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  • aerogel (synthetic material)

    comet: Spacecraft exploration of comets: …made of silica (sand) called aerogel that had a very low density, approaching that of air. The idea was that the aerogel would slow the dust particles without destroying them, much as a detective might shoot a bullet into a box full of cotton in order to collect the undamaged…

  • aerogram (postal service)

    postal system: Development of airmail: …of airmail remains the compact aerogram, which was introduced in Britain during World War II as a convenient way of writing to overseas military personnel. It consists of a sheet of lightweight paper suitably folded and gummed on all sides. Recognized by the UPU, the aerogram is available in most…

  • aerolite (astronomy)

    Stony meteorite, any meteorite consisting largely of rock-forming (silicate) minerals. Stony meteorites, which are the most abundant kind of meteorite, are divided into two groups: chondrites and achondrites. Chondrites are physically and chemically the most primitive meteorites in the solar

  • aerolith (astronomy)

    Stony meteorite, any meteorite consisting largely of rock-forming (silicate) minerals. Stony meteorites, which are the most abundant kind of meteorite, are divided into two groups: chondrites and achondrites. Chondrites are physically and chemically the most primitive meteorites in the solar

  • aeromancy (occult practice)

    augury: …ritual, were atmospheric phenomena (aeromancy), cards (cartomancy), dice or lots (cleromancy), dots and other marks on paper (geomancy), fire and smoke (pyromancy), the shoulder blades of animals (scapulimancy), entrails of sacrificed animals (haruspicy), or their livers, which were considered to be the seat of life

  • Aeronautes saxatalis (bird)

    swift: The white-throated swift (Aeronautes saxatalis), soft-tailed and black with white markings, breeds in western North America and winters in southern Central America, nesting on vertical rock cliffs.

  • Aeronautical Battalion (Italian aviation unit)

    Giulio Douhet: …served as commander of the Aeronautical Battalion, Italy’s first aviation unit (also the first to practice aerial bombardment, in Libya during Italy’s war with Turkey, 1911–12). Largely because of his efforts, the three-engine Caproni bomber was ready for use by the time Italy entered World War I. He soon grasped…

  • aeronautical chart (navigation)

    map: Aeronautical charts provide essential data for the pilot and air navigator. They are, in effect, small-scale topographic maps on which current information on aids to navigation have been superimposed. To facilitate rapid recognition and orientation, principal features of the land that would be visible from…

  • Aeronautical Chart Service (United States Air Force)

    map: The rise of national surveys: …of the Oceanographic Office (Navy), Aeronautical Chart Service (Air Force), and the U.S. Army Topographic command.

  • aeronautical engineering

    Aerospace engineering, field of engineering concerned with the design, development, construction, testing, and operation of vehicles operating in the Earth’s atmosphere or in outer space. In 1958 the first definition of aerospace engineering appeared, considering the Earth’s atmosphere and the

  • aeronautical public correspondence system

    mobile telephone: Airborne cellular systems: …known by the generic name aeronautical public correspondence (APC) systems, are of two types: terrestrial-based, in which telephone calls are placed directly from an aircraft to an en route ground station; and satellite-based, in which telephone calls are relayed via satellite to a ground station. In the United States the…

  • Aeronian Stage (geology and stratigraphy)

    Aeronian Stage, second of three stages of the Llandovery Series, encompassing all rocks deposited during the Aeronian Age (440.8 million to 438.5 million years ago) of the Silurian Period. The name of the interval is derived from the Cemcoed-Aeron Farm near Llandovery, Powys, Wales. In 1984 the

  • aeronomy (atmospheric science)

    Aeronomy, study of the physics and chemistry of the upper atmosphere, including the distribution of temperature, density, and chemical constituents, and the chemical reactions that occur. Studies of aurora, airglow, the ionosphere, Van Allen radiation belts, cosmic rays, and radiative and

  • Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (United States satellite)

    AIM, U.S. satellite designed to study noctilucent clouds. AIM was launched on April 25, 2007, by a Pegasus XL rocket that was dropped from an airplane. Noctilucent clouds are faint ice-bearing clouds that form at a height of about 80 km (50 miles) in the layer of the atmosphere called the

  • aerophone (musical instrument)

    Aerophone, any of a class of musical instruments in which a vibrating mass of air produces the initial sound. The basic types include woodwind, brass, and free-reed instruments, as well as instruments that fall into none of these groups, such as the bull-roarer and the siren. Bagpipes and organs

