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  • adoption (education)

    history of publishing: Educational publishing: This selection process is called adoption, and publishers compete to have their books adopted for use because of the large volume of sales that are thus guaranteed. The schoolbook that is widely adopted may sell for a generation and reward author and publisher on a scale beyond the dreams of…

  • adoption medicine

    Adoption medicine, field of medicine concerned with the care and anxieties of families and children involved in international adoptions. A multidisciplinary team of physicians works with the adopting parents before, during, and after the adoption process, helping them understand the unique risks

  • Adoption of Children Act (Massachusetts, United States [1851])

    adoption: …first modern adoption legislation, the Adoption of Children Act, was passed in the U.S. state of Massachusetts in 1851. It required judges to determine that adoptive parents had “sufficient ability to bring up the child” and that “it is fit and proper that such adoption should take effect.” In Great…

  • Adoptionism (Christianity)

    Adoptionism, either of two Christian heresies: one developed in the 2nd and 3rd centuries and is also known as Dynamic Monarchianism (see Monarchianism); the other began in the 8th century in Spain and was concerned with the teaching of Elipandus, archbishop of Toledo. Wishing to distinguish in

  • Adoptionist Monarchianism (Christianity)

    Saint Agobard: Agobard wrote against the Adoptionist heresy (that Jesus was not the son of God by nature but by adoption) of Felix of Urgel (who was confined at Lyon from 800 to 818), against contemporary superstitions, and against the Jews. His zeal for reform led him to attack trial by…

  • adoptive parent (kinship)

    Adoption, the act of establishing a person as parent to one who is not in fact or in law his child. Adoption is so widely recognized that it can be characterized as an almost worldwide institution with historical roots traceable to antiquity. In most ancient civilizations and in certain later

  • adoration (religion)

    ?alenu: …the ?alenu that is called Adoration in the ritual. In Gates of Prayer: The New Union Prayer Book (1975), however, Reform worshipers were given the option of using the original concept of the ?alenu in their liturgy.

  • Adoration (film by Egoyan [2008])

    Atom Egoyan: In Adoration (2008), Egoyan explored the effects of Internet communication on the formation of adolescent identity. His next film, Chloe (2009), examined sexual longing. The drama focused on a married woman who tests her husband’s faithfulness by hiring a prostitute to tempt him. Subsequent movies included…

  • Adoration of the Golden Calf, The (painting by Tintoretto)

    Tintoretto: Career: …depicting the Jews worshipping the golden calf while Moses on Mount Sinai receives the tables of the Law and the other a Last Judgment, Tintoretto painted two works of the highest rank with a great richness of narrative means, with an awareness of the thematic link between the two scenes…

  • Adoration of the Holy Eucharist (painting by Coello)

    Claudio Coello: …the sacristy in El Escorial, Adoration of the Holy Eucharist (1685–90). A fine arrangement of space in the Baroque style, it contains about 50 portraits, including that of Charles II. A remarkable mixture of profound religious feeling and realistic portraiture, closely allied to the work of Velázquez and Carre?o, it…

  • Adoration of the Kings (painting by Gossart)

    Jan Gossart: …early work extant is the Adoration of the Kings, which is painted in the ornate style of the Antwerp school. Other early works, such as Jesus, the Virgin, and the Baptist, reflect his interest in the works of Jan van Eyck and Albrecht Dürer. Another early work, famous for its…

  • Adoration of the Kings (painting by Veronese)

    Paolo Veronese: The later years: The nocturnal tone in the Adoration of the Kings in the church of Sta. Corona (Vicenza) endows the painting with a new intimacy, without renunciation of the characteristic Veronesian richness of colour, laid on with the minute, precious brushstrokes also used in small canvases, both sacred and profane, executed during…

  • Adoration of the Kings (painting by Botticelli)

    Sandro Botticelli: Devotional paintings: …this format, beginning with the Adoration of the Kings (c. 1473; also called Adoration of the Magi; in the collection of the National Gallery of Art in London), that he painted for Antonio Pucci. Before Botticelli, tondi had been conceived essentially as oblong scenes, but Botticelli suppressed all superfluity of…

