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  • Agaie (Nigeria)

    Agaie, town and traditional emirate, Niger state, west-central Nigeria. The town lies at the intersection of roads from Bida, Baro, Tagagi, Lapai, and Ebba. Originally inhabited by the Dibo (Ganagana, Zitako), a people associated with the Nupe, it fell under the sway of Malam Baba, a Fulani

  • Against All Odds (film by Hackfor [1984])

    Jeff Bridges: …for a female fugitive in Against All Odds (1984). In 1989 he appeared with his brother, Beau Bridges, and Michelle Pfeiffer in The Fabulous Baker Boys (1989), a drama about two musicians who expand their failing lounge act to include a sexy female singer.

  • Against Apion (work by Josephus)

    Flavius Josephus: Josephus as historian.: …known as Contra Apionem (Against Apion, though the earlier titles Concerning the Antiquity of the Jews and Against the Greeks are more apposite). Of its two books, the first answers various anti-Semitic charges leveled at the Jews by Hellenistic writers, while the second provides an argument for the ethical…

  • Against Celsus (treatise by Origen)

    Christianity: Apologetics: defending the faith: …in the eight books of Against Celsus, a treatise written by Origen around 246–248 to answer the still troublesome work of a Platonist and critic of Christianity dating from about 70 years earlier and claiming to speak “the word of truth” (alêthês logos). Celsus was quite well informed about the…

  • Against Eratosthenes (speech by Lysias)

    Lysias: …and most famous speech, “Against Eratosthenes,” denouncing one of the Thirty Tyrants for his part in the reign of terror that followed the collapse of Athens in 404. Another of his orations (“Agoratus”) is the best source for Athenian laws on adultery.

  • Against Eunomius (work by Basil the Great)

    St. Basil the Great: Works and legacy: Against Eunomius defends the deity of the Son against an extreme Arian thinker, and On the Holy Spirit expounds the deity of the Holy Spirit implied in the church’s tradition, though not previously formally defined. Basil is most characteristically revealed in his letters, of which…

  • Against Heresies (work by Irenaeus)

    Christianity: Aversion of heresy: the establishment of orthodoxy: Bishop Irenaeus of Lyon, in Against Heresies, ranked Marcion with the “gnostics” because at least one facet of Marcion’s error was his depreciation of the material creation. The gnostics invented complex cosmogonies in order to remove the true God from responsibility for the evils of matter, release from which was…

  • Against Nature (work by Huysmans)

    Against the Grain, novel by Joris-Karl Huysmans, published in French as à rebours in 1884. It was also translated into English as Against Nature. In both its style and its subject, the work epitomizes the decadence of late 19th-century French elite culture. The protagonist, Des Esseintes, exhibits

  • Against the Academics (work by Augustine)

    skepticism: Medieval skepticism: Augustine’s Contra academicos. Augustine, before his conversion from paganism to Christianity, had found Cicero’s views attractive. But having overcome them through revelation, he characterized his subsequent philosophy as faith seeking understanding. Augustine’s account of skepticism and his answer to it provided the basis of medieval discussions.

  • Against the Christians (work by Porphyry)

    Porphyry: Surviving fragments of his Against the Christians, which was condemned in 448 to be burned, marked him as a fierce critic of the new religion. He was also lecturer on Plotinus and tutor to the Syrian philosopher Iamblichus, wrote a life of the mathematician Pythagoras, and preserved precious fragments…

  • Against the Christians (work by Fronto)

    Marcus Cornelius Fronto: …most famous lost speech is Against the Christians, which was answered in Minucius Felix’s Octavius.

