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  • AdS/CFT correspondence (physics)

    string theory: M-theory and AdS/CFT correspondence: …anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory (AdS/CFT) correspondence. Maldacena found that a string theory operating with a particular environment (involving a space-time known as an anti-de Sitter space) was equivalent to a type of quantum field theory operating in an environment with one less spatial dimension. This has proved to be…

  • ADSL (networking technology)

    computer: Communication devices: ) Asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL) modems can be used for transmitting digital signals over a local dedicated telephone line, provided there is a telephone office nearby—in theory, within 5,500 metres (18,000 feet) but in practice about a third of that distance. ADSL is asymmetric because…

  • Adso of Montier-en-Der (Benedictine monk and abbot)

    Adso of Montier-en-Der, Benedictine monk and abbot whose treatise on the Antichrist became the standard work on the subject from the mid-10th to the 13th century. Born of a noble family, Adso was an oblate at the important monastery of Luxeuil, where he also received his education. He was later

  • adsorbed atom (chemistry)

    electrochemical reaction: Electrocrystallization: …and freely moving atoms, called adatoms. Since the electrons tend to join the rest in the bulk of the metal, adatoms appear to have a partial charge, less than that of the elementary positive charge. The adatoms therefore attract solvent molecules, and the species is partially solvated. This reaction justifies…

  • adsorption (surface phenomenon)

    Adsorption, capability of all solid substances to attract to their surfaces molecules of gases or solutions with which they are in contact. Solids that are used to adsorb gases or dissolved substances are called adsorbents; the adsorbed molecules are usually referred to collectively as the

  • adsorption and surface reaction (mechanism of adhesion)

    adhesive: Adhesion: In the third mechanism, adsorption and surface reaction, bonding occurs when adhesive molecules adsorb onto a solid surface and chemically react with it. Because of the chemical reaction, this process differs in some degree from simple adsorption, described above, although some researchers consider chemical reaction to be part of…

  • adsorption chiller

    Adsorption chiller, any device designed to cool interior spaces through adsorption, a process that uses solid substances to attract to their surfaces molecules of gases or solutions with which they are in contact. Instead of using large amounts of electricity, the cooling process in an adsorption

  • adsorption chromatography (chemistry)

    chromatography: Retention mechanism: In adsorption chromatography solute molecules bond directly to the surface of the stationary phase. Stationary phases may contain a variety of adsorption sites differing in the tenacity with which they bind the molecules and in their relative abundance. The net effect determines the adsorbent activity. Partition…

  • adsorption isotherm (chemistry)

    chromatography: (The term adsorption isotherm is often used when a solid phase is involved.) A mixture of solutes is introduced into the system in a confined region or narrow zone (the origin), whereupon the different species are transported at different rates in the direction of fluid flow. The…

  • adsorption theory (technology)

    adhesive: Adhesion: …adhesion is explained by the adsorption theory, which states that substances stick primarily because of intimate intermolecular contact. In adhesive joints this contact is attained by intermolecular or valence forces exerted by molecules in the surface layers of the adhesive and adherend.

  • ADT (computing)

    computer programming language: Data structures: Abstract data types (ADTs) are important for large-scale programming. They package data structures and operations on them, hiding internal details. For example, an ADT table provides insertion and lookup operations to users while keeping the underlying structure, whether an array, list, or binary tree, invisible.…

  • ADT radar (radar technology)

    radar: Interference: …not as easily ignored by automatic detection and tracking systems, however, and so some method is usually needed to recognize and remove interference pulses before they enter the automatic detector and tracker of a radar.

  • Adu, Helen Folasade (British singer)

    Sade, Nigerian-born British singer known for her sophisticated blend of soul, funk, jazz, and Afro-Cuban rhythms. She enjoyed wide critical acclaim and popularity in the 1980s and early ’90s. Adu, who was born to a Nigerian economics professor and an English nurse, was never addressed by people in

  • Adua (Ethiopia)

    Adwa, town, northern Ethiopia. Adwa lies on the east-west highway between Aksum and Adi Grat at its junction with the road north to Asmara (Asmera), in Eritrea. Adwa is a market centre (grains, honey, hides, coffee) for the Tigray people. The town is located 10 miles (16 km) west of an area of

  • Adua (African dance)

    African dance: Dance formations: …district of Ghana in their Adua dance, which is notable for elaborating expressive hand movements into a language of gestures.

