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  • affixation (grammar)

    Affix, a grammatical element that is combined with a word, stem, or phrase to produce derived or inflected forms. There are three main types of affixes: prefixes, infixes, and suffixes. A prefix occurs at the beginning of a word or stem (sub-mit, pre-determine, un-willing); a suffix at the end

  • Affleck, Ben (American actor, writer, and director)

    Ben Affleck, American actor and filmmaker who played leading roles in action, drama, and comedy films but who was perhaps more renowned for his work as a screenwriter, director, and producer. Affleck grew up in Cambridge, Massachusetts, where he formed a lasting friendship with his neighbour Matt

  • Affleck, Casey (American actor and director)

    Casey Affleck, American actor who gained respect for his ability to convey internal conflict. His performance as Lee Chandler, a surly and emotionally shut-down handyman who after the death of his brother is named guardian of his teenage nephew, in Manchester by the Sea (2016), earned him critical

  • Affleck, Thomas (American cabinetmaker)

    Thomas Affleck, American cabinetmaker considered to be outstanding among the Philadelphia craftsmen working in the Chippendale style during the 18th century. Affleck is especially noted for the elaborately carved forms produced by his shop. Probably trained in England, Affleck settled in

  • Affleck-Boldt, Benjamin Geza (American actor, writer, and director)

    Ben Affleck, American actor and filmmaker who played leading roles in action, drama, and comedy films but who was perhaps more renowned for his work as a screenwriter, director, and producer. Affleck grew up in Cambridge, Massachusetts, where he formed a lasting friendship with his neighbour Matt

  • Affleck-Boldt, Caleb Casey McGuire (American actor and director)

    Casey Affleck, American actor who gained respect for his ability to convey internal conflict. His performance as Lee Chandler, a surly and emotionally shut-down handyman who after the death of his brother is named guardian of his teenage nephew, in Manchester by the Sea (2016), earned him critical

  • Affliction (novel by Banks)

    Russell Banks: His subsequent novels included Affliction (1989; film 1997), The Sweet Hereafter (1991; film 1997), and Rule of the Bone (1995). The last of these, with its clear-sighted 14-year-old protagonist, is reminiscent of J.D. Salinger’s The Catcher in the Rye. In 1998 Banks published Cloudsplitter

  • affliction (religion)

    Christianity: The problem of suffering: The starting point for the Christian understanding of suffering is the messianic self-understanding of Jesus himself. A temptation to power and self-exaltation lay in the late Jewish promise of the coming of the Messiah–Son of man. The Gospel According to Matthew described the temptation…

  • Affliction (film by Schrader [1997])

    Russell Banks: …subsequent novels included Affliction (1989; film 1997), The Sweet Hereafter (1991; film 1997), and Rule of the Bone (1995). The last of these, with its clear-sighted 14-year-old protagonist, is reminiscent of J.D. Salinger’s The Catcher in the Rye. In 1998 Banks published Cloudsplitter, the fictional response of

  • Affluent Society, The (work by Galbraith)

    John Kenneth Galbraith: …critique of the wealth gap, The Affluent Society (1958), Galbraith faulted the “conventional wisdom” of American economic policies and called for less spending on consumer goods and more spending on government programs. In The New Industrial State (1967) he envisioned a growing similarity between “managerial” capitalism and socialism and called…

  • Affollé Anticline (geological formation, Africa)

    Mauritania: Relief: …the Hodh Depression, with the Affollé Anticline (a fold in which the rock strata incline downward on both sides from a central axis) lying in its centre. The third zone is formed by the Senegalese-Mauritanian sedimentary basin, which includes coastal Mauritania and the lower Sénégal River valley of the southwest.

  • Affordable Care Act (United States [2010])

    Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA), in the United States, health care reform legislation signed into law by U.S. Pres. Barack Obama in March 2010, which included provisions that required most individuals to secure health insurance or pay fines, made coverage easier and less costly

  • Affordable Care Act cases (law cases)

    Affordable Care Act cases, set of three legal cases—Florida et al. v. Department of Health and Human Services et al.; National Federation of Independent Business et al. v. Kathleen Sebelius, Secretary of Health and Human Services, et al.; and Department of Health and Human Services et al. v.