  • Against the Day (novel by Pynchon)

    Thomas Pynchon: …Dixon as his subject, and Against the Day (2006) moves from the World’s Columbian Exposition of 1893 through World War I. Inherent Vice (2009; film 2014), Pynchon’s rambling take on the detective novel, returns to the California counterculture milieu of Vineland. Bleeding Edge (2013) chronicles the efforts of a fraud…

  • Against the Execrable Bull of the AntiChrist (work by Luther)

    Martin Luther: Excommunication: …belligerently in a tract titled Against the Execrable Bull of the Antichrist. Upon the expiration of the 60-day period stipulated in the bull, on December 10, 1520, Luther cancelled his classes, marched to a bonfire started by his students outside one of the city gates, and threw a copy of…

  • Against the Geography of Eratosthenes (work by Hipparchus)

    Hipparchus: Lover of truth: Apparently his commentary Against the Geography of Eratosthenes was similarly unforgiving of loose and inconsistent reasoning. Ptolemy characterized him as a “lover of truth” (philalēthēs)—a trait that was more amiably manifested in Hipparchus’s readiness to revise his own beliefs in the light of new evidence. He communicated with…

  • Against the Grain (work by Huysmans)

    Against the Grain, novel by Joris-Karl Huysmans, published in French as à rebours in 1884. It was also translated into English as Against Nature. In both its style and its subject, the work epitomizes the decadence of late 19th-century French elite culture. The protagonist, Des Esseintes, exhibits

  • Against the Heathen (work by Athanasius)

    St. Athanasius: Other works: Athanasius’s two-part work of apologetics, Against the Heathen and The Incarnation of the Word of God, completed about 335, was the first great classic of developed Greek Orthodox theology. In Athanasius’s system, the Son of God, the eternal Word through whom God made the world, entered the world in human…

  • Against the Heresies (work by Irenaeus)

    Christianity: Aversion of heresy: the establishment of orthodoxy: Bishop Irenaeus of Lyon, in Against Heresies, ranked Marcion with the “gnostics” because at least one facet of Marcion’s error was his depreciation of the material creation. The gnostics invented complex cosmogonies in order to remove the true God from responsibility for the evils of matter, release from which was…

  • Against the House (film by Karlson [1955])

    Phil Karlson: Film noirs: Even better was 5 Against the House (1955), a skillfully made heist picture (based on a novel by Jack Finney) about college students who try to rob a Reno nightclub. Karlson completed 1955, arguably his finest year for films, with The Phenix City Story, a two-fisted exposé of corruption…

  • Against the Murderous and Robbing Hordes of the Peasants (work by Luther)

    Martin Luther: Controversies after the Diet of Worms: …sympathy for the peasants, and Against the Murderous and Robbing Hordes of the Peasants, which vehemently denounced them. Both works represented a shift away from his earlier vision of reform as encompassing societal as well as religious issues. It is likely that they helped to alienate the peasants from Luther’s…

  • Against the Odds (book by Dyson)

    Sir James Dyson: In 1997 he published Against the Odds (cowritten with Giles Coren), an autobiographical account of his persistence in the face of discouragement. The following year he was made a Commander of the Order of the British Empire. In 2002 the James Dyson Foundation was established with the aim of…

  • Agaja (king of Dahomey)

    Agaja, third ruler of the West African kingdom of Dahomey (1708–40), who was able to extend his kingdom southward to the coast and who consolidated and centralized it through important administrative reforms. The first part of Agaja’s reign was by far the more successful. From 1708 to 1727 he

  • agal (cord)

    dress: The Middle East from the 6th century: …on the head by the agal (igal, egal), a corded band decorated with beads or metallic threads.

  • Agalega Islands (islands, Indian Ocean)

    Agalega Islands, two-island dependency of Mauritius, in the western Indian Ocean. It consists of North Island and South Island. They lie about 600 miles (1,000 km) north of Mauritius and have a total land area of 27 square miles (70 square km). Copra and coconut oil are produced and exported, and

  • Agallamh na Seanórach (Irish literature)

    The Interrogation of the Old Men, in Irish literature, the preeminent tale of the Old Irish Fenian cycle of heroic tales. The “old men” are the Fenian poets Oisín (Ossian) and Caoilte, who, having survived the destruction of their comrades at the Battle of Gabhra, return to Ireland from the