  • Adua, Battle of (Italy-Ethiopia [1896])

    Battle of Adwa, (March 1, 1896), military clash at Adwa, in north-central Ethiopia, between the Ethiopian army of Emperor Menilek II and Italian forces. The Ethiopian army’s victory checked Italy’s attempt to build an empire in Africa. The victory had further significance for being the first

  • Aduatuca Tungrorum (Belgium)

    Tongeren, municipality, Flanders Region, northeastern Belgium. It lies along the Geer (Jaar) River, northwest of Liège. Important in Roman times as Aduatuca Tungrorum, capital of the Germanic Tungri tribe, it was the centre of a revolt against Rome in 54 bc. Tongeren is the oldest city in Belgium

  • Aduatuci (people)

    history of the Low Countries: The Roman period: …Rhine, the Eburones and the Aduatuci; and, in what is now Luxembourg, the Treveri. North of the Rhine, the Frisii (Frisians) were the principal inhabitants, although the arrival of the Romans brought about a number of movements: the Batavi came to the area of the lower reaches of the Rhine,…

  • ?A?ud ad-Dawlah (Būyid ruler)

    ?A?ud ad-Dawlah, greatest ruler (949–983) of the Iranian Būyid dynasty. Becoming ruler of Fārs province in southern Iran in 944, ?A?ud ad-Dawlah did not actually reign on his own until almost a decade later. But by 979 his authority extended, through inheritance and conquest, over all southern Iran

  • ?A?ud al-Dawla Abū Shuja? Mu?ammad ibn Dā?ūd Chaghribeg (Seljuq sultan)

    Alp-Arslan, second sultan of the Seljuq Turks (1063–72), who inherited the Seljuq territories of Khorāsān and western Iran and went on to conquer Georgia, Armenia, and much of Asia Minor (won from the Byzantines). Alp-Arslan was the son of Chaghri Beg, the ruler of Khorāsān in Iran, and the nephew

  • ?A?ud al-Dawlah (Būyid ruler)

    ?A?ud ad-Dawlah, greatest ruler (949–983) of the Iranian Būyid dynasty. Becoming ruler of Fārs province in southern Iran in 944, ?A?ud ad-Dawlah did not actually reign on his own until almost a decade later. But by 979 his authority extended, through inheritance and conquest, over all southern Iran

  • adularia (mineral)

    Adularia, a feldspar mineral and potassium aluminosilicate (KAlSi3O8). It commonly forms colourless, glassy, prismatic, twinned crystals in low-temperature veins of felsic plutonic rocks and in cavities in crystalline schists. Typical occurrences include the schists of the Alps. Some adularia show

  • Adulateur, The (play by Warren)

    Mercy Otis Warren: The Adulateur (1772) foretold the War of Revolution through the actions of Rapatio, a haughty, imperious official obviously modeled on Massachusetts’s royal governor, Thomas Hutchinson. The Defeat, also featuring Rapatio, followed a year later, and in 1775 Warren published The Group, a satire conjecturing what…

  • Adulis (ancient city, East Africa)

    eastern Africa: Aksum: Its port of Adulis received a continuous stream of merchants who offered textiles, glassware, tools, precious jewelry, copper, iron, and steel in return for ivory, tortoiseshell, rhinoceros horn, gold, silver, slaves, frankincense, and myrrh. Aksum, the capital, was five days’ march from the coast onto the Tigray Plateau,…

  • ?Adullam (ancient city, Israel)

    ?Adullam, ancient city and modern development region, in the upper part of Ha-Shefela, central Israel. The mound of Tel ?Adullam, or H?orbat (“Ruins of”) ?Adullam (Arabic: Tall Ash-Shaykh Madhkūr), 22.5 miles (36 km) southwest of Jerusalem, is generally accepted as the site of the ancient city.

  • ?Adullam (region, Israel)

    ?Adullam: In modern Israel the name ?Adullam is given to the planned development region in the former (1949–67) “Jerusalem corridor,” west of the capital. This hilly area, on the boundary of Ha-Shefela and the Yehuda (Judaean) Mountains, includes the ancient site. Settlement commenced in 1958; several agricultural villages and rural subcentres…

  • ?Adullam, Tel (ancient city, Israel)

    ?Adullam, ancient city and modern development region, in the upper part of Ha-Shefela, central Israel. The mound of Tel ?Adullam, or H?orbat (“Ruins of”) ?Adullam (Arabic: Tall Ash-Shaykh Madhkūr), 22.5 miles (36 km) southwest of Jerusalem, is generally accepted as the site of the ancient city.