  • affordable housing

    Low-income housing, housing for individuals or families with low incomes. Although housing has been recognized as a human right under a number of international conventions, access to housing for low-income people is often problematic. Various state, private, and nonprofit-sector initiatives have

  • affordance (psychological theory)

    James J. Gibson: …highly influential theory of “affordances,” which are qualities of an object or environment that communicate opportunities to do certain things (e.g., dark shade indicates an opportunity to get out of the sunshine; a thick cushion signals the availability of comfortable seating). According to Gibson, affordances exist naturally and are…

  • afforestation (botany)

    carbon sequestration: Carbon sequestration and climate change mitigation: Such activities could include afforestation (conversion of nonforested land to forest), reforestation (conversion of previously forested land to forest), improved forestry or agricultural practices, and revegetation. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), improved agricultural practices and forest-related mitigation activities can make a significant contribution to the…

  • affranchi (Haitian social class)

    Haiti: Plantations and slaves: …century—32,000 European colonists, and 24,000 affranchis (free mulattoes [people of mixed African and European descent] or blacks). Haitian society was deeply fragmented by skin colour, class, and gender. The “white” population comprised grands blancs (elite merchants and landowners, often of royal lineage), petits blancs (overseers, craftsmen, and the like), and…

  • affray (law)

    Affray, fighting in public in a way that endangers or alarms others. Actual violence is not necessary for the offense to occur, however, and an affray may be committed even when an individual brandishes a weapon so as to cause terror to the public. Abusive and threatening words alone will not

  • Affre, Denis-Auguste (archbishop of Paris)

    Denis-Auguste Affre, prelate, archbishop of Paris, and opponent of King Louis-Philippe, remembered for his brave attempt to end the June 1848 riots, in which he was accidentally slain. Affre was ordained a priest in 1818 and became a Sulpician and a teacher of theology in 1819. He successively

  • affreightment (international law)

    Affreightment, contract for carriage of goods by water, “freight” being the price paid for the service of carriage. Such contracts are of immense importance to the world economy, forming the legal structure of the arterial traffic of the oceans. Essentially, such a contract is an agreement between

  • affricate (phonetics)

    Affricate, a consonant sound that begins as a stop (sound with complete obstruction of the breath stream) and concludes with a fricative (sound with incomplete closure and a sound of friction). Examples of affricates are the ch sound in English chair, which may be represented phonetically as a t

  • Afghan (people)

    Pashtun, Pashto-speaking people residing primarily in the region that lies between the Hindu Kush in northeastern Afghanistan and the northern stretch of the Indus River in Pakistan. They constitute the majority of the population of Afghanistan and bore the exclusive name of Afghan before that name

  • Afghan carpet

    Afghan carpet, thick, heavy floor covering handwoven by Turkmen craftsmen in Afghanistan and adjacent parts of Uzbekistan. While most of the weavers could be broadly labeled Ersari Turkmen, rugs are also woven by Chub Bash, K?z?l Ayaks, and other small groups. The carpets are mostly of medium size,

  • Afghan hound (breed of dog)

    Afghan hound, breed of dog developed as a hunter in the hill country of Afghanistan. It was once thought to have originated several thousand years ago in Egypt, but there is no evidence for this theory. It was brought to Europe in the late 19th century by British soldiers returning from the

  • Afghan interlude (Iranian history)

    Afghan interlude, (1722–30), period in Iranian history that began with the Afghan conquest of Iran and ended with the defeat and death of the Afghan ruler Ashraf. In 1722 Ma?mūd, an Afghan notable and former vassal of the ?afavids, attacked and captured E?fahān, the ?afavid capital in Iran. The

  • Afghan Kohistan (region, Afghanistan)

    Kohistan: Afghan Kohistan (Kuhestan), in part highly cultivated, lies north-northeast of Kabul and extends to the Hindu Kush (mountains).

  • Afghan Kuhestan (region, Afghanistan)

    Kohistan: Afghan Kohistan (Kuhestan), in part highly cultivated, lies north-northeast of Kabul and extends to the Hindu Kush (mountains).

