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  • Agenda 21 (international agreement)

    Earth Council Alliance: …to implementing the principles of Agenda 21, the Earth Council from 1992 to 1998 organized more than 80 national councils for sustainable development. In the early 21st century, Strong and American philanthropist Tommy Short created the Earth Council Alliance to facilitate the work of the national councils and of allied…

  • Agenda-Setting Function of Mass Media, The (article by McCombs)

    Maxwell McCombs: …resulted from that study, “The Agenda-Setting Function of Mass Media,” appeared in Public Opinion Quarterly in 1972 and is perhaps the most-cited article in the field of mass communication research. Since then there have been hundreds of studies of agenda setting, many of which were described in McCombs’s book,…

  • agenesis (pathology)

    Agenesis, in human physiology, failure of all or part of an organ to develop during embryonic growth. Many forms of agenesis are consistently lethal, as when the entire brain is absent (anencephaly), but agenesis of one of a paired organ may create little disruption of normal function. Agenesis of

  • Agenois (historical region, France)

    Agenais, former province of France, of which Agen was the centre and to which the modern département of Lot-et-Garonne nearly corresponds. In ancient Gaul, Agenais was the country of the Nitiobriges, then a Gallo-Roman civitas, whose limits became those of the diocese of Agen. Having in general

  • agent (computer science)

    Agent, a computer program that performs various actions continuously and autonomously on behalf of an individual or an organization. For example, an agent may archive various computer files or retrieve electronic messages on a regular schedule. Such simple tasks barely begin to tap the potential

  • agent (law)

    Agency, in law, the relationship that exists when one person or party (the principal) engages another (the agent) to act for him—e.g., to do his work, to sell his goods, to manage his business. The law of agency thus governs the legal relationship in which the agent deals with a third party on

  • Agent 007 (fictional character)

    James Bond, British literary and film character, a peerless spy, notorious womanizer, and masculine icon. James Bond, designated Agent 007 (always articulated as “double-oh-seven”) in the British Secret Intelligence Service, or MI6, was the creation of British novelist Ian Fleming, who introduced

  • agent middleman (business)

    marketing: Brokers and agents: Unlike merchant wholesalers, agent middlemen do not take legal ownership of the goods they sell; nor do they generally take physical possession of them. The three principal types of agent middlemen are manufacturers’ agents, selling agents, and purchasing agents. Manufacturers’ agents, who represent two or more manufacturers’ complementary…

  • Agent Orange (defoliant)

    Agent Orange, mixture of herbicides that U.S. military forces sprayed in Vietnam from 1962 to 1971 during the Vietnam War for the dual purpose of defoliating forest areas that might conceal Viet Cong and North Vietnamese forces and destroying crops that might feed the enemy. The defoliant, sprayed

  • agent provocateur (espionage)

    Russia: The revolution of 1905–06: …it only by infiltrating their agents into the revolutionary parties and particularly into the terrorist detachments of these parties. This use of double agents (or agents provocateurs, as they were often known) did much to demoralize both the revolutionaries and the police and to undermine the reputation of both with…

  • Agent Running in the Field (novel by le Carré)

    John le Carré: Agent Running in the Field (2019) is an espionage tale set in 2018, and it incorporates such topical events as “Brexit” (the British withdrawal from the European Union).

  • Agent W (poison)

    Ricin, toxic protein (toxalbumin) occurring in the beanlike seeds of the castor-oil plant (Ricinus communis). Ricin, discovered in 1888 by German scientist Peter Hermann Stillmark, is one of the most toxic substances known. It is of special concern because of its potential use as a biological

  • agent, intelligence (intelligence)

    intelligence: Levels of intelligence: …to prevent spies or other agents of a foreign power from penetrating the country’s government, armed services, or intelligence agencies. Counterintelligence also is concerned with protecting advanced technology, deterring terrorism, and combating international narcotics trafficking. Counterintelligence operations sometimes produce positive intelligence, including information about the intelligence-gathering tools and techniques of…

  • agent-causation theory (philosophy)

    problem of moral responsibility: Libertarianism: …libertarian accounts were the so-called “agent-causation” theories. First proposed by the American philosopher Roderick Chisholm (1916–99) in his seminal paper “Human Freedom and the Self” (1964), these theories hold that free actions are caused by the agent himself rather than by some prior event or state of affairs. Although Chisholm’s…

  • Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. (American television series)

    Lucy Lawless: …roles on such shows as Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. and Salem. In 2019 Lawless was cast as a brassy ex-cop in the series My Life Is Murder.

