely cut to develop a finely textured, spongy, firm turf.

  • Agrostis stolonifera (plant)

    Creeping bent, (Agrostis stolonifera), perennial grass of the family Poaceae, widely used as a lawn and turf grass. Creeping bent is native to Eurasia and northern Africa and commonly grows in wetlands. The plant is widely naturalized in many places throughout the world and is considered an

  • Agrostographiae Helveticae Prodromus (work by Scheuchzer)

    agrostology: …German botanist Johann Scheuchzer wrote Agrostographiae Helveticae Prodromus, a taxonomic paper on grasses that some authors consider to mark the birth of agrostology. Many systems of classification followed this brief beginning. The earliest were based purely on external morphology of the plant, but later systems take into consideration the results…

  • agrostology (botany)

    Agrostology, the branch of botany concerned with the study of grasses, especially their classification. In 1708 the German botanist Johann Scheuchzer wrote Agrostographiae Helveticae Prodromus, a taxonomic paper on grasses that some authors consider to mark the birth of agrostology. Many systems

  • agrotechnology (agriculture)

    Romania: National communism: …move their residents into so-called agrotechnical centres. As economic and political conditions deteriorated, the position of Romania’s minorities became increasingly precarious. The regime sought to weaken community solidarity among the Hungarians of Transylvania by curtailing education and publication in their own language and by promoting the immigration of Romanians into…

  • AGT

    mass transit: New technology: …term automated guideway transit (AGT) is sometimes applied. AGT systems have been built to provide circulation in downtown areas (e.g., Detroit, Michigan, and Miami, Florida, both in the United States) and on a dispersed American college campus (West Virginia University, at Morgantown). The vehicles commonly have rubber tires and…

  • AGT (biochemistry)

    blood group: Coombs test: When an incomplete antibody reacts with the red cells in saline solution, the antigenic sites become coated with antibody globulin (gamma globulin), and no visible agglutination reaction takes place. The presence of gamma globulin on cells can be detected by the Coombs test,…

  • Agua (work by Arguedas)

    José María Arguedas: In Agua (1935; “Water”), a collection of three stories, Arguedas depicts the violent injustices and disorder of the white world as opposed to what he perceived as the peaceful and orderly existence of the exploited but passive Indians. Yawar fiesta (1941; “Bloody Feast”; Eng. trans. Yawar…

  • Agua Caliente (California, United States)

    Palm Springs, city, Riverside county, southern California, U.S. It lies in the Coachella Valley, at the foot of Mount San Jacinto, which rises to 10,804 feet (3,293 metres). The area originally was inhabited by Cahuilla Indians; it was known to the Spanish as Agua Caliente (“Hot Water”) for its hot

  • Agua Fria National Monument (national monument, Arizona, United States)

    Agua Fria National Monument, area of prehistoric ruins and petroglyphs, central Arizona, U.S., about 40 miles (65 km) north of Phoenix. It was established in 2000 and covers some 111 square miles (287 square km). The monument encompasses the riparian forest canyons of the Agua Fria River (a

  • aguacate (fruit and tree)

    Avocado, fruit of Persea americana of the family Lauraceae, a tree native to the Western Hemisphere from Mexico south to the Andean regions. Avocado fruits have greenish or yellowish flesh with a buttery consistency and a rich, nutty flavour. They are often eaten in salads, and in many parts of the

  • Aguadilla (Puerto Rico)

    Aguadilla, town, northwestern Puerto Rico. The town is a port on a wide bay formed on the south by the hills of Punta Higüero (Jiguera) and on the north by Punta Borinquen, the northwestern corner of the island. It was established as a town in 1775 and elevated to the royal rank of villa in 1861.

  • Aguán River (river, Honduras)

    Aguán River, river in northern Honduras, 150 mi (240 km) in length. After rising in the central highlands west of Yoro, it descends to the northeast between the Cerros de Cangreja and the Sierra de la Esperanza to the coastal lowlands, on which it forms a maze of channels and empties into the

  • Aguapey River (river, South America)

    Río de la Plata: Physiography of the Uruguay basin: …north to south, are the Aguapey, Miri?ay, Mocoretá (which divides Entre Ríos and Corrientes), and Gualeguaychú. The important tributaries of the Uruguay, however, come from the east. The Ijuí, Ibicuí, and the Cuareim are short rivers but of considerable volume; the last forms part of the boundary between Brazil

  • aguará popé (mammal)

    raccoon: The crab-eating raccoon (P. cancrivorus) inhabits South America as far south as northern Argentina. It resembles the North American raccoon but has shorter, coarser fur. The other members of genus Procyon are not well known. Most are tropical and probably rare. They are the Barbados raccoon…