  • Afghan language

    Pashto language, member of the Iranian division of the Indo-Iranian group of Indo-European languages. Extensive borrowing has caused Pashto to share many features of the Indo-Aryan group of the Indo-European languages as well. Originally spoken by the Pashtun people, Pashto became the national

  • Afghan Revolutionary Council (government body, Afghanistan)

    Afghanistan: Constitutional framework: …of Afghanistan, governed by the Afghan Revolutionary Council. Political turmoil continued, marked by a third coup in September 1979, a massive invasion of troops from the Soviet Union, and the installation of a socialist government in December 1979. Another new constitution—promulgated in 1987 and revised in 1990—changed the name of…

  • Afghan War (1978–1992)

    Afghan War, in the history of Afghanistan, the internal conflict that began in 1978 between anticommunist Islamic guerrillas and the Afghan communist government (aided in 1979–89 by Soviet troops), leading to the overthrow of the government in 1992. More broadly, the term also encompasses military

  • Afghan Wars (British-Afghani history)

    Anglo-Afghan Wars, three conflicts (1839–42; 1878–80; 1919) in which Great Britain, from its base in India, sought to extend its control over neighbouring Afghanistan and to oppose Russian influence there. Following a protracted civil war that began in 1816, the Bārakzay clan became the ruling

  • Afghānī, Jamāl al-Dīn, al- (Muslim journalist and politician)

    Jamāl al-Dīn al-Afghānī, Muslim politician, political agitator, and journalist whose belief in the potency of a revived Islamic civilization in the face of European domination significantly influenced the development of Muslim thought in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Very little is known about

  • Afghanistan

    Afghanistan, landlocked multiethnic country located in the heart of south-central Asia. Lying along important trade routes connecting southern and eastern Asia to Europe and the Middle East, Afghanistan has long been a prize sought by empire builders, and for millennia great armies have attempted

  • Afghanistan War (2001–2014)

    Afghanistan War, international conflict in Afghanistan beginning in 2001 that was triggered by the September 11 attacks and consisted of three phases. The first phase—toppling the Taliban (the ultraconservative political and religious faction that ruled Afghanistan and provided sanctuary for

  • Afghanistan, Bank of (central bank, Afghanistan)

    Afghanistan: Finance: …bank in the country, the Bank of Afghanistan, became the centre of the formal banking system. It formerly played an important role in determining and implementing the country’s financial policies. Traditionally, private money traders provide nearly all the services of a commercial bank. The currency, the afghani, underwent rampant inflation…

  • Afghanistan, flag of

    vertically striped black-red-green national flag with a central coat of arms. Its width-to-length ratio is 1 to 2.Since the early 20th century, Afghanistan has had numerous national flags. In 1928 Amānollāh Khan, having just returned from a trip to Europe, was determined to introduce modern

  • Afghanistan, history of

    Afghanistan: History: Variations of the word Afghan may be as old as a 3rd-century-ce Sāsānian reference to “Abgan.” The earliest Muslim reference to the Afghans probably dates to 982, but tribes related to the modern Afghans have lived in the region for many generations. For millennia…

  • Afghanistan, Republic of

    Afghanistan, landlocked multiethnic country located in the heart of south-central Asia. Lying along important trade routes connecting southern and eastern Asia to Europe and the Middle East, Afghanistan has long been a prize sought by empire builders, and for millennia great armies have attempted

  • AFI (American arts organization)

    Gregory Peck: …the trustee board of the American Film Institute (which he cofounded), and for three years he was president of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences.

  • afibrinogenemia (pathology)

    blood disease: Afibrinogenemia: Afibrinogenemia, or hypofibrinogenemia, refers to a reduction in the amount of the clotting factor fibrinogen in the blood. This is seen in rare instances as an inherited disorder, but more commonly it is found as part of the syndrome of disseminated intravascular coagulation (see…

  • afin (African palace)

    Ile-Ife: …of modern Ile-Ife is the afin (“palace”) of the present ooni, the spiritual head of the Yoruba people, who has custody of the sacred staff of Oranmiyan (Oranyan), an 18-foot (5.5-metre) granite monolith in the shape of an elephant’s tusk. The palace compound is also the site of the Ife…

  • AFIS

    dactyloscopy: …countries use such systems, called automated fingerprint identification systems (AFIS), to search rapidly through millions of digitized fingerprint records. Fingerprints recognized by AFIS are examined by a fingerprint analyst before a positive identification or match is made.

  • AFISMA (United Nations military deployment)

    Mali: 2012 coup and warfare in the north: …UN-backed force, known as the African-led International Support Mission in Mali (AFISMA), was not expected to occur until well into 2013.