  • Agenzia Nazionale Stampa Associata (Italian news agency)

    news agency: A few, like the Agenzia Nazionale Stampa Associata of Italy, have expanded coverage abroad in a limited degree to supplement their domestic service but still depend on Reuters and Agence France-Presse for much of their foreign news. Germany since 1949 has built Deutsche-Presse Agentur into one of the more…

  • Ageo (Japan)

    Ageo, city, Saitama ken (prefecture), east-central Honshu, Japan. It lies on the terrace between the Ara River (west) and the Ayase River (east). Ageo was a former post town between Tokyo and Maebashi that was connected to Tokyo (25 miles [40 km] southeast) in 1883. It remained the market centre of

  • Ager Bruttius (region, Italy)

    Calabria, regione, southern Italy, composed of the province of Catanzaro, Cosenza, Crotone, Reggio di Calabria, and Vibo Valentia. Sometimes referred to as the “toe” of the Italian “boot,” Calabria is a peninsula of irregular shape, jutting out in a northeast-southwest direction from the main body

  • ager Campanus (Roman law)

    ancient Rome: Demographic and economic developments: Most of the ager Campanus and part of the Tarentines’ lands—perhaps two million acres in total—became Roman ager publicus (public land), subject to rent. Some of this property remained in the hands of local peoples, but large tracts in excess of the 500-iugera limit were occupied by wealthy…

  • ager publicus (Roman law)

    ancient Rome: Demographic and economic developments: …million acres in total—became Roman ager publicus (public land), subject to rent. Some of this property remained in the hands of local peoples, but large tracts in excess of the 500-iugera limit were occupied by wealthy Romans, who were legally possessores (i.e., in possession of the land, although not its…

  • Ager, Shana (American journalist and author)

    Shana Alexander, (Shana Ager), American journalist and author (born Oct. 6, 1925, New York, N.Y.—died June 23, 2005, Hermosa Beach, Calif.), battled conservative columnist James Kilpatrick in “Point-Counterpoint,” a political debate segment featured during the 1970s on the television program 60 M

  • Ageratina altissima (plant)

    White snakeroot, (Ageratina altissima), poisonous North American herb of the aster family (Asteraceae). White snakeroot contains a toxic alcohol (tremetol), and cattle allowed to pasture on the plant may suffer muscular tremors (the “trembles”), weakness, constipation, and death. Persons who drink

  • Ageratum (plant)

    Ageratum, (genus Ageratum), any of about 40 species of herbs in the genus Ageratum (family Asteraceae). Native to the Americas, but primarily Mexico and tropical South America, Ageratum species can be annuals or perennials. They have toothed ovate leaves arranged oppositely along the stem. Similar

  • ageratum (plant)

    Ageratum, (genus Ageratum), any of about 40 species of herbs in the genus Ageratum (family Asteraceae). Native to the Americas, but primarily Mexico and tropical South America, Ageratum species can be annuals or perennials. They have toothed ovate leaves arranged oppositely along the stem. Similar

  • Ageratum houstonianum (plant)

    ageratum: The common garden ageratum (A. houstonianum), also known as floss flower and blue mink, is frequently cultivated as an ornamental annual. Several dwarf varieties are commonly used as edging plants.

  • Ager?d (Sweden)

    Sweden: Earliest settlements: Finds from the peat at Ager?d in Sk?ne dated to 6500 bce reveal a typical food-gathering culture with tools of flint and primitive hunting and fishing equipment, such as the bow and arrow and the fishing spear. New tribes, practicing agriculture and cattle raising, made their appearance about 2500 bce,…

  • Ageronia (insect genus)

    lepidopteran: Protection against danger: Ageronia butterflies, when startled into flight, make a loud clicking sound by means of a structure on the wings. These sounds may have a startling and therefore delaying effect on a predator.