  • Adullamite (English politics)

    Adullamite, member of a group of English politicians who rebelled against their leaders in the Liberal Party and defeated the Reform Bill of 1866. Their name was derived from the biblical reference to the caves of ?Adullam (1 Samuel 22:1), which served as a refuge for the discontented. The Liberal

  • adult

    Adulthood, the period in the human lifespan in which full physical and intellectual maturity have been attained. Adulthood is commonly thought of as beginning at age 20 or 21 years. Middle age, commencing at about 40 years, is followed by old age at about 60 years. A brief treatment of development

  • adult contemporary (radio-broadcast format)

    Rock and radio in the United States: …emerged in the early 1970s, adult contemporary (A/C) found a large audience of young adults who wanted their rock quieter. A/C blended the lighter elements of pop and rock with what was called “middle of the road” (MOR) rock, an adult-oriented format that favoured big bands and pop singers such…

  • adult education

    Adult education, any form of learning undertaken by or provided for mature men and women. In a 1970 report, the National Institute of Adult Education (England and Wales) defined adult education as “any kind of education for people who are old enough to work, vote, fight and marry and who have

  • adult insect (biology)

    reproduction: Life cycles of animals: …and an adult stage (imago). One remarkable aspect of this development is that, during the transition from caterpillar to adult, most of the caterpillar tissue disintegrates and is used as food, thereby providing energy for the next stage of development, which begins when certain small structures (imaginal disks) in…

  • adult learning

    Adult education, any form of learning undertaken by or provided for mature men and women. In a 1970 report, the National Institute of Adult Education (England and Wales) defined adult education as “any kind of education for people who are old enough to work, vote, fight and marry and who have

  • adult stem cell (biology)

    stem cell: Adult stem cells: Some tissues in the adult body, such as the epidermis of the skin, the lining of the small intestine, and bone marrow, undergo continuous cellular turnover. They contain stem cells, which persist indefinitely, and a much larger number of “transit amplifying cells,”…

  • adult-onset diabetes (medical disorder)

    therapeutics: Hormones: …are also available for treating type 2 diabetes. The sulfonylureas are oral hypoglycemic agents used as adjuncts to diet and exercise in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  • Adultério (novel by Coelho)

    Paulo Coelho: Adultério (2014; Adultery) chronicles a successful journalist’s extramarital affair, and Hippie (2018) was inspired by Coehlo’s travels in the 1970s.

  • adultery (sexual behaviour)

    Adultery, sexual relations between a married person and someone other than the spouse. Written or customary prohibitions or taboos against adultery constitute part of the marriage code of virtually every society. Indeed, adultery seems to be as universal and, in some instances, as common as

  • Adultery (novel by Coelho)

    Paulo Coelho: Adultério (2014; Adultery) chronicles a successful journalist’s extramarital affair, and Hippie (2018) was inspired by Coehlo’s travels in the 1970s.

  • Adultery and Other Choices (work by Dubus)

    Andre Dubus: …evocation of setting, as is Adultery and Other Choices (1977). “Andromache,” from the latter collection, is cited as the best of his many stories about the Marine Corps. Especially concerned with the strain and conflict between the sexes, Dubus tried to develop the point of view of his female characters.…

  • adulthood

    Adulthood, the period in the human lifespan in which full physical and intellectual maturity have been attained. Adulthood is commonly thought of as beginning at age 20 or 21 years. Middle age, commencing at about 40 years, is followed by old age at about 60 years. A brief treatment of development

  • Adults in the Room (film by Costa-Gavras [2019])

    Costa-Gavras: …corporate corruption and greed, and Adults in the Room (2019), which examines Greece’s debt crisis of 2015.

  • Adūnīs (Syrian-born Lebanese poet and literary critic)

    Adonis, Syrian-born Lebanese poet and literary critic who was a leader of the modernist movement in contemporary Arabic poetry. Adonis was born into a family of farmers and had no formal education until he was in his teens, though his father taught him much about classical Arabic literature. At age

  • Adur (district, England, United Kingdom)

    Adur, district, administrative county of West Sussex, historic county of Sussex, southeastern England. It is named for the River Adur, which cuts through the chalk ridge of the South Downs via a large water gap before entering the English Channel at Shoreham-by-Sea (the administrative centre). The

  • Adur, River (river, England, United Kingdom)

    Shoreham-by-Sea: … at the mouth of the River Adur, between the seaside resorts of Hove to the east and Worthing to the west. The river’s mouth is used as a port for coastal traffic, including timber, cement, and materials for Shoreham’s gas works and electric power station. Pop. (2001) 47,897; (2011) 48,487.

