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  • Abbott, William Alexander (American actor)

    Abbott and Costello: Abbott was born into a circus family, and he managed burlesque houses before he met Costello. He spent much time backstage studying the top American comics of the day, including W.C. Fields, Bert Lahr, and the comedy team of Bobby Clark and Paul McCullough. In…

  • Abbottabad (Pakistan)

    Abbottabad, city, east-central Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, northern Pakistan. It is situated 38 miles (61 km) northeast of Rawalpindi. A hill station (4,120 feet [1,256 metres]), it lies on a plateau at the southern corner of the Rash (Orash) Plain and is the gateway to the picturesque Kagan Valley. It is

  • abbreviation

    Abbreviation, in communications (especially written), the process or result of representing a word or group of words by a shorter form of the word or phrase. Abbreviations take many forms and can be found in ancient Greek inscriptions, in medieval manuscripts (e.g., “DN” for “Dominus Noster”), and

  • ?Abbūd, Ibrāhīm (Sudanese general)

    Sudan: Coups and conflict with the south: …of the Sudanese army, General Ibrāhīm ?Abbūd, carried out a bloodless coup d’état, dissolving all political parties, prohibiting assemblies, and temporarily suspending newspapers. A Supreme Council of the Armed Forces, consisting of 12 senior officers, was set up, and army rule brought rapid economic improvements. The ?Abbūd government at once…

  • Abby Smith and Her Cows, with a Report of the Law Case Decided Contrary to Law (work by J.E. Smith)

    Abby Hadassah Smith and Julia Evelina Smith: …an account of the events, Abby Smith and Her Cows, with a Report of the Law Case Decided Contrary to Law.

  • ABC (American television network)

    American Broadcasting Company (ABC), major American television network that is a division of the Disney Company. Its headquarters are in New York City. The company’s history traces to 1926, when the Radio Corporation of America (now RCA Corporation) and two other firms founded the National

  • ABC (Spanish newspaper)

    ABC, tabloid daily newspaper published in Madrid and long regarded as one of Spain’s leading papers. It was founded as a weekly in 1903 by journalist Torcuato Luca de Tena y Alvarez-Ossorio, who later (1929) was made the marqués de Luca de Tena by King Alfonso XIII in recognition of his

  • ABC (American sports organization)

    bowling: Organization and tournaments: 9, 1895, the American Bowling Congress (ABC) was organized in New York City. Rules and equipment standards were developed, and the game as it finally was organized remained basically unchanged as the sport grew steadily. An early technological development that helped the sport’s progress was the introduction of…

  • ABC (American comic book imprint)

    America’s Best Comics (ABC), American comic book imprint launched in 1999 by comic creator Alan Moore. An imprint of WildStorm, an independent publisher founded by artist Jim Lee, America’s Best Comics (ABC) was intended to provide Moore with a creative avenue that was separate from mainstream

  • ABC

    Atanasoff-Berry Computer (ABC), an early digital computer. It was generally believed that the first electronic digital computers were the Colossus, built in England in 1943, and the ENIAC, built in the United States in 1945. However, the first special-purpose electronic computer may actually have

  • ABC (political party, Lesotho)

    Lesotho: Challenges in the 21st century: …Thabane, leaving to form the All Basotho Convention (ABC); many other LCD ministers followed Thabane to the ABC. Nevertheless, the LCD managed to maintain control of the parliament after early elections were called in February 2007. Although the elections were generally viewed as free and fair by international observers, the…

  • ABC Africa (documentary film by Kiarostami [2001])

    Abbas Kiarostami: ABC Africa (2001) is a documentary about Ugandan orphans whose parents died of AIDS or were killed in the civil war, and it was the first of several features Kiarostami shot entirely by using digital video. With Dah (2002; Ten) Kiarostami took advantage of the…

  • ABC art (art movement)

    Minimalism, chiefly American movement in the visual arts and music originating in New York City in the late 1960s and characterized by extreme simplicity of form and a literal, objective approach. Minimal art, also called ABC art, is the culmination of reductionist tendencies in modern art that

  • ABC of Chess, The (work by Cooke)

    chess: Women in chess: …book written by a woman, The ABC of Chess, by “A Lady” (H.I. Cooke), appeared in England in 1860 and went into 10 editions. The first women’s tournament was sponsored in 1884 by the Sussex Chess Association.