  • Ages of the World, The (work by Schelling)

    Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von Schelling: Period of the later, unpublished philosophy.: …Die Weltalter (written in 1811; The Ages of the World) and through the manuscripts of his later lectures. In Die Weltalter Schelling wanted to relate the history of God. God, who originally is absorbed in a quiet longing, comes to himself by glimpsing in himself ideas through which he becomes…

  • Agesander (Greek sculptor)

    Agesander, Greek sculptor who is credited by the 1st-century-ce Roman writer Pliny as the creator, with Polydorus and Athenodorus, of the group Laoco?n and His Sons. Nothing further is known of him except that inscriptions found at Lindus in Rhodes indicate that he was alive between 42 and 21

  • Agesander of Rhodes (Greek sculptor)

    Agesander, Greek sculptor who is credited by the 1st-century-ce Roman writer Pliny as the creator, with Polydorus and Athenodorus, of the group Laoco?n and His Sons. Nothing further is known of him except that inscriptions found at Lindus in Rhodes indicate that he was alive between 42 and 21

  • Agesilaus (regent of Sparta)

    Agis IV: …their property; by his uncle Agesilaus; and by Lysander, who was an ephor (magistrate with the duty of limiting the power of the king) in 243. When the rich, led by the other king, Leonidas II, defeated these proposals, Leonidas was deposed. The ephors of 242 tried to restore him…

  • Agesilaus II (king of Sparta)

    Agesilaus II, king of Sparta from 399 to 360 who commanded the Spartan army throughout most of the period of Spartan supremacy (404–371) in Greece. An excellent military tactician, he is usually cited as the embodiment of the aggressive Spartan spirit that sought to further Spartan interests at the

  • Agew (ancient people)

    Agau, an ancient people who settled in the northern and central Ethiopian Plateau and are associated with the development of agriculture and animal husbandry in the area. The term Agau also refers to any of several contemporaneous groups that are either culturally similar or linked by a Cushitic

  • Agfa-Gevaert NV (German-Belgian corporation)

    Agfa-Gevaert NV, Belgian corporate group established in 1964 in the merger of Agfa AG of Leverkusen, West Germany, and Gevaert Photo-Producten NV of Mortsel, Belgium. The merger established twin operating companies, one German (Agfa-Gevaert AG) and one Belgian (Gevaert-Agfa NV, which in 1971 became

  • Agfacolor (photography)

    motion-picture technology: Introduction of colour: In 1936 Germany produced Agfacolor, a single-strip, three-layer negative film and accompanying print stock. After World War II Agfacolor appeared as Sovcolor in the Eastern bloc and as Anscocolor in the United States, where it was initially used for amateur filmmaking. The first serious rival to Technicolor was the…

  • Agga (king of Kish)

    Enmebaragesi: His son, Agga, was the last king of the dynasty, owing to his defeat by Gilgamesh, according to the Sumerian epic Gilgamesh and Agga of Kish.

  • Aggada (non-legal literature)

    Haggada, in Judaism, those parts of rabbinical, or Talmudic, literature that do not deal directly with the laws incumbent upon Jews in the conduct of their daily life. The contents of Haggada can be broken down into several classes: (1) interpretations and expositions of Biblical stories and

  • Aggadot (non-legal literature)

    Haggada, in Judaism, those parts of rabbinical, or Talmudic, literature that do not deal directly with the laws incumbent upon Jews in the conduct of their daily life. The contents of Haggada can be broken down into several classes: (1) interpretations and expositions of Biblical stories and

  • Agganna Sutta (Buddhist text)

    Buddhism: Mythic figures in the Three Worlds cosmology: …creation myth, found in the Agganna-sutta, certain brahma deities whose abode was above the destruction begin—as the waters that are left from the old cataclysm start to coagulate below them—to savour the taste of the matter that constitutes these lower strata. As the strata take form, these brahma deities gradually…

  • Aggarsel Nepte (Tunisia)

    Nefta, oasis town situated in southwestern Tunisia. It lies on the northwest shore of Chott El-Jarid (Sha?? Al-Jarīd), a saline lake that is an important source of phosphates. It was known to the Romans as Aggarsel Nepte. Nefta has many small mosques and is an important Sufi centre, where shrines

  • Aggeus (Hebrew author)

    Book of Zechariah: A contemporary of the prophet Haggai in the early years of the Persian period, Zechariah shared Haggai’s concern that the Temple of Jerusalem be rebuilt. Unlike Haggai, however, Zechariah thought that the rebuilding of the Temple was the necessary prelude to the eschatological age, the arrival of which was imminent.…