  • aeroplane (aircraft)

    Airplane, any of a class of fixed-wing aircraft that is heavier than air, propelled by a screw propeller or a high-velocity jet, and supported by the dynamic reaction of the air against its wings. For an account of the development of the airplane and the advent of civil aviation see history of

  • aeropyle (zoology)

    lepidopteran: Egg: …is carried on through an aeropyle, a system of air passages in the shell (chorion) that enables oxygen exchange with the environment to occur whether the egg is dry or wet. In a few species of scavenger moths and pierid butterflies (see white and sulfur butterflies), the larvae hatch in…

  • aerosinusitis (pathology)

    Sinus squeeze, pain, inflammation, and possible bleeding of the membranes lining the sinus cavities in the head, caused by a difference between the pressure inside the sinuses and that outside. Sinus squeeze is a common malady of persons flying in unpressurized aircraft and of divers. The sinuses,

  • Aerosmith (American rock group)

    Aerosmith, American heavy metal band. One of the biggest arena-rock attractions of the late 1970s, Aerosmith became even more popular with its career revival in the mid-1980s. Principal members were lead singer Steven Tyler (byname of Steven Tallarico; b. March 26, 1948, New York, New York, U.S.),

  • aerosol (physics)

    Aerosol, a system of liquid or solid particles uniformly distributed in a finely divided state through a gas, usually air. Aerosol particles, such as dust, play an important role in the precipitation process, providing the nuclei upon which condensation and freezing take place. They affect climate

  • aerosol art (art)

    Graffiti, form of visual communication, usually illegal, involving the unauthorized marking of public space by an individual or group. Although the common image of graffiti is a stylistic symbol or phrase spray-painted on a wall by a member of a street gang, some graffiti is not gang-related.

  • aerosol container

    Aerosol container, any package, usually a metal can or plastic bottle, designed to dispense its liquid contents as a mist or foam. This type of container was developed in 1941 by the American chemist Lyle D. Goodhue and others for dispensing insecticides. Since that time a wide variety of products

  • Aerosol Polarimetry Sensor (instrument)

    Glory: …two main science instruments: the Aerosol Polarimetry Sensor (APS) and the Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM). The APS would have used the polarization of light caused by the presence of aerosols such as soot and sulfates, which contribute to global warming, to measure their geographic distribution. The TIM would have used…

  • aerospace engineering

    Aerospace engineering, field of engineering concerned with the design, development, construction, testing, and operation of vehicles operating in the Earth’s atmosphere or in outer space. In 1958 the first definition of aerospace engineering appeared, considering the Earth’s atmosphere and the

  • Aerospace Industries Association of America (American organization)

    aerospace industry: Character of the industry: …industry are represented through the Aerospace Industries Association of America (AIA), an aerospace-industry-funded organization whose membership consists of the major companies in the field. The AIA provides a forum for technical and policy issues concerning the industry and serves as a lobbying agent for the common interests of its members.…

  • aerospace industry

    Aerospace industry, assemblage of manufacturing concerns that deal with vehicular flight within and beyond Earth’s atmosphere. (The term aerospace is derived from the words aeronautics and spaceflight.) The aerospace industry is engaged in the research, development, and manufacture of flight

  • aerospace medicine

    Aerospace medicine, specialized branch of medical science concerned with those medical problems encountered in human flight in the atmosphere (aviation medicine) and beyond the atmosphere (space medicine). The ultimate aim of this specialty is to promote the safety and effectiveness of humans while

  • aerospace telemetry (communications)

    telemetry: Aerospace telemetry dates from the 1930s, with the development of the balloon-borne radiosonde, a device that automatically measures such meteorological data as temperature, barometric pressure, and humidity and that sends the information to an Earth station by radio. Aerospace telemetry for rockets and satellites was…

  • Aerospatiale (French company)

    Airbus Industrie: …the funding came from France’s Aerospatiale (later Aerospatiale Matra), created by the merger of Sud Aviation with Nord Aviation and the French missile maker SEREB, and 50 percent came from Germany’s Deutsche Airbus (later DaimlerChrysler Aerospace Airbus), a joint venture in which Messerschmitt-B?lkow-Blohm had a 65 percent stake and VFW-Fokker…

  • Aerospatiale Matra (French company)