  • Agalliana ensigera (insect)

    curly top: …and in South America by Agalliana ensigera, which overwinter on wild plant hosts and in the spring migrate to sugar beet fields, their preferred hosts. The disease may be avoided by planting a thick stand as early as possible or when suggested for the area to avoid spring migrations of…

  • Agalychnis calcarifer (amphibian)

    Anura: Coloration: …South and Central American hylid Agalychnis calcarifer, when observed sleeping by day, is nothing more than a green bump on a leaf. The eyes are closed, the hind limbs drawn in close to the body, and the hands folded beneath the chin. Upon moving, the frog creates a striking appearance,…

  • Agam, Yaacov (Israeli sculptor)

    Yaacov Agam, pioneer and leading exponent of optical and kinetic art, best known for his three-dimensional paintings and sculptures. Agam was the son of a Russian rabbi. He grew up in an early Jewish settlement and did not begin his formal schooling until age 13. Having learned to draw at an early

  • Agama (lizard)

    Agama, (genus Agama), any of about 30 species of lizards belonging to the family Agamidae (suborder Sauria). They are rather unspecialized lizards about 30 to 45 cm (12 to 18 inches) long exhibiting little development of crests or dewlaps. They inhabit rocky desert areas throughout Africa,

  • Agama (Hindu literature)

    Agama, (Sanskrit: “tradition” or “received knowledge”) post-Vedic scripture conveying ritual knowledge and considered to have been revealed by a personal divinity. Shaivite scriptures, dating probably to the 8th century, are particularly so designated, in contrast to the Vaishnava Samhitas and the

  • āgama (Hindu literature)

    Agama, (Sanskrit: “tradition” or “received knowledge”) post-Vedic scripture conveying ritual knowledge and considered to have been revealed by a personal divinity. Shaivite scriptures, dating probably to the 8th century, are particularly so designated, in contrast to the Vaishnava Samhitas and the

  • agama (lizard)

    Agama, (genus Agama), any of about 30 species of lizards belonging to the family Agamidae (suborder Sauria). They are rather unspecialized lizards about 30 to 45 cm (12 to 18 inches) long exhibiting little development of crests or dewlaps. They inhabit rocky desert areas throughout Africa,

  • Agama agama (lizard)

    agama: Agama agama, a common gray lizard with a red or yellow head, is well adapted to gardens and to the bush and grasslands. The hardun (A. stellio), which is common in northern Egypt, has a tail ringed with spiked scales, giving it a ferocious appearance.

  • Agama stellio (lizard)

    agama: The hardun (A. stellio), which is common in northern Egypt, has a tail ringed with spiked scales, giving it a ferocious appearance.

  • Agamanusarino Vijnanavadinah (Buddhist school)

    Yogachara: …divided into two branches, the Agamanusarino Vijnanavadinah (“Vijnanavada School of the Scriptural Tradition”) and the Nyayanusarino Vijnanavadinah (“Vijnanavada School of the Logical Tradition”), the latter subschool postulating the views of the logician Dignaga (c. 480–540 ce) and his successor, Dharmakirti (c. 600–660 ce).

  • Agamassan (chemistry)

    Nils Dalén: …in 1909 and then invented Agamassan, a substance that absorbs acetylene, making it possible to concentrate the gas with no danger of explosion. He was blinded by an explosion during an experiment in 1913, but he continued experimental work until his death.

  • Agamemnon (Greek mythology)

    Agamemnon, in Greek legend, king of Mycenae or Argos. He was the son (or grandson) of Atreus, king of Mycenae, and his wife A?rope and was the brother of Menelaus. After Atreus was murdered by his nephew Aegisthus (son of Thyestes), Agamemnon and Menelaus took refuge with Tyndareus, king of Sparta,

  • Agamemnon (opera by Milhaud)

    Darius Milhaud: …translations of the Aeschylean tragedies Agamemnon (1913), Choéphores (1915), and Les Euménides (1917–22). Whips and hammers are introduced into the orchestration of this trilogy, a work of great dramatic force, in which the chorus is required to groan, whistle, and shriek. His other operas include Christophe Colomb (1930; text by…