  • ādur-Anāhīd (Iranian fire temple)

    ancient Iran: Zoroastrianism: …temple at Istakhr, known as ādur-Anāhīd, the Anāhīd Fire. With the new dynasty having these priestly antecedents, it seems only natural that there would have been important developments in the Zoroastrian religion during the Sāsānian period. In fact, the evolution of Zoroastrianism as an organized religion into something resembling its…

  • Adusei, Barima Kwaku (Ghanaian lawyer and king of Ashanti people)

    Otomfuo Opoku Ware II, (Jacob Matthew Poku; Barima Kwaku Adusei), Ghanaian barrister who in 1970 became the 15th Asantehene, or king of the Ashanti people, and thereafter ruled over the everyday spiritual and cultural life of the ancient kingdom (b. Nov. 30, 1919, Kumasi, Ghana—d. Feb. 26, 1999,

  • ?adūw (Islam)

    Iblīs, in Islam, the personal name of the devil, probably derived from the Greek diabolos. Iblīs, the counterpart of the Jewish and Christian Satan, is also referred to as ?adūw Allāh (enemy of God), ?adūw (enemy), or, when he is portrayed as a tempter, ash-Shay?ān (demon). At the creation of man,

  • ?adūw Allāh (Islam)

    Iblīs, in Islam, the personal name of the devil, probably derived from the Greek diabolos. Iblīs, the counterpart of the Jewish and Christian Satan, is also referred to as ?adūw Allāh (enemy of God), ?adūw (enemy), or, when he is portrayed as a tempter, ash-Shay?ān (demon). At the creation of man,

  • Advaita (school of Hindu philosophy)

    Advaita, (Sanskrit: “Nondualism”) one of the most influential schools of Vedanta, which is one of the six orthodox philosophical systems (darshans) of Indian philosophy. While its followers find its main tenets already fully expressed in the Upanishads and systematized by the Brahma-sutras (also

  • Advaita (Hindu religious leader)

    Chaitanya movement: …his close companions, Nityananda and Advaita. Those three are called the three masters (prabhu), and their images are established in temples of the sect.

  • Advaita Vedanta (school of Hindu philosophy)

    Advaita, (Sanskrit: “Nondualism”) one of the most influential schools of Vedanta, which is one of the six orthodox philosophical systems (darshans) of Indian philosophy. While its followers find its main tenets already fully expressed in the Upanishads and systematized by the Brahma-sutras (also

  • Advance Australia Fair (Australian national anthem)

    Advance Australia Fair, national anthem of Australia, adopted on April 19, 1984. It was first officially proposed in 1974 to replace “God Save the Queen,” which had been the national anthem from 1788 to 1974 and which, in 1984, was designated the royal anthem, to be played at public appearances of

  • advance fee fraud (crime)

    Advance fee fraud, type of fraud in which businesses or individuals are required to pay a fee before receiving promised stocks, services, money, or products, which ultimately are never given. The targets of the fraud—which include businesses and individuals—receive a solicitation (by letter, fax,

  • Advance Publications Inc. (American publishing company)

    Newhouse family: …1949 he renamed his company Advance Publications Inc.

  • advance-slope method (tunneling)

    tunnels and underground excavations: Concrete lining: …was a trend toward an advancing-slope method of continuous concreting, as originally devised for embedding the steel cylinder of a hydropower penstock. In this procedure, several hundred feet of forms are initially set, then collapsed in short sections and moved forward after the concrete has gained necessary strength, thus keeping…

  • Advanced Aviation Threat Identification Program (American UFO study)

    unidentified flying object: Other investigations of UFOs: …of UFO sightings was the Advanced Aviation Threat Identification Program (AATIP), a secret project that ran from 2007 to 2012. When the existence of the AATIP was made public in December 2017, the most newsworthy aspect of it was a report that the U.S. government possessed alloys and compounds purportedly…

  • advanced bony fish (fish)