    Airbus Industrie: …the funding came from France’s Aerospatiale (later Aerospatiale Matra), created by the merger of Sud Aviation with Nord Aviation and the French missile maker SEREB, and 50 percent came from Germany’s Deutsche Airbus (later DaimlerChrysler Aerospace Airbus), a joint venture in which Messerschmitt-B?lkow-Blohm had a 65 percent stake and VFW-Fokker…

  • Aérospatiale SE 210 Caravelle (aircraft)

    history of flight: The airlines reequip: …Sud-Est (later Aérospatiale) SE 210 Caravelle, a medium-range turbojet intended primarily for the continental European market. First flown on May 27, 1955, the Caravelle achieved sales of 282 aircraft, and a turbofan-powered variant was used for domestic routes by airlines in the United States—a marketing coup at the time. The…

  • aerostatic craft

    air-cushion machine: The former are classed as aerostatic craft (ACVs); the latter are called aerodynamic ground-effect machines (GEMs).

  • aerostatics (physics)

    Albert Of Saxony: …what is now known as aerostatics, as he maintained that a light balloon would rise and remain suspended in the air if a particle of fire were enclosed in it. Finally, his search for mathematical formulas to express laws of nature foreshadowed the usage of modern physics.

  • Aérostier (French military group)

    military aircraft: Early history: …and a company of “Aérostiers” was formed on April 2, 1794. Two months later the first military reconnaissance from such a balloon was made before the city of Maubeuge. Until the Aérostiers were disbanded in 1799, their reports contributed to the success of French armies in many battles and…

  • aerotitis (physiology)

    Ear squeeze, effects of a difference in pressure between the internal ear spaces and the external ear canal. These effects may include severe pain, inflammation, bleeding, and rupture of the eardrum membrane. Underwater divers and airplane pilots are sometimes affected. The middle ear, the cavity

  • Aerotrain

    air-cushion machine: Air-cushion trains: Once air-cushion suspension was proved practical in Hovercraft, the system was quickly applied to other forms of transport, and it soon became clear that a tracked vehicle, similar to a train or monorail, would benefit considerably from the lack of friction inherent in…

  • Aerschot, Philip de Croy, duke of (Dutch political leader)

    Jan van Hembyze: …Philip de Croy, duke of Aerschot, the stadholder of Flanders, as well as Ghent’s several Catholic magistrates, and replaced them with 18 Calvinists, with himself as mayor. Encouraged by Hembyze, the Calvinist townspeople pillaged churches, destroyed religious statues, and burned six monks to death. William I, prince of Orange, the…

  • AES (cryptology)

    AES, a data encryption standard endorsed by the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) as a replacement for the Data Encryption Standard (DES). AES offers far greater security than DES for communications and commercial transactions over the Internet. In January 1997 NIST issued

  • AES (physics)

    surface analysis: Auger electron spectroscopy: Energies of Auger electrons (named after French physicist Pierre Auger), like energies of XPS photoelectrons, are characteristic of the individual chemical elements. Thus, it is possible to use AES to analyze surfaces in much the same way as XPS is used. However,…

  • aes grave (Roman coin)

    coin: The beginnings: It consisted of aes grave, large circular cast coins of bronze all bearing marks of value, from the as (weighing one pound) down to its 12th, the uncia; the obverses showed the head of a deity, the reverses a ship’s prow. These were paralleled at mints elsewhere by…

  • aes rude (Roman coin)

    coin: The beginnings: …unworked lumps of bronze (aes rude) were certainly used as a metal currency from the 6th century, if not much earlier, perhaps in rare conjunction with very small quantities of unworked gold and silver, themselves also passing by weight. Simultaneously, standards of value appear to have been expressed in…

  • aes signatum (Roman coin)

    coin: The beginnings: …yet produce true coins but aes signatum, bronze bars (of about six pounds) lacking a mark of value but bearing on each side a clearly recognizable type (including cattle) and perhaps equivalent in value to a Greek silver didrachm.