  • Agamemnon (play by Aeschylus)

    Oresteia: The first play, Agamemnon, portrays the victorious return of that king from the Trojan War and his murder by his wife, Clytemnestra, and her lover, Aegisthus. At the play’s end Clytemnestra and her lover rule árgos. The work has extraordinary, sustained dramatic and poetic power. Particularly notable are…

  • Agamemnon, Tomb of (archaeological site, Mycenae, Greece)

    Treasury of Atreus, a beehive, or tholos, tomb built about 1350 to 1250 bc at Mycenae, Greece. This surviving architectural structure of the Mycenaean civilization is a pointed dome built up of overhanging (i.e., corbeled) blocks of conglomerate masonry cut and polished to give the impression of a

  • Agamenticus (Maine, United States)

    York, town, York county, southwestern Maine, U.S., situated at the mouth of the York River on the Atlantic Ocean, 43 miles (69 km) southwest of Portland. York includes the communities of York Village, Cape Neddick, York Beach, and York Harbor. Settled in 1624 on a site called Agamenticus by Captain

  • Agamidae (lizard family)

    Agamidae, (order Squamata), lizard family composed of about 350 species in about 50 genera. Agamids typically have scaly bodies, well-developed legs, and a moderately long tail; average body size ranges from 10 to 15 cm (4 to 6 inches), and the tail is 20 to 30 cm (8 to 12 inches) long, though the

  • agammaglobulinemia (medicine)

    gamma globulin: …supply of it—conditions called, respectively, agammaglobulinemia and hypogammaglobulinemia—have frequently recurring infections because of their inability to develop adequate immunity to infectious diseases. See also antibody.

  • Agana (Guam)

    Hag?t?a, town, capital of the unincorporated U.S. territory of Guam, northern Pacific Ocean. It is situated on the west coast of the island, on a beach surrounding Hag?t?a Bay at the mouth of the small Hag?t?a River. The name of the town was formally changed from Agana to its Chamorro-language form

  • Agang SA (political party, South Africa)

    Agang SA, South African political party founded in 2013 by Mamphela Ramphele, a noted activist, physician, educator, and businesswoman. One of the earliest stated goals of Agang SA (agang is the Sotho word for “build,” and SA refers to South Africa) was to tackle government corruption, which, it

  • aganglionic megacolon (pathology)

    megacolon: …syndrome are congenital megacolon, or Hirschsprung disease, and acquired megacolon. In congenital megacolon, the lowermost portion of the large intestine is congenitally lacking in normal nerve fibres; thus, peristalsis, or involuntary contractions, of the muscles of this part of the intestine cannot occur, and the bowel’s contents are not pushed…

  • A?ao?lu, Adalet (Turkish writer)

    Turkish literature: Modern Turkish literature: …novelist born in the 1920s, Adalet A?ao?lu, portrayed life from a more personal and introverted perspective than Kemal. She was one of the generation that suffered from the repression after the military coup d’état in 1971, and she based some of her fiction on these experiences. Her novels deal with…

  • Agaonidae (insect)

    Fig wasp, (family Agaonidae), any of about 900 species of tiny wasps responsible for pollinating the world’s 900 species of figs (see Ficus). Each species of wasp pollinates only one species of fig, and each fig species has its own wasp species to pollinate it. This extraordinary diversity of

  • Agapanthus africanus (plant)

    African lily, (Agapanthus africanus), perennial herbaceous plant of the amaryllis family (Amaryllidaceae), native to Africa. African lilies are common ornamentals in warm climates, grown for their large spherical flower clusters. The flowers are funnel-shaped and typically blue, purple, or white in

  • agāpe (Christian concept)

    Charity, in Christian thought, the highest form of love, signifying the reciprocal love between God and man that is made manifest in unselfish love of one’s fellow men. St. Paul’s classical description of charity is found in the New Testament (I Cor. 13). In Christian theology and ethics, charity

  • agape (Christian feast)

    Agape, in the New Testament, the fatherly love of God for humans, as well as the human reciprocal love for God. In Scripture, the transcendent agape love is the highest form of love and is contrasted with eros, or erotic love, and philia, or brotherly love. In John 3:16, a verse that is often

  • Agapē Agape (work by Gaddis)

    William Gaddis: Gaddis’s last work of fiction, Agapē Agape, a rambling first-person narrative of a dying man obsessed with the history of the player piano, was published posthumously in 2002, as was the collection The Rush for Second Place: Essays and Occasional Writings.