    Teleost, (infraclass Teleostei), any member of a large and extremely diverse group of ray-finned fishes. Along with the chondrosteans and the holosteans, they are one of the three major subdivisions of the class Actinopterygii, the most advanced of the bony fishes. The teleosts include virtually

  • advanced ceramics (ceramics)

    Advanced ceramics, substances and processes used in the development and manufacture of ceramic materials that exhibit special properties. Ceramics, as is pointed out in the article ceramic composition and properties, are traditionally described as inorganic, nonmetallic solids that are prepared

  • Advanced Development Projects (American company)

    Lockheed Martin Corporation: Lockheed Corporation: …established a highly secret section, Advanced Development Projects (ADP), to design a fighter around a British De Havilland jet engine. The result was the P-80 Shooting Star, the first American jet aircraft to enter operational service (1945).

  • Advanced Encryption Standard (cryptology)

    AES, a data encryption standard endorsed by the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) as a replacement for the Data Encryption Standard (DES). AES offers far greater security than DES for communications and commercial transactions over the Internet. In January 1997 NIST issued

  • advanced gas-cooled reactor (engineering)

    nuclear reactor: Advanced gas-cooled reactor: The advanced gas-cooled reactor (AGR) was developed in the United Kingdom as the successor to reactors of the Calder Hall class, which combined plutonium production and power generation. Calder Hall, the first nuclear station to feed an appreciable amount of power into…

  • advanced information processing (computer science)

    artificial intelligence: Strong AI, applied AI, and cognitive simulation: Applied AI, also known as advanced information processing, aims to produce commercially viable “smart” systems—for example, “expert” medical diagnosis systems and stock-trading systems. Applied AI has enjoyed considerable success, as described in the section Expert systems.

  • Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. (American company)

    Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. (AMD), global company that specializes in manufacturing semiconductor devices used in computer processing. The company also produces flash memories, graphics processors, motherboard chip sets, and a variety of components used in consumer electronics goods. The company

  • advanced mobile phone system (telecommunications)

    telecommunication: Frequency-division multiple access: In the advanced mobile phone system (AMPS), the cellular system employed in the United States, different callers use separate frequency slots via FDMA. When one telephone call is completed, a network-managing computer at the cellular base station reassigns the released frequency slot to a new caller. A…

  • advanced persistent threat (information technology)

    Advanced persistent threat (APT), attacks on a country’s information assets of national security or strategic economic importance through either cyberespionage or cybersabotage. These attacks use technology that minimizes their visibility to computer network and individual computer intrusion

  • Advanced Photon Source (particle accelerator)

    Argonne National Laboratory: Four of these facilities—the Advanced Photon Source (APS), the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS), the Argonne Tandem Linear Accelerator System (ATLAS), and the High-Voltage Electron Microscope- (HVEM-) Tandem Facility—have been designated official U.S. Department of Energy National User Facilities.

  • Advanced Research Projects Agency (United States government)

    Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), U.S. government agency created in 1958 to facilitate research in technology with potential military applications. Most of DARPA’s projects are classified secrets, but many of its military innovations have had great influence in the civilian world,

  • Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (United States defense program)

    ARPANET, experimental computer network that was the forerunner of the Internet. The Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), an arm of the U.S. Defense Department, funded the development of the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) in the late 1960s. Its initial purpose was to link

  • advanced structural ceramics

    Advanced structural ceramics, ceramic materials that demonstrate enhanced mechanical properties under demanding conditions. Because they serve as structural members, often being subjected to mechanical loading, they are given the name structural ceramics. Ordinarily, for structural applications

  • Advanced Study, Institute for (institution, Princeton, New Jersey, United States)

    computer: The age of Big Iron: …John von Neumann of the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton University. The IAS paper, as von Neumann’s document became known, articulated the concept of the stored program—a concept that has been called the single largest innovation in the history of the computer. (Von Neumann’s principles are described earlier, in…

  • Advanced Technology Bomber (aircraft)

    B-2, U.S. long-range stealth bomber that first flew in 1989 and was delivered to the U.S. Air Force starting in 1993. Built and maintained by Northrop Grumman Corporation, the B-2 is a “flying wing,” a configuration consisting essentially of a short but very broad wing with no fuselage and tail.