  • Aggeus, The Prophecy of (biblical literature)

    The Book of Haggai, the 10th of 12 Old Testament books that bear the names of the Minor Prophets. Haggai (fl. 6th century bc) helped mobilize the Jewish community for the rebuilding of the Temple of Jerusalem (516 bc) after the Babylonian Exile and prophesied the glorious future of the messianic

  • agglomerate (rock)

    Agglomerate, large, coarse, rock fragments associated with lava flow that are ejected during explosive volcanic eruptions. Although they closely resemble sedimentary conglomerates, agglomerates are pyroclastic igneous rocks that consist almost wholly of angular or rounded lava fragments of varying

  • agglomeration (metallurgy)

    iron processing: Crushing: Fines, however, must first be agglomerated, which means reforming them into lumps of suitable size by a process called sintering.

  • agglomeration (food processing)

    dairy product: Spray dryers: Therefore, a process called agglomeration was developed to “instantize” the powder, or make it more soluble. This process involves rewetting the fine, spray-dried powder with water to approximately 8 to 15 percent moisture and following up with a second drying cycle. The powder is now granular and dissolves very…

  • agglutinate (geology)

    Agglutinate, pyroclastic igneous rock formed from partly fused volcanic bombs. See bomb

  • agglutination (grammar)

    Agglutination, a grammatical process in which words are composed of a sequence of morphemes (meaningful word elements), each of which represents not more than a single grammatical category. This term is traditionally employed in the typological classification of languages. Turkish, Finnish, and

  • agglutination (physiology)

    blood group: The importance of antigens and antibodies: …antibodies usually results in clumping—agglutination—of the red cells; therefore, antigens on the surfaces of these red cells are often referred to as agglutinogens.

  • agglutination test (medicine)

    blood group: Identification of blood groups: … of blood groups is the agglutination test. Agglutination of red cells results from antibody cross-linkages established when different specific combining sites of one antibody react with antigen on two different red cells. By mixing red cells (antigen) and serum (antibody), either the type of antigen or the type of antibody…

  • agglutinin (biochemistry)

    Agglutinin, substance that causes particles to congeal in a group or mass, particularly a typical antibody that occurs in the blood serums of immunized and normal human beings and animals. When an agglutinin is added to a uniform suspension of particles (such as bacteria, protozoa, or red cells)

  • agglutinogen (medicine)

    blood group: The importance of antigens and antibodies: …are often referred to as agglutinogens.

  • aggregate (Buddhism)

    Skandha, (Sanskrit: “aggregates”) according to Buddhist thought, the five elements that sum up the whole of an individual’s mental and physical existence. The self (or soul) cannot be identified with any one of the parts, nor is it the total of the parts. They are: (1) matter, or body (rūpa), the

  • aggregate (building material)

    Aggregate, in building and construction, material used for mixing with cement, bitumen, lime, gypsum, or other adhesive to form concrete or mortar. The aggregate gives volume, stability, resistance to wear or erosion, and other desired physical properties to the finished product. Commonly used

  • aggregate consumption (economics)

    consumption: Macroeconomists are interested in aggregate consumption for two distinct reasons. First, aggregate consumption determines aggregate saving, because saving is defined as the portion of income that is not consumed. Because aggregate saving feeds through the financial system to create the national supply of capital, it follows that aggregate consumption…

  • aggregate debt ceiling (economics)

    debt ceiling: …in 1917 and its first aggregate debt ceiling, $45 billion, in 1939. During most of the period since the early 1960s, federal budget deficits have steadily increased, requiring more than 70 adjustments in the ceiling to continue financing government operations and to avoid default on the national debt. Some critics…

  • aggregate demand (economics)

    Great Depression: Causes of the decline: …spending (sometimes referred to as aggregate demand), which led to a decline in production as manufacturers and merchandisers noticed an unintended rise in inventories. The sources of the contraction in spending in the United States varied over the course of the Depression, but they cumulated in a monumental decline in…

  • aggregate fruit (botany)

    fruit: Types of fruits: …parts are succulent tissue, (2) aggregate fruits, such as blackberries and strawberries, which form from a single flower with many pistils, each of which develops into fruitlets, and (3) multiple fruits, such as pineapples and mulberries, which develop from the mature ovaries of an entire inflorescence. Dry fruits include the…