  • Aeschbacher, Hans (Swiss sculptor)

    Hans Aeschbacher, Swiss sculptor of severe and massive abstract forms. Trained as a printer, Aeschbacher taught himself to draw and paint and began sculpting about age 30. His earliest pieces were figurative and were composed mainly from terra-cotta and plaster. By 1945 he was working essentially

  • Aeschines (Greek orator)

    Aeschines, Athenian orator who advocated peace with Philip II of Macedonia and who was a bitter political opponent of the statesman Demosthenes. Aeschines was brought up in humble circumstances, and in the early part of his career he worked as a tragic actor and held minor posts in the state

  • Aeschines of Sphettus (Greek orator)

    Aeschines, Athenian orator who advocated peace with Philip II of Macedonia and who was a bitter political opponent of the statesman Demosthenes. Aeschines was brought up in humble circumstances, and in the early part of his career he worked as a tragic actor and held minor posts in the state

  • Aeschronectida (crustacean)

    crustacean: Annotated classification: Aeschronectida Carboniferous. Subclass Eumalacostraca Late Devonian to Holocene; carapace (when present) not bivalved; rostrum fixed; first antenna 2-branched; thoracic legs with slender, many-segmented outer branch and stout, 7-segmented inner branch, often pincerlike, used in walking or food-gathering; 6 (rarely 7) abdominal segments, with

  • Aeschylus (work by Bentley)

    clerihew: …rhyme, as in Bentley’s “Aeschylus”:

  • Aeschylus (Greek dramatist)

    Aeschylus, the first of classical Athens’ great dramatists, who raised the emerging art of tragedy to great heights of poetry and theatrical power. Aeschylus grew up in the turbulent period when the Athenian democracy, having thrown off its tyranny (the absolute rule of one man), had to prove

  • Aesculapian snake (reptile)

    rat snake: The Aesculapian snake (E. longissima), plain and dark coloured, is native to southeastern Europe and Asia Minor. In ancient times it was sacred to Aesclepius, god of medicine; the present isolated populations in Germany and Switzerland are descended from specimens conveyed to health resorts there by…

  • Aesculapius (Greco-Roman god)

    Asclepius, Greco-Roman god of medicine, son of Apollo (god of healing, truth, and prophecy) and the mortal princess Coronis. The Centaur Chiron taught him the art of healing. At length Zeus (the king of the gods), afraid that Asclepius might render all men immortal, slew him with a thunderbolt.

  • Aesculus (plant genus)

    Sapindales: Distribution and abundance: Aesculus (horse chestnuts and buckeyes), with about 13 deciduous species, has an interrupted distribution in temperate forests from western and eastern North America (seven species) to the Balkan Peninsula in Europe (one species) and in Asia from India to China and Japan (five species). The…

  • Aesculus californica (plant)

    buckeye: Species: The California buckeye (A. californica) is endemic to California and southwestern Oregon and features sweetly scented white-to-pink flowers. At least two other possible buckeye species are known, though their taxonomy is contentious.

  • Aesculus carnea (plant)

    horse chestnut: Red horse chestnut (A. × carnea), a hybrid of A. hippocastanum and A. pavia, grows up to 20 m (65 feet) and has flesh-coloured to scarlet flower spikes.

  • Aesculus flava (plant)

    buckeye: Species: …eastern United States is the sweet, or yellow, buckeye (A. flava), which bears yellow flowers and is the largest buckeye species, reaching up to 27 metres (89 feet). The red buckeye (A. pavia) produces red flowers and is an attractive small tree, rarely reaching more than 7.6 metres (25 feet)…

  • Aesculus glabra (plant)

    buckeye: Species: The most-notable species is the Ohio buckeye (A. glabra), also called fetid, or Texas, buckeye, which is primarily found in the Midwestern region of the United States. The tree grows up to 21 metres (70 feet) in height and has twigs and leaves that yield an unpleasant odour when crushed.…

  • Aesculus hippocastanum (plant)

    horse chestnut: The tree’s common name is said to come from Turkey, where the nuts were fed to horses to cure broken wind.

  • Aesculus indica (plant)

    horse chestnut: The Indian horse chestnut (A. indica), with slender, pointed leaflets, has attractive feathery flower spikes with a bottlebrush effect. Red horse chestnut (A. × carnea), a hybrid of A. hippocastanum and A. pavia, grows up to 20 m (65 feet) and has flesh-coloured to scarlet flower…

  • Aesculus octandra (plant)

    buckeye: Species: …eastern United States is the sweet, or yellow, buckeye (A. flava), which bears yellow flowers and is the largest buckeye species, reaching up to 27 metres (89 feet). The red buckeye (A. pavia) produces red flowers and is an attractive small tree, rarely reaching more than 7.6 metres (25 feet)…

  • Aesculus parviflora (plant)

    buckeye: Species: The bottlebrush buckeye (A. parviflora) is an attractive shrub, native to Georgia and Alabama, that bears white flowers in erect spikes about 30 cm (1 foot) long. The painted, or Georgia, buckeye (A. sylvatica) is a rounded shrub or small tree, up to 7.6 metres (25…

  • Aesculus pavia (plant)

    buckeye: Species: The red buckeye (A. pavia) produces red flowers and is an attractive small tree, rarely reaching more than 7.6 metres (25 feet) in height.