  • ABC’s Wide World of Sports (American television program)

    Television in the United States: The development of sports programming: ABC’s Wide World of Sports (begun 1961), called by one TV historian an “athletic anthology,” used personal profiles of athletes and instructional commentary to generate interest from diverse audiences in often obscure sporting events. ABC’s coverage of the Olympic Games during the 1960s and ’70s…

  • ABCA4 (gene)

    macular degeneration: Other forms of macular degeneration: …mutations in a gene called ABCA4 (ATP-binding cassette, subfamily A, member 4). Stargardt-like macular dystrophy differs from Stargardt macular dystrophy in that it is caused by mutations in a gene called ELOVL4 (elongation of very-long-chain fatty acids-like 4). Malattia Leventinese (Doyne honeycomb) retinal dystrophy, which is characterized by a honeycomb-like…

  • ABCD (photomontage by Hausmann)

    Raoul Hausmann: …created his final photomontage, titled ABCD: his face appears at the centre of the image with the letters ABCD clenched in his teeth, and an announcement for one of his poetry performances is collaged right below his chin.

  • ABCD system (medicine)

    melanoma: Causes and symptoms: …self-assessment of moles, using the ABCD system. ABCD stands for asymmetry, border, colour, and diameter. Moles that are asymmetrical, have irregular borders (edges) or colour, or are greater than 5–6 mm (about 1 4 inch) in diameter are suspect. Any mole that changes in size, shape, or colour should be…

  • ABCL (American organization)

    American Birth Control League (ABCL), organization that advocated for the legalization of contraception in the United States and promoted women’s reproductive rights and health from its creation in 1921 by Margaret Sanger, the founder of the American birth control movement. The first such

  • abcoulomb (unit of measurement)

    electric charge: …esu, or statcoulomb; and the electromagnetic unit of charge, emu, or abcoulomb. One coulomb of electric charge equals about 3,000,000,000 esu, or one-tenth emu.

  • ?Abd al- ?amad Khan (Mughal governor)

    India: From Banda Singh Bahadur to Ranjit Singh: First ?Abd al-?amad Khan and then his son ?akariyyā Khan attempted the twin tracks of conciliation and coercion, but all to little avail. After the latter’s demise in 1745, the balance shifted still further in favour of the Sikh warrior-leaders, such as Jassa Singh Ahluwalia, later…

  • Abd al-Aziz (sultan of Morocco)

    Abd al-Aziz, sultan of Morocco from 1894 to 1908, whose reign was marked by an unsuccessful attempt to introduce European administrative methods in an atmosphere of increasing foreign influence. Abd al-Aziz was proclaimed sultan upon the death of his father, Hassan I, but did not begin direct rule

  • ?Abd al-Aziz al-Mansūr (ruler of Valencia)

    Valencia: …came to be ruled by ?Abd al-Aziz al-Mansūr (reigned 1021–61), grandson of the famous Cordoban caliph of that name. Stabilized by the protection of the caliphs of Córdoba and by friendship with Christian princes, his reign marked a period of peace and prosperity. However, his successor, a minor, ?Abd al-Malik…

  • ?Abd al-Aziz ibn Abdallah ibn Baz (Saudi Arabian cleric)

    ?Abd al-Aziz ibn Abdallah ibn Baz, Saudi Muslim cleric who as the grand mufti (from 1993) and traditionalist head of the Council of Senior Islamic Scholars (from the early 1960s) was revered by millions and exerted a powerful influence on the legal system in Saudi Arabia; the blind cleric’s

  • Abd al-Aziz IV (sultan of Morocco)

    Abd al-Aziz, sultan of Morocco from 1894 to 1908, whose reign was marked by an unsuccessful attempt to introduce European administrative methods in an atmosphere of increasing foreign influence. Abd al-Aziz was proclaimed sultan upon the death of his father, Hassan I, but did not begin direct rule

  • ?Abd al-Bahā (Bahā?ī religious leader)

    Bahā?ī Faith: History: …he appointed his eldest son, ?Abd al-Bahā? (1844–1921), to be the leader of the Bahā?i community and the authorized interpreter of his teachings. ?Abd al-Bahā? actively administered the movement’s affairs and spread the faith to North America, Europe, and other continents. He appointed his eldest grandson, Shoghi Effendi Rabbānī (1897–1957),…

  • ?Abd al-Ghanī al-Nābulusī (Syrian author)

    ?Abd al-Ghanī al-Nābulusī, Syrian mystic prose and verse writer on the cultural and religious thought of his time. Orphaned at an early age, ?Abd al-Ghanī joined the Islamic mystical orders of the Qādiriyyah and the Naqshbandiyyah. He then spent seven years in isolation in his house, studying the

  • ?Abd al-Ghanī ibn Ismā?īl al-Nābulusī (Syrian author)

    ?Abd al-Ghanī al-Nābulusī, Syrian mystic prose and verse writer on the cultural and religious thought of his time. Orphaned at an early age, ?Abd al-Ghanī joined the Islamic mystical orders of the Qādiriyyah and the Naqshbandiyyah. He then spent seven years in isolation in his house, studying the