  • Aguarico River (river, Ecuador)

    Aguarico River, river, northeastern Ecuador, rising south of Tulcán, in the Andes mountains near the Ecuador-Colombia border, and flowing east-southeast for approximately 230 miles (370 km) to its juncture with the Napo River at Pantoja. It is navigable for smaller boats. The Rio de Janeiro

  • Aguaruna (people)

    South America: Sociological changes: Such groups as the Aguaruna and the Shipibo in eastern Peru have been able to take advantage of programs by which some Indians actually have become the landlords of mestizos. National parks and protected areas have been established for such peoples as the Yanomami of Brazil and Venezuela and…

  • Aguascalientes (state, Mexico)

    Aguascalientes, estado (state), central Mexico. One of Mexico’s smallest states, it is bounded to the west, north, and east by the state of Zacatecas and to the south and southeast by the state of Jalisco. The city of Aguascalientes is the state capital. The Chichimec were the original inhabitants

  • Aguascalientes (Mexico)

    Aguascalientes, city, capital of Aguascalientes estado (state), central Mexico. It is located in the south-central part of the state on the Mesa Central, 6,194 feet (1,888 metres) above sea level, on the left (east) bank of the Juchipila (Aguascalientes) River. Founded in 1575 and designated a town

  • Aguda (Juchen leader)

    Taizu, temple name (miaohao) of the leader of the nomadic Juchen (Chinese: Nüzhen, or Ruzhen) tribes who occupied north and east Manchuria. He founded the Jin, or Juchen, dynasty (1115–1234) and conquered all of North China. The Juchen were originally vassals of the Mongol-speaking Khitan tribes

  • Agudat Israel (political party, Israel)

    Shas: …(Jews of European descent) dominated Agudat Israel, another ultrareligious party, to represent the interests of religiously observant Sephardic (Middle Eastern) Jews. The sephardim, including many who were not religiously observant, were attracted to the party, particularly in the 1990s, because they saw it as a way to voice their grievances…

  • Agudeza y arte de ingenio (work by Gracián)

    Baltasar Gracián: …were clearly set forth in Agudeza y arte de ingenio (1642, 2nd ed. 1648; “Subtlety and the Art of Genius”). In defiance of his superiors, he published pseudonymously El criticón (1651, 1653, 1657; The Critick), a three-part philosophical novel considered by the 19th-century German pessimistic philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer one of…

  • ague tree (tree)

    Sassafras, (species Sassafras albidum), North American tree of the laurel family (Lauraceae), the aromatic leaf, bark, and root of which are used as a flavouring, as a traditional home medicine, and as a tea. The roots yield about 2 percent oil of sassafras, once the characteristic ingredient of

  • Agüecha (El Salvador)

    Ahuachapán, city, western El Salvador, on the small Molino River (with a hydroelectric station) at the foot of La Lagunita Volcano. Originally called Güeciapam by the Indians, it was renamed Agüecha before becoming the town (1823) and the city (1862) of Ahuachapán. A manufacturing and distributing

  • Aguecheek, Sir Andrew (fictional character)

    Twelfth Night: …Belch, and Sir Toby’s friend Sir Andrew Aguecheek—who scheme to undermine the high-minded, pompous Malvolio by planting a love letter purportedly written by Olivia to Malvolio urging him to show his affection for her by smiling constantly and dressing himself in cross-garters and yellow. Malvolio is thoroughly discomfited and even…

  • Agueda River (river, Spain)

    Agueda River, river, western Spain. It rises on the northern slopes of the Sierra de Gata and flows 80 miles (130 km), generally northwest, to the Douro River. For the last 15 miles (24 km) of its course, the Agueda forms part of the Portugal-Spain

  • Agueda, Río (river, Spain)

    Agueda River, river, western Spain. It rises on the northern slopes of the Sierra de Gata and flows 80 miles (130 km), generally northwest, to the Douro River. For the last 15 miles (24 km) of its course, the Agueda forms part of the Portugal-Spain

  • Aguesseau, Henri-Fran?ois d’ (French jurist)

    Henri-Fran?ois d’ Aguesseau, jurist who, as chancellor of France during most of the period from 1717 to 1750, made important reforms in his country’s legal system. The son of Henri d’Aguesseau, intendant (royal agent) of Languedoc, he was advocate general to the Parlement (high court of justice) of

  • agueweed (plant)

    Boneset, (Eupatorium perfoliatum), North American plant in the aster family (Asteraceae). The plant is sometimes grown in rain gardens and attracts butterflies. Boneset tea is a folk remedy for fever, and traditionally the leaves were wrapped around broken bones to promote their healing. Boneset is

  • Agui (Chinese general and official)

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