  • Advanced Train Control System

    railroad: Interlocking and routing: …the 1980s to develop an Advanced Train Control Systems (ATCS) project, which integrated the potential of the latest microelectronics and communications technologies. In fully realized ATCS, trains continuously and automatically radio to the dispatching centre their exact location and speed; both would be determined by a locomotive-mounted scanner as well…

  • Advanced Visual Studies at MIT, Center for

    Gyorgy Kepes: In 1967 Kepes founded the Center for Advanced Visual Studies at MIT, a community that would unite the work of artists and designers with that of architects, engineers, city planners, and scientists; he served as director until 1972. His writings include Language of Vision (1944) and The New Landscape in…

  • Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (United States satellite)

    Chandra X-ray Observatory, U.S. satellite, one of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) fleet of “Great Observatories” satellites, which is designed to make high-resolution images of celestial X-ray sources. In operation since 1999, it is named in honour of Subrahmanyan

  • Advancement of Creative Musicians, Association for the (American organization)

    Association for the Advancement of Creative Musicians, (AACM), cooperative organization of musicians, including several major figures of free jazz. The musical innovations of the AACM members became important influences on the idiom’s development. Of the approximately three dozen Chicago musicians

  • Advancement of Learning (work by Bacon)

    René Descartes: Early life and education: …philosopher Francis Bacon (1561–1626), in Advancement of Learning (1605), had earlier proposed a new science of observation and experiment to replace the traditional Aristotelian science, as Descartes himself did later.

  • Advancement of Women, Association for the (American organization)

    Maria Mitchell: …1869, she helped found the Association for the Advancement of Women (AAW; 1873) and served as its president (1875–76). Her involvement in the AAW reflected Mitchell’s support of women’s rights, including suffrage. She retired from Vassar in failing health in 1888 and died the next year.

  • Advances in Battlefield Medicine

    Studies of historical casualty rates have shown that about one-half of Military personnel killed in action died from the loss of blood and that up to 80% of those died within the first hour of injury on the battlefield. This time period has been dubbed the “golden hour,” when prompt treatment of

  • advancing longwall method (mining)

    coal mining: Longwall mining: In the advancing longwall method, which is more common in Europe, development of the block takes place only 30 to 40 metres ahead of the mining of the block, and the two operations proceed together to the boundary.

  • Advani, Lal Krishna (Indian politician)

    Lal Krishna Advani, Indian politician who was a founding member of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and deputy prime minister of India (2002–04). He was largely responsible for popularizing and strengthening the BJP, which, from its formation in 1980, emerged as one of the strongest political

  • advantageous heterozygosity (biology)

    consanguinity: Advantageous heterozygosity: In heterozygous form, with no adverse influence on the individual who carries them, recessive alleles retain the potential of causing future deaths from inherited disease. In effect, the death of the infant offspring of consanguineous parents purges the gene pool and reduces the…

  • advection (atmospheric science)

    Advection, in atmospheric science, change in a property of a moving mass of air because the mass is transported by the wind to a region where the property has a different value (e.g., the change in temperature when a warm air mass moves into a cool region). Advection can refer to either the

  • advection fog (meteorology)

    fog: Advection fog is formed by the slow passage of relatively warm, moist, stable air over a colder wet surface. It is common at sea whenever cold and warm ocean currents are in close proximity and may affect adjacent coasts. A good example is provided by…

  • advection frost (meteorology)

    agricultural technology: Frost: …nights with little or no wind when the outgoing radiation is excessive and the air temperature is not necessarily at the freezing point, and (2) wind, or advection, frost, which occurs at any time, day or night, regardless of cloud cover, when wind moves air in from cold regions. Both…

  • Advent (Christianity)

    Advent, (from Latin adventus, “coming”), in the Christian church calendar, the period of preparation for the celebration of the birth of Jesus Christ at Christmas and also of preparation for the Second Coming of Christ. In Western churches, Advent begins on the Sunday nearest to November 30 (St.