  • Abd al-Hafid (sultan of Morocco)

    Abd al-Hafid, sultan of Morocco (1908–12), the brother of Sultan Abd al-Aziz, against whom he revolted beginning in 1907. Appointed caliph of Marrakech by Abd al-Aziz, Abd al-Hafid had no difficulty there in rousing the Muslim community against his brother’s Western ways. With Marrakech his, Abd

  • ?Abd al-?afīd (sultan of Morocco)

    Abd al-Hafid, sultan of Morocco (1908–12), the brother of Sultan Abd al-Aziz, against whom he revolted beginning in 1907. Appointed caliph of Marrakech by Abd al-Aziz, Abd al-Hafid had no difficulty there in rousing the Muslim community against his brother’s Western ways. With Marrakech his, Abd

  • ?Abd al-?āfi? (sultan of Morocco)

    Abd al-Hafid, sultan of Morocco (1908–12), the brother of Sultan Abd al-Aziz, against whom he revolted beginning in 1907. Appointed caliph of Marrakech by Abd al-Aziz, Abd al-Hafid had no difficulty there in rousing the Muslim community against his brother’s Western ways. With Marrakech his, Abd

  • ?Abd al-?alīm (Turkish rebel)

    Jelālī Revolts: In 1598 a sekban leader, Karayazici Abdülhalim (?Abd al-?alīm), united the dissatisfied groups in Anatolia, forcing the towns to pay tribute and dominating the Sivas and Dulkadir provinces in central Anatolia. When Ottoman forces were sent against them the Jelālīs withdrew to Urfa in southeastern Anatolia, making it the centre…

  • ?Abd al-?amīd (Muslim writer)

    Arabic literature: The concept of adab: …epistle composition are associated with ?Abd al-?amīd, known as al-Kātib (“The Secretary”), who in the 8th century composed a work for the son of one of the Umayyad caliphs on the proper conduct of rulers.

  • ?Abd al-Ilāh (Iraqi prince)

    ?Abd al-Ilāh, regent of Iraq (1939–53) and crown prince to 1958. Son of the Hāshimite king ?Alī ibn ?usayn of the Hejaz (northwestern Arabia), who was driven from Arabia by Ibn Sa?ūd, ?Abd al-Ilāh accompanied his father to Iraq in 1925. Upon King Ghāzī’s death in 1939, he was appointed regent for

  • ?Abd al-Jalīl (governor of Mosul)

    Jalīlī Family: …founder of the Jalīlī line, ?Abd al-Jalīl, was a Christian slave, his son Ismā?īl distinguished himself as a Muslim public official and became wālī (governor) of Mosul in 1726. ?ajj ?usayn Pasha, who succeeded his father in 1730, became the central figure of the dynasty by successfully repulsing a siege…

  • ?Abd al-Karīm al-Qaysī (Islamic poet)

    Spain: Granada: …however, are the verses of ?Abd al-Karīm al-Qaysī (c. 1485), an esteemed member of Granada’s middle class, who eschewed classic themes and wrote of such mundane phenomena as the increase in the cost of living or the decline of Granada and its continuous territorial losses.

  • ?Abd al-Karīm Qu?b al-Dīn ibn Ibrāhīm al-Jīlī (Islamic mystic)

    Al-Jīlī, mystic whose doctrines of the “perfect man” became popular throughout the Islamic world. Little is known about al-Jīlī’s personal life. Possibly after a visit to India in 1387, he studied in Yemen during 1393–1403. Of his more than 30 works, the most famous is Al-Insān al-kāmil fi ma?rifat

  • ?Abd al-Kūrī (island, Yemen)

    ?Abd al-Kūrī, island in the Indian Ocean, about 65 miles (105 km) southwest of Socotra. Although the island belongs to Yemen (the mainland of which is situated more than 200 miles [320 km] to the north), geographically the island is closer to the Horn of Africa—it is about 70 miles (110 km)

  • ?Abd al-La?īf (shah of Iran)

    Ulūgh Beg: …the instigation of his son, ?Abd al-La?īf.

  • ?Abd al-Malik (sultan of Morocco)

    Battle of the Three Kings: …the Sa?dī sultan of Morocco, ?Abd al-Malik.