  • Aesculus sylvatica (plant)

    buckeye: Species: The painted, or Georgia, buckeye (A. sylvatica) is a rounded shrub or small tree, up to 7.6 metres (25 feet) high, with yellow to reddish flowers. The California buckeye (A. californica) is endemic to California and southwestern Oregon and features sweetly scented white-to-pink flowers. At least…

  • Aesculus turbinata (plant)

    horse chestnut: Japanese horse chestnut (A. turbinata) is as tall as the European species but is distinctive for its remarkably large leaves, up to 60 cm (2 feet) across. The Indian horse chestnut (A. indica), with slender, pointed leaflets, has attractive feathery flower spikes with a bottlebrush…

  • Aesernia (Italy)

    Isernia, town, Molise region, south central Italy, between the Carpino and Sordo rivers, west of Campobasso. It originated as Aesernia, a town of the Samnites (an ancient Italic people), and later became a Roman colony. Isernia suffered severe damage in World War II but has been rebuilt. Notable

  • Aeshma (Zoroastrian figure)

    angel and demon: In Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam: Among other demonic figures is Aēshma (violence, fury, or the aggressive impulse)—who may well be the demon Asmodeus of the book of Tobit, āz (Concupiscence or Lust), Mithrāndruj (He Who Lies to Mithra or False Speech), Jēh (the demon Whore, created later by Ahriman to defile the human race), and…

  • Aesir (Scandinavian mythology)

    Aesir, in Scandinavian mythology, either of two main groups of deities, four of whom were common to the Germanic nations: Odin (q.v.), chief of the Aesir; Frigg (q.v.), Odin’s wife; Tyr (q.v.), god of war; and Thor (q.v.), whose name was the Teutonic word for thunder. Some of the other important

  • Aesis (Italy)

    Jesi, town and episcopal see, Marche regione, east-central Italy. Jesi lies along the Esino River, just southwest of Ancona. The Roman colony of Aesis from 247 bc, it was destroyed by the Goths and Lombards and formed part of the Frankish king Pippin III’s gift to the church in 756. In the early

  • Aesop (legendary Greek fabulist)

    Aesop, the supposed author of a collection of Greek fables, almost certainly a legendary figure. Various attempts were made in ancient times to establish him as an actual personage. Herodotus in the 5th century bce said that he had lived in the 6th century and that he was a slave, and Plutarch in

  • Aesopus, Claudius (Roman tragedian)

    Claudius Aesopus, most eminent of the Roman tragedians, contemporary and intimate friend of Cicero, whom he instructed in elocution, and regarded by Horace as the equal of the great Roman comic actor Roscius. Aesopus became completely absorbed in his roles; the biographer Plutarch mentions that,

  • Aesopus, Clodius (Roman tragedian)

    Claudius Aesopus, most eminent of the Roman tragedians, contemporary and intimate friend of Cicero, whom he instructed in elocution, and regarded by Horace as the equal of the great Roman comic actor Roscius. Aesopus became completely absorbed in his roles; the biographer Plutarch mentions that,

  • Aesthetic (work by Croce)

    aesthetics: Expressionism: …most important influence on modern aesthetics has been Croce. His oft-cited Estetica come scienza dell’ espressione e linguistica generale (1902; Aesthetic as Science of Expression and General Linguistics, or Aesthetic) presents, in a rather novel idiom, some of the important insights underlying the theories of his predecessors. In this work,…

  • Aesthetic as Science of Expression and General Linguistics (work by Croce)

    aesthetics: Expressionism: …most important influence on modern aesthetics has been Croce. His oft-cited Estetica come scienza dell’ espressione e linguistica generale (1902; Aesthetic as Science of Expression and General Linguistics, or Aesthetic) presents, in a rather novel idiom, some of the important insights underlying the theories of his predecessors. In this work,…

  • aesthetic distance (literature)

    Aesthetic distance, the frame of reference that an artist creates by the use of technical devices in and around the work of art to differentiate it psychologically from reality. German playwright Bertolt Brecht built his dramatic theory known in English as the alienation effect to accomplish