  • aggregated nodule (anatomy)

    Peyer patch, any of the nodules of lymphatic cells that aggregate to form bundles or patches and occur usually only in the lowest portion (ileum) of the small intestine; they are named for the 17th-century Swiss anatomist Hans Conrad Peyer. Peyer patches are round or oval and are located in the

  • aggregation (population distribution)

    colony: A colony differs from an aggregation, which is a group whose members have no interaction. Small, functionally specialized, attached organisms called polyps in cnidarians and zooids in bryozoans form colonies and may be modified for capturing prey, feeding, or reproduction. Colonies of social insects (e.g., ants, bees) usually include castes…

  • aggregation (cosmology)

    hydrosphere: Origin and evolution of the hydrosphere: Earth is thought to have accreted from a cloud of particles around the Sun. This gaseous matter condensed into small particles that coalesced to form a protoplanet, which in turn grew by the gravitational attraction of more particulates. Some of these particles had compositions similar to that of carbonaceous chondrite…

  • aggregation pheromone

    hydrocarbon: Sources and occurrence: The so-called aggregation pheromone whereby Blaberus craniifer cockroaches attract others of the same species is a 1:1 mixture of the volatile but relatively high-boiling liquid alkanes undecane, CH3(CH2)9CH3, and tetradecane, CH3(CH2)12CH3. Hentriacontane, CH3(CH2)29CH3, is a solid

  • aggression (psychology)

    Aggressive behaviour, animal behaviour that involves actual or potential harm to another animal. Biologists commonly distinguish between two types of aggressive behaviour: predatory or antipredatory aggression, in which animals prey upon or defend themselves from other animals of different species,

  • aggression (international law)

    Aggression, in international relations, an act or policy of expansion carried out by one state at the expense of another by means of an unprovoked military attack. For purposes of reparation or punishment after hostilities, aggression has been defined in international law as any use of armed force

  • aggressive behaviour (psychology)

    Aggressive behaviour, animal behaviour that involves actual or potential harm to another animal. Biologists commonly distinguish between two types of aggressive behaviour: predatory or antipredatory aggression, in which animals prey upon or defend themselves from other animals of different species,

  • aggressive mimicry (biology)

    Aggressive mimicry, a form of similarity in which a predator or parasite gains an advantage by its resemblance to a third party. This model may be the prey (or host) species itself, or it may be a species that the prey does not regard as threatening. An example in which the prey itself serves as

  • aggressive roller-skating (sport)

    roller-skating: Roller sports: These sports, sometimes called aggressive roller-skating, include street style, which involves riding through urban environments and performing tricks off stairs, rails, and other structures, and vertical style, which involves aerial acrobatics performed off ramps or in a half-pipe (a U-shaped skating structure).

  • aggressiveness (psychology)

    Aggressive behaviour, animal behaviour that involves actual or potential harm to another animal. Biologists commonly distinguish between two types of aggressive behaviour: predatory or antipredatory aggression, in which animals prey upon or defend themselves from other animals of different species,

  • Aggtelek Caves (caves, Hungary and Slovakia)

    Aggtelek Caves, limestone cave system on the Hungarian-Slovakian border, about 30 miles (50 km) northwest of Miskolc, Hungary, and 40 miles (65 km) southwest of Ko?ice, Slovakia. It is the largest stalactite cave system in Europe, and its stalactite and stalagmite formations are spectacular. The

  • agha (Turkish class)

    Aga, in Turkey, person of high rank or social position, especially during the era of the Ottoman Empire. Combined with the names of military units or administrative departments, it formed the official titles borne by the chief officers of the Janissaries and of the cavalry, by the principal m

  • āghā Khān (Muslim title)

    Aga Khan, in Shī?ite Islam, title of the imams of the Nizārī Ismā?ilī sect. The title was first granted in 1818 to ?asan ?Alī Shah (1800–81) by the shah of Iran. As Aga Khan I, he later revolted against Iran (1838) and, defeated, fled to India. His eldest son, ?Alī Shah (died 1885), was briefly Aga

  • āghā Mīrak (Persian painter)