  • Agapetus I, Saint (pope)

    Saint Agapetus I, ; feast days April 22, September 20), pope from 535 to 536. Of noble birth, he was an archdeacon at the time of his election (May 13, 535). At the urging of the Ostrogothic king Theodahad, he headed an unsuccessful mission to Constantinople to deter the emperor Justinian I from

  • Agapitus II (pope)

    Agapitus II, pope from 946 to 955. Elected on May 10, 946, with the support of Alberic II, he was a wise and pious administrator who endeavoured to restore ecclesiastical discipline. The chief events of his pontificate included the spread of Christianity in Denmark, the settlement of the dispute

  • Agapornis (bird)

    Lovebird, any of nine species of small parrots, genus Agapornis (subfamily Psittacinae), of Africa and Madagascar. Lovebirds are noted for pretty colours and the seemingly affectionate proximity of pairs. (That one will die grieving if bereft of its mate is unproved.) The nine species are 10 to 16

  • Agapornis personata (bird)

    lovebird: The black-masked lovebird, A. personata (see photograph), of Tanzania is green with a blackish brown head and a yellow band across the breast and hindneck; a common mutation in captivity is blue and whitish. The largest species is the rosy-faced lovebird, A. roseicollis, of Angola to…

  • Agapornis roseicollis (bird)

    lovebird: The largest species is the rosy-faced lovebird, A. roseicollis, of Angola to South Africa.

  • Agar (biblical figure)

    Hagar, in the Old Testament (Gen. 16:1–16; 21:8–21), Abraham’s concubine and the mother of his son Ishmael. Purchased in Egypt, she served as a maid to Abraham’s childless wife, Sarah, who gave her to Abraham to conceive an heir. When Hagar became pregnant, her meek manner changed to arrogance; w

  • agar (seaweed product)

    Agar, gelatin-like product made primarily from the red algae Gelidium and Gracilaria (division Rhodophyta). Best known as a solidifying component of bacteriological culture media, it is also used in canning meat, fish, and poultry; in cosmetics, medicines, and dentistry; as a clarifying agent in

  • Agar (novel by Memmi)

    Albert Memmi: Subsequent novels included Agar (1955), which deals with the problem of mixed marriage; Le Scorpion (1969), an intricately structured tale of psychological introspection; and Le Désert (1977), in which violence and injustice are seen as age-old responses to the pain and uncertainty of the human condition.

  • Agar, Eileen (British artist)

    Eileen Agar, British artist known for her Surrealist paintings, collages, and objects. She was one of few women to be included in the noted International Surrealist Exhibition of 1936. Agar was born in Argentina to a Scottish father and an American mother. Her family settled in London when she was

  • Agar, Eileen Forrester (British artist)

    Eileen Agar, British artist known for her Surrealist paintings, collages, and objects. She was one of few women to be included in the noted International Surrealist Exhibition of 1936. Agar was born in Argentina to a Scottish father and an American mother. Her family settled in London when she was

  • Agar, John (American actor)

    John Agar, American actor (born Jan. 31, 1921, Chicago, Ill.—died April 7, 2002, Burbank, Calif.), first achieved fame when he married (1945) Shirley Temple but then became an actor and appeared with her in two films. After they divorced in 1949, he continued working in movies, at first appearing e

  • agar-agar (seaweed product)