  • AFL (American football organization)

    gridiron football: Ascendance of the NFL: …rival in 1960, when the American Football League (AFL), backed by Texas billionaire Lamar Hunt, fielded teams in eight cities, three of them in direct competition with NFL franchises. A television contract with NBC gave the AFL a financial security none of its predecessors had had, and the NFL and…

  • AFL (labour organization)

    American Federation of Labor–Congress of Industrial Organizations: …by the merger of the AFL (founded 1886), which originally organized workers in craft unions, and the CIO (founded 1935), which organized workers by industries.

  • AFL (Australian rules football organization)

    Australian rules football: Rise of the Victorian Football League: The depression of 1893–95 caused attendance at games to decline, and the VFA proposed a revenue-sharing scheme to assist struggling clubs. Leading clubs, which wanted more control over the game, opposed the scheme. In 1896 those eight leading clubs—Melbourne, Essendon, Geelong, Collingwood,…

  • AFL Grand Final (Australian rules football)

    Australian rules football: Football and its fans: …league’s championship, known as the Grand Final, began in 1898 and starting in 1904 was held at the Melbourne Cricket Ground (MCG). It became, after the Melbourne Cup horse race, the most significant sporting and cultural event on Victoria’s annual calendar. The league’s popularity continued to rise, particularly with the…

  • AFL-CIO (labour organization)

    American Federation of Labor–Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO), American federation of autonomous labour unions formed in 1955 by the merger of the AFL (founded 1886), which originally organized workers in craft unions, and the CIO (founded 1935), which organized workers by industries.

  • AFL–NFL World Championship Game (American football)

    Super Bowl, in U.S. professional gridiron football, the championship game of the National Football League (NFL), played by the winners of the league’s American Football Conference and National Football Conference each January or February. The game is hosted by a different city each year. The game

  • aflāj (water channel)

    Oman: Plant and animal life: …channels known as aflāj (singular: falaj). The channels often run underground and originate in wells near mountain bases. The aflāj collectively were designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 2006.

  • Aflak, Michel (Syrian political leader)

    Michel ?Aflaq, social and political leader who played a major role in the Arab nationalist movement during and after World War II. ?Aflaq first saw nationalism as centring upon the issue of imperialism; he especially resented the French, who after World War I (1914–18) held a mandate over Syria and

  • ?Aflaq, Michel (Syrian political leader)

    Michel ?Aflaq, social and political leader who played a major role in the Arab nationalist movement during and after World War II. ?Aflaq first saw nationalism as centring upon the issue of imperialism; he especially resented the French, who after World War I (1914–18) held a mandate over Syria and

  • aflatoxin (chemical compound)

    Aflatoxin, Complex of toxins formed by molds of the genus Aspergillus, which frequently contaminate improperly stored nuts (especially peanuts), grains, meals, and certain other foods. Discovered after an outbreak of “turkey X disease” in England in 1960, aflatoxins may cause liver disease and

  • AFM (labour organization)

    disc jockey: …and Publishers (ASCAP) and the American Federation of Musicians. At issue was the declining demand for live appearances of artists because of the popularity of disc jockeys and recorded music. In 1944 the disputes were settled, and wartime controls on vinylite and shellac, the materials from which phonograph records were…

  • AFN (Canadian organization)

    Canada: Indian affairs: …National Indian Brotherhood (now the Assembly of First Nations), while Métis and nonstatus Indians were represented by the Native Council of Canada. These and other organizations advocated policies including aboriginal rights (recognized in the Constitution Act [Canada Act] of 1982), improved education, and economic development. In 1983 a government report…

  • Afonso Henriques (king of Portugal)

    Afonso I, the first king of Portugal (1139–85), who conquered Santarém and Lisbon from the Muslims (1147) and secured Portuguese independence from Leon (1139). Alfonso VI, emperor of Leon, had granted the county of Portugal to Afonso’s father, Henry of Burgundy, who successfully defended it against

  • Afonso I (king of Portugal)

    Afonso I, the first king of Portugal (1139–85), who conquered Santarém and Lisbon from the Muslims (1147) and secured Portuguese independence from Leon (1139). Alfonso VI, emperor of Leon, had granted the county of Portugal to Afonso’s father, Henry of Burgundy, who successfully defended it against

  • Afonso I (king of Kongo kingdom)