    āqā Mīrak, Persian painter, an admired portraitist and an excellent colourist, who painted in a sumptuous style. A descendant of the Prophet Mu?ammad and a native of E?fahān, he worked mostly in Tabrīz, the capital of the ?afavid empire. He knew the Persian painter Behzād, who was director of the r

  • āghā Mo?ammad Khān (shah of Iran)

    āghā Mo?ammad Khān, founder and first ruler of the Qājār dynasty of Iran. Following the disintegration of the ?afavid empire in 1722, Qājār tribal chieftains became prominent in Iranian affairs. At the age of six āghā Mo?ammad was castrated on the orders of ?ādil Shāh to prevent him from becoming a

  • Aghajari, Hashem (Iranian academic)

    Iran: Second presidential term of Mohammad Khatami: continued intervention: In November 2002 Hashem Aghajari, a prominent reform-minded academic, was sentenced to death by a court in western Iran following a speech he made in support of religious reform, sparking the largest student protests since those of 1999. Aghajari’s death sentence was subsequently reduced, reinstated, and reduced again…

  • Agheila (Libya)

    World War II: Egypt and Cyrenaica, 1940–summer 1941: …down the coast road to Agheila (al-?Uqaylah). Thereupon he boldly ordered the 7th Armoured Division to cross the desert hinterland and intercept the Italian retreat by cutting the coast road well to the east of Agheila. On February 5, after an advance of 170 miles in 33 hours, the British…

  • Aghion, Gaby (Egyptian-born French fashion designer)

    Gaby Aghion, (Gabrielle Hanoka), Egyptian-born French fashion designer (born March 3, 1921, Alexandria, Egypt—died Sept. 27, 2014, Paris, France), founded (1952) the fashion label Chloé, which introduced ready-to-wear designs to the high fashion world of 1950s Paris. She was the label’s head

  • Aghlab, Banu al- (North African dynasty)

    Aghlabid dynasty, Arab Muslim dynasty that ruled Ifrīqīyah (Tunisia and eastern Algeria) from ad 800 to 909. The Aghlabids were nominally subject to the ?Abbāsid caliphs of Baghdad but were in fact independent. Their capital city was Kairouan (al-Qayrawān), in Tunisia. The most interesting of the

  • Aghlabid dynasty (North African dynasty)

    Aghlabid dynasty, Arab Muslim dynasty that ruled Ifrīqīyah (Tunisia and eastern Algeria) from ad 800 to 909. The Aghlabids were nominally subject to the ?Abbāsid caliphs of Baghdad but were in fact independent. Their capital city was Kairouan (al-Qayrawān), in Tunisia. The most interesting of the

  • Aghora (Hindu deity)

    Hinduism: Shaivism: …of the Vedic Varuna; as Aghora (“To Whom Nothing Is Horrible”), he showed the uncanny traits of his nature (evil, death, punishment) and also their opposites.

  • Aghrim, Godard van Feede, Baron of (Dutch soldier)

    Godard van Reede, 1st earl of Athlone, Dutch soldier in English service who completed the conquest of Ireland for King William III of England (William of Orange, stadtholder of the United Provinces) against the forces of the deposed king James II after the Glorious Revolution (1688–89). Van Reede’s

  • Aghstev (river, Armenia)

    Armenia: Drainage: …Kura—the Debed (109 miles), the Aghstev (80 miles), and others—pass through Armenia’s northeastern regions. Lake Sevan, with a capacity in excess of 9 cubic miles (39 cubic kilometres) of water, is fed by dozens of rivers, but only the Hrazdan leaves its confines.

  • Agi-ga-u-e (Native American leader)

    Nancy Ward, Native American leader who was an important intermediary in relations between early American settlers and her own Cherokee people. Born in a Cherokee village on the Little Tennessee River, Nanye’hi was the daughter of a Cherokee mother of the Wolf clan and a Delaware father. In 1775 she

  • Agikuyu (people)

    Kikuyu, Bantu-speaking people who live in the highland area of south-central Kenya, near Mount Kenya. In the late 20th century the Kikuyu numbered more than 4,400,000 and formed the largest ethnic group in Kenya, approximately 20 percent of the total population. Their own name for themselves is