    Agar, gelatin-like product made primarily from the red algae Gelidium and Gracilaria (division Rhodophyta). Best known as a solidifying component of bacteriological culture media, it is also used in canning meat, fish, and poultry; in cosmetics, medicines, and dentistry; as a clarifying agent in

  • Agaricaceae (family of fungi)

    Agaricales: Agaricaceae: The best known family, Agaricaceae, contains fungi with mushroom fruiting bodies as well as many of the puffballs formerly placed in the family Lycoperdaceae. The taxonomy of the group has undergone heavy revision and contains about 85 genera and 1,340 species. The genus

  • Agaricales (order of fungi)

    Agaricales, order of fungi in the class Agaricomycetes (phylum Basidiomycota, kingdom Fungi). One of the most diverse orders of the phylum Basidiomycota, Agaricales contains about 30 families, about 350 genera, and some 10,000 species. Traditionally, agarics were classified based on the presence of

  • Agaricomycetes (class of fungi)

    fungus: Annotated classification: Class Agaricomycetes Parasitic, pathogenic, symbiotic, or saprotrophic; most are terrestrial, with few aquatic members; all are mushroom-forming; parenthesomes imperforate or perforate (spore cap has openings); includes subclasses Agaricomycetidae and Phallomycetidae; contains 17 orders. Order Agaricales Most are saprotrophic, some are

  • Agaricomycotina (subphylum of fungi)

    fungus: Annotated classification: Subphylum Agaricomycotina Parasitic or symbiotic on plants, animals, and other fungi, some are saprotrophic or mycorrhizal; basidia may be undivided or have transverse or longitudinal septa; dolipore (inflated) septa and septal pore cap (parenthesomes) present; includes mushrooms, bracket fungi, puffballs; contains 3 classes. Class Tremellomycetes

  • Agaricostilbales (order of fungi)

    fungus: Annotated classification: Order Agaricostilbales Mostly saprotrophic; fruiting body is septate, with uniform hyphae; some have slender basidiospores, which may germinate by budding and may be solitary or clustered; example genera include Agaricostilbum and Chionosphaera. Order Spiculogloeales Parasitic or saprotrophic; spinulose to granulose auricularoid basidia;

  • Agaricostilbomycetes (class of fungi)

    fungus: Annotated classification: Class Agaricostilbomycetes Parasitic or saprotrophic; simple-septate basidiomycetes; contains 2 orders. Order Agaricostilbales Mostly saprotrophic; fruiting body is septate, with uniform hyphae; some have slender basidiospores, which may germinate by budding and may be solitary or clustered; example genera include Agaricostilbum and Chionosphaera.

  • Agaricus (genus of fungi)

    Agaricales: Agaricaceae: The genus Agaricus, with more than 200 species, has several prominent members, including the edible meadow or field mushroom (A. campestris) and the cultivated white button mushroom (A. bisporus).

  • Agaricus bisporus (fungus)

    mushroom: A very closely related species, A. bisporus, is the mushroom grown commercially and seen in markets.

  • Agaricus brunescens (fungus)
  • Agaricus campestris

    mushroom: …of fields and meadows (Agaricus campestris). A very closely related species, A. bisporus, is the mushroom grown commercially and seen in markets.

  • Agariste (ancient Greek noble)

    Pericles: Background and education: His Alcmaeonid mother, Agariste, provided him with relationships of sharply diminishing political value and her family curse, a religious defilement that was occasionally used against him by his enemies. A few days before Pericles’ birth, according to the Greek historian Herodotus, Agariste dreamed she bore a lion. The…

  • Agarkar, Gopal Ganesh (Indian educator)

    India: The first partition of Bengal: …“Indian Jesuits”—Vishnu Krishna Chiplunkar (1850–82), Gopal Ganesh Agarkar (1856–95), Tilak, and Gokhale—who were pioneers in the founding of indigenous educational institutions in the Deccan in the 1880s. The movement for national education spread throughout Bengal, as well as to Varanasi (Banaras), where Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya (1861–1946) founded his private…

  • Agartala (India)