    Afonso I, ruler of Kongo (historical kingdom in west-central Africa) and the first of a line of Portuguese vassal kings that lasted until the early 20th century. He is sometimes called “The Apostle of Kongo” for his role in making Kongo a Christian kingdom. Nothing is known of his early life; most

  • Afonso I Mvemba a Nzinga (king of Kongo kingdom)

    Afonso I, ruler of Kongo (historical kingdom in west-central Africa) and the first of a line of Portuguese vassal kings that lasted until the early 20th century. He is sometimes called “The Apostle of Kongo” for his role in making Kongo a Christian kingdom. Nothing is known of his early life; most

  • Afonso II (king of Portugal)

    Afonso II, the third king of Portugal (1211–23), under whom the reconquest of the south from the Muslims was continued. Afonso II was the son of King Sancho I and Queen Dulcia, daughter of Ramón Berenguer IV of Barcelona. His obesity seems to have been caused by illness in his youth, and he was u

  • Afonso III (king of Portugal)

    Afonso III, fifth king of Portugal (1248–79), who supplanted his brother, King Sancho II, and completed the reconquest of the Algarve from the Muslims. The younger son of Afonso II and Urraeca, daughter of Alfonso VIII of Castile, Afonso emigrated and became, by marriage, count of Boulogne. His

  • Afonso IV (king of Portugal)

    Afonso IV, seventh king of Portugal (1325–57). Afonso IV was the son of King Dinis and of Isabella, daughter of Peter II of Aragon. Afonso resented his father’s generosity toward two illegitimate sons and in 1320 demanded to be given power, remaining in open revolt until May 1322. His mother r

  • Afonso o Africano (king of Portugal)

    Afonso V, 10th king of Portugal (1438–81), known as the African from his campaigns in Morocco. The son of King Edward (Duarte) and Queen Leonor, daughter of King Ferdinand I of Aragon, Afonso succeeded to the throne at the age of six. In 1440 his mother was deprived of the regency by his uncle P

  • Afonso o Bravo (king of Portugal)

    Afonso IV, seventh king of Portugal (1325–57). Afonso IV was the son of King Dinis and of Isabella, daughter of Peter II of Aragon. Afonso resented his father’s generosity toward two illegitimate sons and in 1320 demanded to be given power, remaining in open revolt until May 1322. His mother r

  • Afonso o Conquistador (king of Portugal)

    Afonso I, the first king of Portugal (1139–85), who conquered Santarém and Lisbon from the Muslims (1147) and secured Portuguese independence from Leon (1139). Alfonso VI, emperor of Leon, had granted the county of Portugal to Afonso’s father, Henry of Burgundy, who successfully defended it against

  • Afonso o Gordo (king of Portugal)

    Afonso II, the third king of Portugal (1211–23), under whom the reconquest of the south from the Muslims was continued. Afonso II was the son of King Sancho I and Queen Dulcia, daughter of Ramón Berenguer IV of Barcelona. His obesity seems to have been caused by illness in his youth, and he was u

  • Afonso the African (king of Portugal)

    Afonso V, 10th king of Portugal (1438–81), known as the African from his campaigns in Morocco. The son of King Edward (Duarte) and Queen Leonor, daughter of King Ferdinand I of Aragon, Afonso succeeded to the throne at the age of six. In 1440 his mother was deprived of the regency by his uncle P

  • Afonso the Brave (king of Portugal)

    Afonso IV, seventh king of Portugal (1325–57). Afonso IV was the son of King Dinis and of Isabella, daughter of Peter II of Aragon. Afonso resented his father’s generosity toward two illegitimate sons and in 1320 demanded to be given power, remaining in open revolt until May 1322. His mother r

  • Afonso the Conqueror (king of Portugal)

    Afonso I, the first king of Portugal (1139–85), who conquered Santarém and Lisbon from the Muslims (1147) and secured Portuguese independence from Leon (1139). Alfonso VI, emperor of Leon, had granted the county of Portugal to Afonso’s father, Henry of Burgundy, who successfully defended it against

  • Afonso the Fat (king of Portugal)

    Afonso II, the third king of Portugal (1211–23), under whom the reconquest of the south from the Muslims was continued. Afonso II was the son of King Sancho I and Queen Dulcia, daughter of Ramón Berenguer IV of Barcelona. His obesity seems to have been caused by illness in his youth, and he was u

  • Afonso the Great (Portuguese conqueror)