  • ?Abd al-Malik (Jahwarid ruler)

    Jahwarid dynasty: When ?Abd al-Malik, al-Rashīd’s jealous son, assassinated the vizier in 1058, his father rewarded him with virtually caliphal standing and authority in the state. Extremely unpopular, ?Abd al-Malik and his father were handed over to the ?Abbādids by the Cordobans themselves when the Abbādids took the…

  • ?Abd al-Malik (ruler of Valencia)

    Valencia: However, his successor, a minor, ?Abd al-Malik (reigned 1061–65), was attacked by Ferdinand I of Castile and Leon, who missed capturing Valencia but inflicted such a defeat on its defenders that they sought protection from al-Ma?mun, the ruler of Toledo. Al-Ma?mun deposed the minor, and for the next 10 years…

  • ?Abd al-Malik (Umayyad caliph)

    ?Abd al-Malik, fifth caliph (685–705) of the Umayyad Arab dynasty centred in Damascus. He reorganized and strengthened governmental administration and, throughout the empire, adopted Arabic as the language of administration. ?Abd al-Malik spent the first half of his life with his father, Marwān ibn

  • ?Abd al-Malik ibn Marwān (Umayyad caliph)

    ?Abd al-Malik, fifth caliph (685–705) of the Umayyad Arab dynasty centred in Damascus. He reorganized and strengthened governmental administration and, throughout the empire, adopted Arabic as the language of administration. ?Abd al-Malik spent the first half of his life with his father, Marwān ibn

  • ?Abd al-Mu?min (Almohad caliph)

    ?Abd al-Mu?min, Berber caliph of the Almohad dynasty (reigned 1130–63), who conquered the North African Maghrib from the Almoravids and brought all the Berbers under one rule. ?Abd al-Mu?min came from a humble family: his father had been a potter. He seems to have been well instructed in the Muslim

  • ?Abd al-Mu?min ibn ?Ali (Almohad caliph)

    ?Abd al-Mu?min, Berber caliph of the Almohad dynasty (reigned 1130–63), who conquered the North African Maghrib from the Almoravids and brought all the Berbers under one rule. ?Abd al-Mu?min came from a humble family: his father had been a potter. He seems to have been well instructed in the Muslim

  • ?Abd al-Qādir al-Jīlānī (Muslim mystic)

    ?Abd al-Qādir al-Jīlānī, traditional founder of the Qādirīyah order of the mystical ?ūfī branch of Islām. He studied Islāmic law in Baghdad and was introduced to ?ūfism rather late in life, first appearing as a preacher in 1127. His great reputation as a preacher and teacher attracted disciples

  • ?Abd al-Qādir ibn Mu?yī al-Dīn ibn Mus?afā al-?asanī al-Jazā?irī (Algerian leader)

    Abdelkader, amīr of Mascara (from 1832), the military and religious leader who founded the Algerian state and led the Algerians in their 19th-century struggle against French domination (1840–46). His physical handsomeness and the qualities of his mind had made Abdelkader popular even before his

  • ?Abd al-Ra?mān (Saudi leader)

    Saudi Arabia: The Rashīdīs: …leaving to his youngest brother, ?Abd al-Ra?mān, the almost hopeless task of reviving the dynasty.

  • ?Abd al-Ra?mān (Afghani emir)

    Nūrestān: …Afghanistan until the 1890s, when ?Abd al-Ra?mān, the Afghan emir, conquered it and forcibly converted the inhabitants to Islam. He subsequently changed its name from Kāfiristān (“Land of the Kāfirs”—i.e., infidels) to Nūrestān (“Land of the Enlightened”). The forests of Nūrestān provide most of Afghanistan’s timber.

  • ?Abd al-Ra?mān al-Ghafiqi (emir of Córdoba)

    Battle of Tours: The clash near Poitiers: That same year, ?Abd al-Ra?mān al-Ghafiqi, the Muslim governor of Córdoba, launched a punitive expedition against Munusa. During that campaign, Munusa either was slain or committed suicide.

  • ?Abd al-Ra?mān al-Ghushtulī (Muslim mystic)

    Suhrawardīyah: …of the 18th century, when ?Abd ar-Ra?mān al-Ghushtulī, the founder, made himself the centre of Khalwatī devotion.

  • ?Abd al-Ra?mān al-Rashed (sultan of Darfur)

    Al-Fāshir: …the late 18th century Sultan ?Abd al-Ra?mān al-Rashed of the Fur Sultanate of Darfur established his capital at Al-Fāshir, and the town grew up around the sultan’s palace. Pop. (2008) 217,827.