    Agartala, city, capital of Tripura state, northeastern India. It is situated near the Bangladesh border astride the Haroa River amid numerous villages in an intensively cultivated plain. Agartala is the commercial centre of the region. It is home to the Ujjayanta Palace, the meeting place of the

  • Agartala Plains (plains, India)

    Tripura Plains, plains in southwestern Tripura state, northeastern India. The Tripura Plains, extending over about 1,600 square miles (4,150 square km), are located on a section of the greater Ganges-Brahmaputra lowlands (also called the Eastern Plains), west of the Tripura Hills. They are dotted

  • Agarwal, Anil Kumar (Indian journalist and scholar)

    Anil Kumar Agarwal, Indian journalist and scholar best known for his work as one of the country’s most prominent and respected environmental activists. He was the founder and director of the Centre for Science and Environment (CSE), the leading environmental nongovernmental organization (NGO) in

  • Agarwālā (Indian caste)

    Agarwālā, important mercantile caste in India, belonging to that group of merchants, bankers, landowners, and shopkeepers that are called Bania in northern and western India. According to caste tradition, its members are descended from a nāga, or snake goddess; hence, they do not molest snakes,

  • Agasias (Ephesian sculptor)

    Agasias, sculptor of Ephesus, known for his Borghese Warrior, a statue of a warrior on foot in combat with a warrior on horseback. Agasias is known to have been the son of one Dositheus, but otherwise the only record of him derives from the inscription on the pedestal of the statue. The approximate

  • Agassi, Andre (American tennis player)

    Andre Agassi, American professional tennis player who won eight Grand Slam titles as well as the “career Grand Slam” for winning each of the four major tennis tournaments—Wimbledon, the Australian Open, the French Open, and the U.S. Open—at least once. By age 2 he could serve a tennis ball on a

  • Agassi, Andre Kirk (American tennis player)

    Andre Agassi, American professional tennis player who won eight Grand Slam titles as well as the “career Grand Slam” for winning each of the four major tennis tournaments—Wimbledon, the Australian Open, the French Open, and the U.S. Open—at least once. By age 2 he could serve a tennis ball on a

  • Agassi, Shai (Israeli entrepreneur)

    Shai Agassi, Israeli entrepreneur who, after founding a number of technology companies, became known for Better Place, which sought to establish an infrastructure for electric automobiles. Agassi graduated (1990) from Technion (Israel Institute of Technology) with a degree in computer science. In

  • Agassiz Peak (mountain, Arizona, United States)

    San Francisco Peaks: three summits— Humphreys, Agassiz, and Fremont peaks—on the rim of an eroded extinct volcano 10 miles (16 km) north of Flagstaff on the Colorado Plateau in north-central Arizona, U.S. Humphreys Peak (12,633 feet [3,851 metres]) is the state’s highest point, and from it places more than 150 miles…

  • Agassiz, Alexander Emmanuel Rodolphe (Swiss scientist)

    Alexander Agassiz, marine zoologist, oceanographer, and mining engineer who made important contributions to systematic zoology, to the knowledge of ocean beds, and to the development of a major copper mine. Son of the Swiss naturalist Louis Agassiz, he joined his father in 1849 in the U.S., where

  • Agassiz, Elizabeth Cabot (American educator and naturalist)

    Elizabeth Cabot Agassiz, American naturalist and educator who was the first president of Radcliffe College, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Elizabeth Cary was related to many of Boston’s leading families. She received no formal schooling but acquired a somewhat haphazard education at home. In April 1850

  • Agassiz, Jean Louis Rodolphe (Swiss-American scientist and educator)

    Louis Agassiz, Swiss-born American naturalist, geologist, and teacher who made revolutionary contributions to the study of natural science with landmark work on glacier activity and extinct fishes. He achieved lasting fame through his innovative teaching methods, which altered the character of

  • Agassiz, Lake (ancient lake, North America)