    Afonso de Albuquerque, Portuguese soldier, conqueror of Goa (1510) in India and of Melaka (1511) on the Malay Peninsula. His program to gain control of all the main maritime trade routes of the East and to build permanent fortresses with settled populations laid the foundations of Portuguese

  • Afonso V (king of Portugal)

    Afonso V, 10th king of Portugal (1438–81), known as the African from his campaigns in Morocco. The son of King Edward (Duarte) and Queen Leonor, daughter of King Ferdinand I of Aragon, Afonso succeeded to the throne at the age of six. In 1440 his mother was deprived of the regency by his uncle P

  • Afonso VI (king of Portugal)

    Afonso VI, king of Portugal, whose reign was marked by internal disputes between his partisans and those of his brother Pedro. Afonso succeeded his father, John IV, in 1656, but his mother acted as regent until 1662. His reign saw a series of victories against Spain, including the battles of

  • Afonso, Dom (king of Kongo kingdom)

    Afonso I, ruler of Kongo (historical kingdom in west-central Africa) and the first of a line of Portuguese vassal kings that lasted until the early 20th century. He is sometimes called “The Apostle of Kongo” for his role in making Kongo a Christian kingdom. Nothing is known of his early life; most

  • afoxé (dance)

    Latin American dance: Brazil: …and maracatus from Pernambuco and afoxé and bloco afro from Salvador. The oldest of the Afro-Brazilian afoxé groups, Filhos de Gandhy, was founded in the 1940s as a way to exhibit themes of brotherhood, peace, and tolerance within an environment that was rife with discrimination. This group organized an all-male…

  • AFP (French news agency)

    Agence France-Presse (AFP), French cooperative news agency, one of the world’s great wire news services. It is based in Paris, where it was founded under its current name in 1944, but its roots go to the Bureau Havas, which was created in 1832 by Charles-Louis Havas, who translated reports from

  • AFP (biochemistry)

    cancer: Molecular evaluation: …pancreatic or gastrointestinal cancers; and alpha-fetoprotein and chorionic gonadotropin, which can indicate testicular cancer. The diagnostic tests that are necessary to identify genetic alterations and tumour markers and thereby predict the efficacy of a drug are sometimes referred to as companion diagnostics.

  • AFPFL (political organization, Myanmar)

    Thakin Than Tun: …was general secretary of the Anti-Fascist People’s Freedom League (AFPFL).

  • Afrahat (Syrian ascetic)

    Aphraates, Syrian ascetic and the earliest-known Christian writer of the Syriac church in Persia. Aphraates became a convert to Christianity during the reign of the anti-Christian Persian king Shāpūr II (309–379), after which he led a monastic life, possibly at the Monastery of St. Matthew near

  • Afram River (river, Ghana)

    Afram River, river, in southern Ghana, western Africa. It rises 16 miles (26 km) northwest of Mampong and flows southeast into Lake Volta (formerly the Afram was a tributary of the Volta River). The Afram is about 55 miles (90 km) long. The river is important for fishing, despite its running dry

  • Aframax (ship)

    tanker: Aframax. The maximum size of vessel to use the Average Freight Rate Assessment method for calculating shipping rates, these tankers are around 240 metres (790 feet) long and have capacities of 80,000 to 120,000 dwt. They carry roughly 500,000 to 800,000 barrels. Panamax. The maximum…

  • Aframomum melegueta (seeds)

    Grains of paradise, pungent seeds of Aframomum melegueta, a reedlike plant of the family Zingiberaceae. Grains of paradise have long been used as a spice and traditionally as a medicine. The wine known as hippocras was flavoured with them and with ginger and cinnamon. The plant is native to

  • afrancesado (Spanish faction)

    Spain: The French invasion and the War of Independence, 1808–14: These groups became convinced afrancesados, as members of the pro-French party were pejoratively called. Relying on their support, Napoleon entirely underestimated the possibility of popular resistance to the occupation of Spain by French armies. Although the uprising of May 2, 1808, in Madrid was suppressed, local uprisings against the…

  • Afranius, Lucius (Roman general)

    Lucius Afranius, Roman general, a devoted adherent of Pompey the Great. Afranius’s hometown, Picenum, was a Pompeian stronghold. He served under Pompey against Sertorius and then held a praetorship and a command in a Gallic province, where he earned a triumph. He again served under Pompey as a