  • agile mangabey (primate)

    mangabey: …Central and East Africa: the agile mangabey (C. agilis), a slender monkey that has a small whorl of hair on the front of the crown and lives in Congo (Kinshasa) north of the Congo River westward into Gabon; the golden-bellied mangabey (C. chrysogaster), which lacks a whorl and has a…

  • agile manufacturing (manufacturing method)

    aerospace industry: Lean manufacturing: Consistent with improving the economics of aerospace vehicles is the transition to a new paradigm for the entire industry, from concept development to operations. This approach involves all processes pertaining to the acquisition, design, development, and manufacturing of a product or system and…

  • Agilolfing (people)

    Germany: Merovingian Germany: …particularly true of the Bavarian Agilolfings, who were closely related to the Lombard royal family of Italy and who by the 8th century enjoyed virtual royal status. In the north the Frisians and Saxons remained independent of Frankish control into the 8th century, preserving their own political and social structures…

  • Agilulf (king of the Lombards)

    Italy: Lombards and Byzantines: …under Authari (584–590) and then Agilulf (590–616), nearly as many Lombard leaders seem to have been fighting with the Byzantines as against them. In 584, in the face of Frankish invasions from beyond the Alps, the Lombard dukes met and elected Authari king, ceding him considerable lands; in the process,…

  • Agin Buryat (former okrug, Russia)

    Agin Buryat, former autonomous okrug (district), southeastern Russia; in 2008 it merged with Chita oblast (region) to form Zabaykalye kray (territory). The Agin Buryat area is situated along the left bank of the lower Onon River, a headstream of the Amur. The district was formed in 1937 for an

  • Agincourt Carol (poem)

    English literature: Political verse: …though a piece like the Agincourt Carol shows that it was already possible to strike the characteristically English note of insular patriotism soon after 1415. Of particular interest is the Libel of English Policy (c. 1436) on another typically English theme of a related kind: “Cherish merchandise, keep the admiralty,…

  • Agincourt, Battle of (European history)

    Battle of Agincourt, (October 25, 1415), decisive battle in the Hundred Years’ War (1337–1453) that resulted in the victory of the English over the French. The English army, led by King Henry V, famously achieved victory in spite of the numerical superiority of its opponent. The battle repeated

  • aging (metallurgy)

    metallurgy: Increasing strength: …precipitate throughout the sample by aging at an elevated temperature that is well below the temperature used for the initial dissolution.

  • aging (beverage production)

    brandy: Aging in wooden containers deepens colour to amber, the use of paraffin-lined casks or earthenware maintains the original clear colour, and the addition of a caramel solution darkens colour. Beverage brandy contains about 50 percent alcohol by volume; brandy used to fortify sherry, Madeira, and…

  • aging (life process)

    Aging, progressive physiological changes in an organism that lead to senescence, or a decline of biological functions and of the organism’s ability to adapt to metabolic stress. Aging takes place in a cell, an organ, or the total organism with the passage of time. It is a process that goes on over

  • Aging in Western Societies (work by Burgess)

    Ernest Watson Burgess: …also studied the elderly, editing Aging in Western Societies (1960), a work that considered the effects of retirement and the efficacy of government programs for the aged. One of Burgess’s most important works was Introduction to the Science of Sociology (1921; with Robert Park), a textbook that became a classic…

  • Aginnum (France)

    Agen, town, capital of Lot-et-Garonne département, Aquitaine-Limousin-Poitou région, southwestern France. It lies along the Garonne River at the foot of Ermitage Hill (530 feet [162 metres]), northwest of Toulouse. Mentioned by Julius Caesar as Aginnum, capital of the Nitiobriges people, it was

  • Aginskoje (Russia)

    Aginskoye, village, southern Zabaykalye kray (territory), southern Siberia, Russia. It is situated in the Aga River valley. Aginskoye was the former administrative centre of Agin-Buryat autonomous okrug (district). In 2008 Agin-Buryat merged with Chita oblast (region) to form Zabaykalye kray. The

  • Aginskoye (Russia)

    Aginskoye, village, southern Zabaykalye kray (territory), southern Siberia, Russia. It is situated in the Aga River valley. Aginskoye was the former administrative centre of Agin-Buryat autonomous okrug (district). In 2008 Agin-Buryat merged with Chita oblast (region) to form Zabaykalye kray. The

  • Agíou Orous, Gulf of (gulf, Greece)

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