  • aesthetic experience

    aesthetics: Three approaches to aesthetics: …held to be involved in aesthetic experience. Thus, in the seminal work of modern aesthetics Kritik der Urteilskraft (1790; The Critique of Judgment), Immanuel Kant located the distinctive features of the aesthetic in the faculty of “judgment,” whereby we take up a certain stance toward objects, separating them from our…

  • aesthetic judgment

    aesthetics: The aesthetic experience: Aesthetic judgment, however, seems to be in conflict with itself. It cannot be at the same time aesthetic (an expression of sensory enjoyment) and also a judgment (claiming universal assent). Yet all rational beings, by virtue of their rationality, seem disposed to make these judgments. On…

  • aesthetic object (philosophy)

    aesthetics: Three approaches to aesthetics: The philosophical study of the aesthetic object. This approach reflects the view that the problems of aesthetics exist primarily because the world contains a special class of objects toward which we react selectively and which we describe in aesthetic terms. The usual class singled out as prime aesthetic objects is…

  • aesthetic regime (political philosophy)

    Jacques Rancière: aesthetic. Under the “ethical regime of images,” which he associates with the ideal state of Plato, art strictly speaking does not exist, and visual or literary images, understood as copies of things that are real or true, are produced only to reinforce the social order.…

  • aesthetic surgery (medicine)

    plastic surgery: Aesthetic surgery: Aesthetic, or cosmetic, surgery is the enhancement of normal structures that are subject to age-related changes or that have unusual features that are distressing to the patient. The procedures used to address these issues are often performed in the physician’s office (as opposed…

  • Aesthetica (work by Baumgarten)

    Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten: …work, written in Latin, was Aesthetica, 2 vol. (1750–58). The problems of aesthetics had been treated by others before Baumgarten, but he both advanced the discussion of such topics as art and beauty and set the discipline off from the rest of philosophy. His student G.F. Meier (1718–77), however, assisted…

  • Aestheticism (art movement)

    Aestheticism, late 19th-century European arts movement which centred on the doctrine that art exists for the sake of its beauty alone, and that it need serve no political, didactic, or other purpose. The movement began in reaction to prevailing utilitarian social philosophies and to what was

  • aesthetics (philosophy)

    Aesthetics, the philosophical study of beauty and taste. It is closely related to the philosophy of art, which is concerned with the nature of art and the concepts in terms of which individual works of art are interpreted and evaluated. To provide more than a general definition of the subject

  • Aesthetik (work by Hegel)

    tragedy: Hegel: …influential German philosopher, in his Aesthetics (1820–29), proposed that the sufferings of the tragic hero are merely a means of reconciling opposing moral claims. The operation is a success because of, not in spite of, the fact that the patient dies. According to Hegel’s account of Greek tragedy, the conflict…

  • Aestii (people)

    Balt, member of a people of the Indo-European linguistic family living on the southeastern shores of the Baltic Sea. (The name Balt, coined in the 19th century, is derived from the sea; Aestii was the name given these peoples by the Roman historian Tacitus.) In addition to the Lithuanians and the

  • aestivation (biology)

    dormancy: Homoiotherms and heterotherms: …summer; such hibernation is called estivation. As a means of avoiding environmental stresses, hibernation and estivation are not common devices among warm-blooded animals and they are far less common among birds than among mammals.

  • AETA (United States [2006])

    ecoterrorism: In 2005 the Animal Enterprise Terrorism Act (AETA) expanded the definition of animal enterprise terrorism to include “interfering with” the operations of an animal enterprise, extended protection to third-party enterprises having a relationship to or transactions with an animal enterprise, expanded the definition of animal enterprise to include…

  • Aeterne rerum Conditor (hymn by Saint Ambrose)

    St. Ambrose: Literary and musical accomplishments: …composing beautiful hymns, notably “Aeterne rerum Conditor” (“Framer of the earth and sky”) and “Deus Creator omnium” (“Maker of all things, God most high”). He spared no pains in instructing candidates for baptism. He denounced social abuses (notably in the sermons De Nabuthe [“On Naboth”]) and frequently secured pardon…

  • Aeterni Patris (encyclical by Leo XIII)

    Aeterni Patris, an encyclical issued by Pope Leo XIII on Aug. 4, 1879, which strengthened the position of the philosophical system of the medieval Scholastic philosopher-theologian St. Thomas Aquinas and soon made Thomism the dominant philosophical viewpoint in Roman

  • Aethalia (island, Italy)