  • ?Abd al-Ra?mān I (Spanish Umayyad ruler)

    ?Abd al-Ra?mān I, member of the Umayyad ruling family of Syria who founded an Umayyad dynasty in Spain. When the ?Abbāsids overthrew the Umayyad caliphate in 750 ce and sought to kill as many members of the Umayyad family as possible, ?Abd al-Ra?mān fled, eventually reaching Spain. The Iberian

  • ?Abd al-Ra?mān ibn Dhū an-Nūn (Dhū an-Nūnid ruler)

    Dhū an-Nūnid Dynasty: …the Spanish Umayyad state (1008–31), ?Abd ar-Ra?mān ibn Dhū an-Nūn, who had been invited by the Toledans to rule their city, and his son Ismā?īl a?-?āfir were the first local rulers to refuse to recognize the central authority of the Umayyad caliph of Córdoba. A?-?āfīr established himself as an independent…

  • ?Abd al-Ra?mān ibn Fay?al (Wahhābī leader)

    Battle of Al-Mulaydah: …Arabia, who defeated allies of ?Abd al-Ra?mān, the head of the Wahhābī (fundamentalist Islamic) state in Najd. The battle marked the end of the second Wahhābī empire.

  • ?Abd al-Ra?mān ibn Mu?ammad ibn al-Ash?ath (Arab general)

    Ibn al-Ash?ath, Umayyad general who became celebrated as leader of a revolt (ad 699–701) against the governor of Iraq, al-?ajjāj. A member of the noble tribe of Kindah of the old aristocracy, Ibn al-Ash?ath was at first friendly toward the Umayyad authorities but then began to smart under the

  • ?Abd al-Ra?mān ibn Mu?ammad ibn ?Abd Allāh ibn Mu?ammad (Umayyad caliph)

    ?Abd al-Ra?mān III, first caliph and greatest ruler of the Umayyad Arab Muslim dynasty of Spain. He reigned as hereditary emir (“prince”) of Córdoba from October 912 and took the title of caliph in 929. ?Abd al-Ra?mān succeeded his grandfather ?Abd Allāh as emir of Córdoba in October 912 at the age

  • ?Abd al-Ra?mān ibn Mu?ammad ibn ?Abd Allāh ibn Mu?ammad ibn ?Abd al-Ra?mān ibn al-?akam al-Rab?ī ibn Hishām ibn ?Abd al-Ra?mān al-Dākhil (Umayyad caliph)

    ?Abd al-Ra?mān III, first caliph and greatest ruler of the Umayyad Arab Muslim dynasty of Spain. He reigned as hereditary emir (“prince”) of Córdoba from October 912 and took the title of caliph in 929. ?Abd al-Ra?mān succeeded his grandfather ?Abd Allāh as emir of Córdoba in October 912 at the age

  • ?Abd al-Ra?mān ibn Rustam (North African ruler)

    Rustamid kingdom: …governed by imams descended from ?Abd al-Ra?mān ibn Rustam, the austere Persian who founded the state. These imams were themselves under the supervision of the religious leaders and the chief judge. The kingdom was renowned for its religious toleration and secular learning. The state was very active in the trans-Saharan…

  • ?Abd al-Ra?mān ibn ?āhir (ruler of Murcia)

    Murcia: The kingdom’s first ruler, ?Abd ar-Ra?mān ibn ?āhir, declared himself independent in 1063, though to preserve the fiction of the unity of the Umayyad caliphate he took the title not of king (malik) but of minister (?ājib).

  • ?Abd al-Ra?mān ibn ?Alī ibn Mu?ammad Abū al-Farash ibn al-Jawzī (Muslim educator)

    Ibn al-Jawzī, jurist, theologian, historian, preacher, and teacher who became an important figure in the Baghdad establishment and a leading spokesman of traditionalist Islam. Ibn al-Jawzī received a traditional religious education, and, upon the completion of his studies, he chose a teaching

  • ?Abd al-Ra?mān ibn ?Umar a?-?ūfī (Islamic astronomer)

    astronomical map: Relationship of the bright stars and their constellations: …a 1009–10 ce copy of al-?ūfī’s book on the fixed stars, shows individual constellations, including stars.

  • ?Abd al-Ra?mān II (Spanish Umayyad ruler)

    ?Abd al-Ra?mān II, fourth Umayyad ruler of Muslim Spain who enjoyed a reign (822–852) of brilliance and prosperity, the importance of which has been underestimated by some historians. ?Abd al-Ra?mān II was the grandson of his namesake, founder of the Umayyad dynasty in Spain. His reign was an

  • ?Abd al-Ra?mān III (Umayyad caliph)

    ?Abd al-Ra?mān III, first caliph and greatest ruler of the Umayyad Arab Muslim dynasty of Spain. He reigned as hereditary emir (“prince”) of Córdoba from October 912 and took the title of caliph in 929. ?Abd al-Ra?mān succeeded his grandfather ?Abd Allāh as emir of Córdoba in October 912 at the age

  • ?Abd al-Ra?mān Khān (emir of Afghanistan)