  • Afrasian languages

    Afro-Asiatic languages, languages of common origin found in the northern part of Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, and some islands and adjacent areas in Western Asia. About 250 Afro-Asiatic languages are spoken today by a total of approximately 250 million people. Numbers of speakers per language

  • AFRC (Sierra Leonean military organization)

    Sierra Leone: Civil war: …for the coup, formed the Armed Forces Revolutionary Council (AFRC), which included members of the RUF, to rule the country; President Kabbah was sent into exile. The AFRC met with increasing resistance on all fronts: domestically, its troops were engaged in battle with militia forces loyal to Kabbah’s government; internationally,…

  • afreet (Islamic mythology)

    Ifrit, in Islamic mythology and folklore, a class of powerful malevolent supernatural beings. The exact meaning of the term ifrit in the earliest sources is difficult to determine. It does not occur in pre-Islamic poetry and is only used once in the Qur?ān, in the phrase “the ifrit of the jinn”

  • Afrenulata (invertebrate)
  • Africa (painting by Motherwell)

    Robert Motherwell: …that such paintings as “Africa” (1964–65; Baltimore Museum of Art) look like enlarged details of elegant calligraphy, while “Indian Summer, #2” (1962–64) combines the bravura brushwork typical of Abstract Expressionism with the broad areas of evenly applied colour characteristic of the then-emerging Colour Field Painting style. By the end…

  • Africa (work by Petrarch)

    classical scholarship: Renaissance humanism: …vernacular poetry his Latin epic Africa, a skillful imitation of the Roman poets. Like almost everyone before Politian, Petrarch knew little or no Greek (on the manuscript of Homer that he possessed, see above, Greek in the West). Giovanni Boccaccio (1313–75) also looked actively for ancient manuscripts and actively forwarded…

  • Africa (continent)

    Africa, the second largest continent (after Asia), covering about one-fifth of the total land surface of Earth. The continent is bounded on the west by the Atlantic Ocean, on the north by the Mediterranean Sea, on the east by the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean, and on the south by the mingling waters

  • Africa (Roman territory, North Africa)

    Africa, in ancient Roman history, the first North African territory of Rome, at times roughly corresponding to modern Tunisia. It was acquired in 146 bc after the destruction of Carthage at the end of the Third Punic War. Initially, the province comprised the territory that had been subject to

  • Africa Cup of Nations (football competition)

    African Cup of Nations, the most prestigious football (soccer) competition in Africa. It is contested by national teams and is organized by the Confédération Africaine de Football (CAF). The competition’s format has changed over time, with the number of teams increasing from 3 in 1957 to 16 in

  • Africa Express (musical show)

    Damon Albarn: …in 2006 he founded the Africa Express, an initiative that fostered cross-fertilization between African and Western performers. Albarn joined with Nigerian drummer Tony Allen (formerly of Fela Kuti’s band) on the albums The Good, the Bad & the Queen (2007), recorded by an ensemble that also featured former Clash bassist…

  • Africa Malaria Day (international observance)

    World Malaria Day, annual observance held on April 25 to raise awareness of the global effort to control and ultimately eradicate malaria. World Malaria Day, which was first held in 2008, developed from Africa Malaria Day, an event that had been observed since 2001 by African governments. The

  • Africa Minor (region, North Africa)

    Maghreb, (Arabic: “West”) region of North Africa bordering the Mediterranean Sea. The Africa Minor of the ancients, it at one time included Moorish Spain and now comprises essentially the Atlas Mountains and the coastal plain of Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya. The weather of the Maghreb is

  • Africa Nova (Roman province, North Africa)

    Africa: …what Caesar had designated as Africa Nova (“New Africa”)—the old kingdoms of Numidia and Mauretania—so that the province’s western boundary was the Ampsaga (modern Rhumel) River in modern northeastern Algeria. The province generally retained those dimensions until the late 2nd century ad, when a new province of Numidia, created in…

  • Africa Orientale Italiana

    Italian East Africa, group of Italian possessions in East Africa in the period 1936–41. It comprised Ethiopia (annexed by Italy on May 9, 1936, and was proclaimed a part of Italian East Africa that June 1) together with the Italian colonies of Eritrea, now part of Ethiopia, and Italian S

  • Africa Vetus (Roman province, North Africa)

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