    Elba, island off the west coast of Italy, in the Tyrrhenian Sea. Elba has an area of 86 square miles (223 square km) and is the largest island of the Tuscan Archipelago. It is famous as Napoleon’s place of exile in 1814–15. Administratively Elba is part of Tuscany regione, Italy. Its coast is

  • Aethelbald (king of Wessex)

    Aethelbald, king of Wessex (from 855/856), the son of Aethelwulf, with whom he led the West Saxons to victory against the Danes at Aclea (851). He reportedly rebelled against his father either before (855) or on the latter’s return from Rome in 856 and deprived him of Wessex, which he ruled until

  • Aethelbald (king of Mercia)

    Aethelbald, king of the Mercians from 716, who became the chief king of a confederation including all the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms between the River Humber and the English Channel. His predominance was made possible by the death of the strong king Wihtred of Kent (725) and the abdication of Ine of

  • Aethelberg (queen of Northumbria)

    Eadbald: …a marriage between his sister Aethelberg and Edwin of Northumbria, on whose defeat and death in 633 he received his sister in the company of Paulinus and offered the latter the bishopric of Rochester. Eadbald was succeeded as king by his son Eorcenberht.

  • Aethelberht (king of Wessex)

    Aethelberht, king of the West Saxons, or Wessex, who succeeded to the subkingdom of Kent during the lifetime of his father Aethelwulf and retained it until the death of his elder brother Aethelbald in 860, when he became sole king of Wessex and Kent, the younger brothers Aethelred and Alfred

  • Aethelberht I (king of Kent)

    Aethelberht I, king of Kent (560–616) who issued the first extant code of Anglo-Saxon laws. Reflecting some continental influence, the code established the legal position of the clergy and instituted many secular regulations. Aethelberht’s marriage to Bertha (or Berhta), daughter of Charibert, king

  • Aethelflaed (Anglo-Saxon ruler)

    Aethelflaed, Anglo-Saxon ruler of Mercia in England and founder of Gloucester Abbey. The eldest child of King Alfred the Great, she helped her brother Edward the Elder, king of the West Saxons (reigned 899–924), in conquering the Danish armies occupying eastern England. Aethelflaed became the

  • Aethelfrith (king of Bernicia and Deira)

    Aethelfrith, king of Bernicia (from 592/593) and of Deira, which together formed Northumbria. Aethelfrith was the son of Aethelric and grandson of Ida, king of Bernicia, and his reign marks the true beginning of the continuous history of a united Northumbria and, indeed, of England. He married

  • Aethelfrith the Destroyer (king of Bernicia and Deira)

    Aethelfrith, king of Bernicia (from 592/593) and of Deira, which together formed Northumbria. Aethelfrith was the son of Aethelric and grandson of Ida, king of Bernicia, and his reign marks the true beginning of the continuous history of a united Northumbria and, indeed, of England. He married

  • Aetheling (Anglo-Saxon aristocrat)

    Aetheling, in Anglo-Saxon England, generally any person of noble birth. Use of the term was usually restricted to members of a royal family, and in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle it is used almost exclusively for members of the royal house of Wessex. It was occasionally used after the Norman Conquest

  • Aethelred (king of England)

    Ethelred the Unready, king of the English from 978 to 1013 and from 1014 to 1016. He was an ineffectual ruler who failed to prevent the Danes from overrunning England. The epithet “unready” is derived from unraed, meaning “bad counsel” or “no counsel,” and puns on his name, which means “noble

  • Aethelred (king of Mercia)

    Aethelred, king of Mercia, who was a benefactor of many churches in his several provinces and at last retired to a monastery. He succeeded his brother Wulfhere in 675 and early on spent most of his time in warfare. In 676 he ravished Kent, taking Rochester. In 679, in a battle on the banks of the

  • Aethelred I (king of Wessex and Kent)

    Aethelred I, king of Wessex and of Kent (865/866–871), son of Aethelwulf of Wessex. By his father’s will he should have succeeded to Wessex on the death of his eldest brother Aethelbald (d. 860). He seems, however, to have stood aside in favour of his brother Aethelberht, king of Kent, to whose

  • Aethelred of Rievaulx, Saint (Cistercian monk)

    Saint Aelred of Rievaulx, writer, historian, and outstanding Cistercian abbot who influenced monasticism in medieval England, Scotland, and France. His feast day is celebrated by the Cistercians on February 3. Of noble birth, Aelred was reared at the court of King David I of Scotland, whose life

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