    ?Abd al-Ra?mān Khān, amīr of Afghanistan (1880–1901) who played a prominent role in the fierce and long-drawn struggle for power waged by his father and his uncle, A??am Khān, against his cousin Shīr ?Alī, the successor of Dōst Mo?ammad Khān. ?Abd al-Ra?mān was the son of Af?al Khān, whose father,

  • ?Abd al-Ra?mān Sanchuelo (Spanish Umayyad caliph)

    Spain: The caliphate of Córdoba: …Al-Mu?affar’s premature death, his brother ?Abd al-Ra?mān Sanchuelo took the reins of power, but he lacked the fortitude to maintain the structure built by his father. An uprising that sought to vindicate the political rights of Hishām II resulted in Sanchuelo’s death and brought about the beginning of the end…

  • ?Abd al-Rāziq, ?Alī (Egyptian scholar)

    Islamic world: Reform and revival in the colonial period: …these thinkers, the Egyptian reformer ?Alī ?Abd al-Rāziq (1888–1966) claimed that Islam could not be the basis of a society’s political system. After direct revelation from God ended with Muhammad, al-Rāziq maintained, Islam could have only a spiritual function; the use of the religion for political aims could not be…

  • ?Abd al-Ra?ūf (Malaysian author and scholar)

    Islamic world: Indian Ocean Islam: …taking place here; for example, ?Abd al-Ra?ūf of Singkel, after studying in Arabia from about 1640 to 1661, returned home, where he made the first “translation” of the Qur?ān into Malay, a language that was much enriched during this period by Arabic script and vocabulary. This phenomenon extended even to…

  • ?Abd al-?abur, ?alā? (Egyptian author)

    Arabic literature: Ascetic poetry: The modern Egyptian poet ?alā? ?Abd al-?abūr, for instance, depicts a rural preacher in his “Al-Nās fī bilādī” (1957; “The People in My Country”):

  • ?Abd al-Wādid dynasty (Berber dynasty)

    ?Abd al-Wādid Dynasty, dynasty of Zanātah Berbers (1236–1550), successors to the Almohad empire in northwestern Algeria. In 1236 the Zanātahs, loyal vassals to the Almohads, gained the support of other Berber tribes and nomadic Arabs and set up a kingdom at Tilimsān (Tlemcen), headed by the Zanātah

  • ?Abd al-Wahhāb ibn A?mad (Islamic mystic)

    Ash-Sha?rānī, Egyptian scholar and mystic who founded an Islāmic order of ?ūfism. Throughout his life Sha?rānī was influenced by the pattern of his education. His introduction and exposure to Islāmic learning were limited; his formal education was concerned with the ?ulūm al-wahb (“gifted knowledge

  • ?Abd al-Wahhāb ibn ?āhir (ruler of ?āhirid dynasty)

    Sanaa: History: During the reign of ?Abd al-Wahhāb ibn ?āhir of the ?āhirid dynasty in the early 16th century the city was embellished with many fine mosques and madrassas (Islamic theological schools).

  • ?Abd al-Wahhāb, Mu?ammad (Egyptian musician)

    Mu?ammad ?Abd al-Wahhāb, Egyptian actor, singer, and composer, largely responsible for changing the course of Arab music by incorporating Western musical instruments, melodies, rhythms, and performance practices into his work. ?Abd al-Wahhāb was drawn to musical theatre in Cairo as a young boy, and

  • ?Abd al-?āl (Muslim leader)

    A?madiyyah: …the A?madiyyah was headed by ?Abd al-?āl, a close disciple who kept the order under strict rule until his death in 1332. ?Abd al-?āl inherited the order’s symbols: a red cowl, a veil, and a red banner that belonged to al-Badawī. Before his death, ?Abd al-?āl ordered a chapel built…

  • ?Abd al-?Azīz (Umayyad governor of Egypt)

    ?Umar II: His father, ?Abd al-?Azīz, was a governor of Egypt, and through his mother he was a descendant of ?Umar I (second caliph, 634–644). He received a traditional education in Medina and won fame for his piety and learning. In February or March 706, ?Umar was appointed governor…

  • ?Abd al-?Azīz (amīr of Crete)

    Nicephorus II Phocas: Early life.: …then returned to Constantinople with ?Abd al-?Azīz, the last amīr of Crete, as his captive. This exploit, sung by the poet Theodosius the Deacon, realized the Byzantine dream (after dozens had failed to liberate Crete) of imperial mastery of the eastern Mediterranean. Later, as emperor, Nicephorus could state proudly that…

  • ?Abd al-?Azīz al-Tha?alibī (Tunisian political leader)

    Young Tunisians: …including Ali Bash Hamba and Abd al-Aziz ath-Thaalibi (1912), and driving the Young Tunisians underground. At the end of World War I they emerged again as activists in the Tunisian nationalist movement and, led by ath-Thaalibi, reorganized themselves (1920) into the Destour (q.v.) Party, which remained active until 1957.