    Lake Agassiz, largest of the ice-margin lakes that once covered what are now parts of Manitoba, Ontario, and Saskatchewan in Canada and North Dakota and Minnesota in the United States. It was present in the Pleistocene Epoch (approximately 2.6 million to 11,700 years ago) during the last two phases

  • Agassiz, Louis (Swiss-American scientist and educator)

    Louis Agassiz, Swiss-born American naturalist, geologist, and teacher who made revolutionary contributions to the study of natural science with landmark work on glacier activity and extinct fishes. He achieved lasting fame through his innovative teaching methods, which altered the character of

  • Agastya (Hindu sage)

    Hinduism: Narratives of culture heroes: Agastya, revered as the Brahman who brought Sanskrit-speaking civilization to South India, drank and digested the ocean. When the Vindhya mountain range would not stop growing, Agastya crossed it to the south and commanded it to cease growing until his return; he still has not…

  • agate (mineral)

    Agate, common semiprecious silica mineral, a variety of chalcedony that occurs in bands of varying colour and transparency. Agate is essentially quartz, and its physical properties are in general those of that mineral. See silica mineral (table). Agate is found throughout the world. In the United

  • Agate Fossil Beds National Monument (monument, Nebraska, United States)

    Agate Fossil Beds National Monument, natural “depository” of an extinct animal community on the Niobrara River in northwestern Nebraska, U.S., 40 miles (64 km) north of Scottsbluff. The beds were laid down as sedimentary deposits about 20 million years ago (Miocene Epoch) and bear the remains of

  • Agate, James (British author)

    James Agate, English drama critic for the London Sunday Times (1923–47), book reviewer for the Daily Express, novelist, essayist, diarist, and raconteur. He is remembered for his wit and perverse yet lovable personality, the sparkle and fundamental seriousness of his dramatic criticism, and his

  • Agate, James Evershed (British author)

    James Agate, English drama critic for the London Sunday Times (1923–47), book reviewer for the Daily Express, novelist, essayist, diarist, and raconteur. He is remembered for his wit and perverse yet lovable personality, the sparkle and fundamental seriousness of his dramatic criticism, and his

  • agateware (pottery)

    Agateware, in pottery, 18th-century ware of varicoloured clay, with an overall marbled effect. It was sometimes called solid agate to distinguish it from ware with surface marbling. Agateware was probably introduced about 1730 by Dr. Thomas Wedgwood of Rowley’s Pottery, Burslem, Staffordshire,

  • Agatha Moudio’s Son (novel by Bebey)

    Francis Bebey: …Le Fils d’Agatha Moudio (Agatha Moudio’s Son, 1971), was published in 1967. Critics found the work a carefully constructed masterpiece of burlesque, and it won the Grand Prix Littéraire de l’Afrique Noire. The following year Embarras et Cie: nouvelles et poèmes (nine short stories, each accompanied by a poem)…

  • Agatha, Saint (Sicilian martyr)

    St. Agatha, ; feast day February 5), legendary Christian saint and virgin martyr. She is the patron saint of breast cancer patients and of various localities in Italy and elsewhere. St. Agatha is cited in the martyrology of St. Jerome, the Calendar of Carthage (c. 530), and other works. Although

  • Agathias (Byzantine historian and poet)

    Agathias, Byzantine historian and poet of part of Justinian I’s reign. After studying law at Alexandria, he completed his training at Constantinople and practiced in the courts as an advocate. He wrote a number of short love poems in epic metre, called Daphniaca, and compiled an anthology of

  • Agathis (plant genus)

    Agathis, the genus of the dammar pines, 13 species of pinelike plants of the family Araucariaceae. Agathis species range from the Philippines to Australia and New Zealand. Elsewhere some are grown as ornamental plants in warm areas or in greenhouses. Several species yield hard resins or gums

  • Agathis australis (plant)

    Kauri pine, (Agathis australis), a resinous timber conifer of the family Araucariaceae, native to the North Island of New Zealand. The tree sometimes reaches 45 metres (150 feet) in height, with a diameter up to 7 m (23 ft). Kauri resin, obtained from this and other Agathis species, is an a

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