  • Advent calendar (calendar)

    Christmas: Contemporary customs in the West: An analogous custom is the Advent calendar, which provides 24 openings, one to be opened each day beginning December 1. According to tradition, the calendar was created in the 19th century by a Munich housewife who tired of having to answer endlessly when Christmas would come. The first commercial calendars…

  • Advent Christian Church (religion)

    Advent Christian Church, one of several Adventist churches that evolved from the teachings in the late 1840s of William Miller. It was organized in 1860. Doctrinal emphasis is placed on the anticipated Second Coming of Christ and on the Last Judgment, after which the wicked will be destroyed and

  • Adventism (Christianity)

    Adventist, member of any one of a group of Protestant Christian churches that trace their origin to the United States in the mid-19th century and that are distinguished by their emphasis on the belief that the personal, visible return of Christ in glory (i.e., the Second Coming) is close at hand, a

  • Adventists (Christianity)

    Adventist, member of any one of a group of Protestant Christian churches that trace their origin to the United States in the mid-19th century and that are distinguished by their emphasis on the belief that the personal, visible return of Christ in glory (i.e., the Second Coming) is close at hand, a

  • adventitia (anatomy)

    renal system: Structure of the ureteric wall: …ureter has three layers, the adventitia, or outer layer; the intermediate, muscular layer; and the lining, made up of mucous membrane. The adventitia consists of fibroelastic connective tissue that merges with the connective tissue behind the peritoneum. The muscular coat is composed of smooth (involuntary) muscle fibres and, in the…

  • adventitious bursa (anatomy)

    bursa: Adventitious, or accidental, bursas arise in soft tissues as a result of repeated subjections to unusual shearing stresses, particularly over bony prominences. Subcutaneous bursas ordinarily are ill-defined clefts at the junction of subcutaneous tissue and deep fasciae (sheets of fibrous tissue); these bursas acquire a…

  • adventitious root (plant anatomy)

    angiosperm: Root systems: …type of root system, the adventitious root system, differs from the primary variety in that the primary root is often short-lived and is replaced or supplemented by many roots that form from the stem. Most monocotyledons have adventitious roots; examples include orchids (Orchidaceae), bromeliads (Bromeliaceae), and many other epiphytic plants…

  • adventitious shoot (plant anatomy)

    malformation: Translocation of organs: An extreme example of adventitious shoot formation is found in Begonia phyllomaniaca after shock. In this instance, small plantlets develop spontaneously in incredible numbers from the superficial cell layers of the leaf blades, petioles, and stems. The adventitious shoots do not arise from preformed buds but develop from cells…

  • Adventure (album by Television)

    Television: …like its more polished follow-up, Adventure (1978), sold much better in Britain. Prior to Marquee Moon, Hell left to form the Heartbreakers (with ex-New York Doll Johnny Thunders), then fronted the Voidoids. Television disbanded in 1978, reuniting briefly in 1992 for an eponymous album and tour. The group reunited again…

  • Adventure (British ship)

    James Cook: Voyages and discoveries: …and a consort ship, the Adventure. He found no trace of Terra Australis, though he sailed beyond latitude 70° S in the Antarctic, but he successfully completed the first west–east circumnavigation in high latitudes, charted Tonga and Easter Island during the winters, and discovered New Caledonia in the Pacific and…

  • Adventure (electronic game [1979])

    electronic adventure game: Action-adventure games: ’s Adventure (1979), loosely based on Crowther’s text-based game, was released for the Atari 2600 home video console. The game used a top-down view and allowed players to carry and use items without inputting text commands.

  • Adventure (electronic game by Crowther [c. 1975])

    electronic game: Interactive fiction: …the 1970s was Will Crowther’s Colossal Cave Adventure, probably completed in 1977. Text-based games of its ilk have since been known commonly as electronic adventure games. Crowther combined his experiences exploring Kentucky’s Mammoth Cave system and playing Dungeons & Dragons-style role-playing games with fantasy themes reminiscent of J.R.R.

  • Adventure (film by Fleming [1945])

    Victor Fleming: The 1940s: …when he released the much-publicized Adventure, Gable’s first film following his service in World War II. However, few moviegoers were excited by the unlikely pairing of Gable and Greer Garson. The strained romantic comedy was a major box-office disappointment, and it ended Fleming’s long and illustrious tenure at MGM. His…

  • adventure bay pine (plant)

    Celery-top pine, (Phyllocladus aspleniifolius), slow-growing ornamental and timber conifer (family Podocarpaceae), native to temperate rainforests of Tasmania at elevations from sea level to 750 metres (2,500 feet). The dense golden-brown wood is used in fine furniture. The tree is shrubby at high

  • adventure game, electronic (electronic game genre)

    Electronic adventure game, electronic game genre characterized by exploring, puzzle solving, narrative interactions with game characters, and, for action-adventure games, running, jumping, climbing, fighting, and other intense action sequences. Many modern electronic games, such as role playing

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