  • ?Abd al-?Azīz I (Arab leader)

    Saudi Arabia: Origins and early expansion: …ibn Sa?ūd’s son and successor, ?Abd al-?Azīz I (reigned 1765–1803), who had been largely responsible for this extension of his father’s realm through his exploits as commander in chief of the Wahhābī forces, continued to work in complete harmony with Mu?ammad ibn ?Abd al-Wahhāb. It was the latter who virtually…

  • ?Abd al-?Azīz ibn al-?asan ibn Mu?ammad al-?asanī al-?Alawī (sultan of Morocco)

    Abd al-Aziz, sultan of Morocco from 1894 to 1908, whose reign was marked by an unsuccessful attempt to introduce European administrative methods in an atmosphere of increasing foreign influence. Abd al-Aziz was proclaimed sultan upon the death of his father, Hassan I, but did not begin direct rule

  • ?Abd al-?Azīz ibn Mit?ab (Arab leader)

    Saudi Arabia: Ibn Saud and the third Sa?ūdī state: …while the new Rashīdī prince, ?Abd al-?Azīz ibn ?Abd Mit?ab, alienated the population of Najd. In 1901 the young Ibn Saud (he was about 22 to 26 years old) sallied out of Kuwait with a force of 40 followers on what must have seemed a forlorn adventure. On January 15,…

  • ?Abd al-?Azīz ibn Musā?id (Arab general)

    Ikhwān: …August at the hands of ?Abd al-?Azīz ibn Musā?id; their leader, ?Uzayyiz, ad-Dawīsh’s son, and hundreds of his soldiers were either killed in battle on the edge of an-Nafūd desert or died of thirst in the desert. Shortly afterward, an important Ikhwān faction defected, and Ibn Sa?ūd was able to…

  • ?Abd al-?Azīz ibn ?Abd al-Ra?mān ibn Fay?al ibn Turkī ?Abd Allāh ibn Mu?ammad āl Sa?ūd (Saudi king and religious leader)

    Ibn Saud, tribal and Muslim religious leader who formed the modern state of Saudi Arabia and initiated the exploitation of its oil. The Sauds ruled much of Arabia from 1780 to 1880, but, while Ibn Saud was still an infant, his family, driven out by their rivals, the Rashīds, became penniless exiles

  • ?Abd Allāh (Sudanese religious leader)

    ?Abd Allāh, political and religious leader who succeeded Mu?ammad A?mad (al-Mahdī) as head of a religious movement and state within the Sudan. ?Abd Allāh followed his family’s vocation for religion. In about 1880 he became a disciple of Mu?ammad A?mad, who announced that he had a divine mission, b

  • ?Abd Allāh (father of Muhammad)

    Muhammad: Biography according to the Islamic tradition: …son and Muhammad’s future father, ?Abd Allāh, an obvious adaptation of the biblical story of the binding of Isaac (Genesis 22). Muhammad himself is born in 570, the same year in which the South Arabian king Abraha attempts to conquer Mecca and is thwarted by a divine intervention later alluded…

  • ?Abd Allāh (king of Saudi Arabia)

    Abdullah of Saudi Arabia, king of Saudi Arabia from 2005 to 2015. As crown prince (1982–2005), he had served as the country’s de facto ruler following the 1995 stroke of his half-brother King Fahd (reigned 1982–2005). Abdullah was one of King ?Abd al-?Azīz ibn Sa?ūd’s 37 sons. For his support of

  • ?Abd Allāh (Spanish Umayyad ruler)

    Spain: The independent emirate: I (852–886), al-Mundhir (886–888), and ?Abd Allāh (888–912) were confronted with a new problem, which threatened to do away with the power of the Umayyads—the muwallads. Having become more and more conscious of their power, they rose in revolt in the north of the peninsula, led by the powerful Banū…

  • ?Abd Allāh al-An?ārī, Khwajah (Persian poet)

    Islamic arts: The mystical poem: Khwajah ?Abd Allāh al-An?ārī of Herāt (died 1088), a prolific writer on religious topics in both Arabic and Persian, first popularized the literary “prayer,” or mystical contemplation, written in Persian in rhyming prose interspersed with verses. Sanā?ī (died 1131?), at one time a court poet…

  • ?Abd Allāh I ibn Sa?ūd (Arab leader)

    Battle of ad-Dir?īyah: In 1815 Sa?ūd’s successor, ?Abd Allāh I, sued for peace, and the Egyptians withdrew from Najd. The following year, however, Ibrāhīm Pasha, one of the Viceroy’s sons, took command of the Egyptian forces. Gaining the support of the volatile Arabian tribes by skillful diplomacy and lavish gifts, he advanced…

  • ?Abd Allāh ibn al-?usayn (king of Jordan)

    ?Abdullāh I, statesman who became the first ruler (1946–51) of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. ?Abdullāh, the second son of ?usayn ibn ?Alī, the ruler of the Hejaz, was educated in Istanbul in what was then the Ottoman Empire. After the Young Turk Revolution of 1908, he represented Mecca in the

  • ?Abd Allāh ibn al-Zubayr (Companion of Mu?ammad)

    ?Abd Allāh ibn al-Zubayr, leader of a rebellion against the Umayyad dynasty in the early Islamic period and the most prominent representative of the second generation of Muslim families in Mecca, who resented the Umayyad assumption of caliphal authority. As a youth, Ibn al-Zubayr went on many of

  • ?Abd Allāh ibn al-?Abbās (Companion of Mu?ammad)

    ?Abd Allāh ibn al-?Abbās, a Companion of the prophet Mu?ammad, one of the greatest scholars of early Islām, and the first exegete of the Qur?ān. In the early struggles for the caliphate, Ibn ?Abbās supported ?Alī and was rewarded with the governorship of Ba?ra. Subsequently he defected and withdrew

  • ?Abd Allāh ibn Fay?al (Wahhābī leader)

    Battle of Al-Mulaydah: The Wahhābī prince ?Abd Allāh lost many of the territories that his father, Fay?al (reigned 1834–65), had acquired by conquest following the collapse of the first Wahhābī empire (1818). In 1885 ?Abd Allāh was “invited” to ?ā?il to be the “guest” of Ibn Rashīd, the dominant figure in…

  • ?Abd Allāh ibn ?usayn (king of Jordan)

    Abdullah II, king of Jordan from 1999 and a member of the Hāshimite dynasty, considered by pious Muslims to be direct descendants of the Prophet Muhammad (see Ahl al-Bayt). Abdullah, the eldest son of King ?ussein, served as the crown prince until age three, when unrest in the Middle East prompted

  • ?Abd Allāh ibn Lutf Allāh ibn ?Abd al-Rashīd al-Bihdādīnī ?āfi?-i Abrū (Persian historian)

    ?āfi?-i Abrū, Persian historian, one of the most important historians of the Timurid period (1370–1506). ?āfi?-i Abrū was apparently educated in the city of Hamadān. Later he became an extensive traveler and went with the Turkic conqueror Timur on a number of campaigns, including those in the

  • ?Abd Allāh ibn Mu?ammad ibn Maslamah (Af?asid ruler)

    Af?asid dynasty: …Maslamah, who was known as Ibn al-Af?as, seized control of the kingdom and, assuming the title Al-Man?ūr Billāh (“Victorious by God”), ruled fairly peacefully until 1045. But trouble with the neighbouring ?Abbādids of Sevilla (Seville), which had begun at the end of al-Man?ūr’s rule, consumed the energies of his son…

  • ?Abd Allāh ibn Sa?d ibn Abī Sar? (governor of Egypt)

    ?Abd Allāh ibn Sa?d ibn Abī Sar?, governor of Upper (southern) Egypt for the Muslim caliphate during the reign of ?Uthmān (644–656) and the cofounder, with the future caliph Mu?āwiyah I, of the first Muslim navy, which seized Cyprus (647–649), Rhodes, and Cos (Dodecanese Islands) and defeated a

  • ?Abd Allāh ibn Sa?ūd (Arab leader)

    Saudi Arabia: Struggle with the Ottomans: His successor, his son ?Abd Allāh ibn Sa?ūd, was scarcely of his father’s calibre, and the capture of Al-Ra?s in Al-Qa?īm region by the Egyptians in 1815 forced him to sue for peace. This was duly arranged, but the truce was short-lived, and in 1816 the struggle was renewed,…

  • ?Abd Allāh ibn Thunayan (Arab leader)

    Saudi Arabia: Second Sa?ūdī state: …and in 1841 his cousin, ?Abd Allāh ibn Thunayān, raised the standard of revolt. Riyadh was captured by a bold coup; its garrison was expelled; and Khālid, who was in Al-Hasa at the time, fled by ship to Jiddah. ?Abd Allāh resisted when Fay?al reappeared in 1843, only to be…

  • ?Abd Allāh ibn Yasīn (Islamic scholar)

    Islamic world: The ?anhājah confederation: …from Nafis (in present-day Libya), ?Abd Allāh ibn Yāsīn, who would instruct the Imazighen in Islam as teachers under ?Umar I had instructed the Arab fighters in the first Muslim garrisons. Having met with little initial success, the two are said to have retired to a ribā?, a fortified place…

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