  • Adoration of the Magi (religious motif)

    Magi: The Adoration of the Magi—i.e., their homage to the infant Jesus—early became one of the most popular themes in Christian art, the first extant painting on the subject being the fresco in the Priscilla Catacomb of Rome dating from the 2nd century. In the Middle Ages…

  • Adoration of the Magi (sculpture by Lewis)

    Edmonia Lewis: …commission, a version of the Adoration of the Magi, from a church in Baltimore, Md. It was variously reported that Lewis had last been seen in Rome in 1909 or 1911, but death records discovered in the early 21st century show that she died in London in 1907.

  • Adoration of the Magi (painting by Leonardo da Vinci)

    chiaroscuro: …in such paintings as his Adoration of the Magi (1481). Thereafter, chiaroscuro became a primary technique for many painters, and by the late 17th century the term was routinely used to describe any painting, drawing, or print that depended for its effect on an extensive gradation of light and darkness.

  • Adoration of the Magi (painting by Botticelli)

    Sandro Botticelli: Devotional paintings: …this format, beginning with the Adoration of the Kings (c. 1473; also called Adoration of the Magi; in the collection of the National Gallery of Art in London), that he painted for Antonio Pucci. Before Botticelli, tondi had been conceived essentially as oblong scenes, but Botticelli suppressed all superfluity of…

  • Adoration of the Magi, The (painting by Poussin)

    Nicolas Poussin: Conversion to Classicism: …an earlier work on this theme by the greatest Classical master of the Renaissance, Raphael.

  • Adoration of the Magi, The (painting by Giotto di Bondone)

    Giotto: …di Bondone, whose 1305–06 fresco The Adoration of the Magi includes a realistic depiction of a comet as the Star of Bethlehem in the Nativity scene; this image is believed to have been inspired by the artist’s observation of the passage of Halley’s Comet in 1301.

  • Adoration of the Mystic Lamb, The (work by Hubert and Jan van Eyck)

    Jan van Eyck: …Mystic Lamb (also called the Ghent Altarpiece, 1432). Hubert van Eyck is thought by some to have been Jan’s brother.

  • adoration of the shepherds (religious motif)

    Adoration of the shepherds, as a theme in Christian art, depiction of shepherds paying homage to the newborn Christ, an event described in The Gospel According to Luke. It is related to the older but less frequently represented annunciation to the shepherds, which shows the same shepherds in the

  • Adoration of the Trinity by Pope Clement, The (fresco by Tiepolo)

    Giovanni Battista Tiepolo: Early life: …as in the case of The Adoration of the Trinity by Pope Clement (c. 1735), which was sent to Nymphenburg and is now in the Alte Pinakothek in Munich, or The Martyrdom of St. Sebastian (1739), which was sent to the church in Diessen. Sometime toward the end of the…

  • Adoration, L’? (work by Borel)

    Jacques Borel: The Bond), which won the Prix Goncourt, was a semiautobiographical account of a son’s relationship to a widowed mother and had Proustian or Joycean characteristics in presenting vast details of events and thoughts. This work was followed by a sequel, Le Retour (1970; “The Return”),…

  • Adore (album by Smashing Pumpkins)

    Smashing Pumpkins: Adore (1998) not only met with mixed reviews but sold poorly, and MACHINA/The Machines of God (2000) sounded as if Corgan were going it alone, which he was by December 2000, when the group broke up. A parting shot, Machina II/The Friends & Enemies of…

  • Adornment of the Spiritual Marriage, The (work by Ruysbroeck)

    Jan van Ruysbroeck: …Chierheit der gheesteliker Brulocht (1350; The Spiritual Espousals), considered to be his masterpiece, develops his view of the Trinity and is a guide for the soul in search of God. Though his many writings were produced for his contemporary Augustinians, they spread rapidly through Latin translations and anticipated the 15th-century…

  • adorno (dance section)

    Latin American dance: Folk and popular dances: …next section consisted of an adorno (an improvisation of the dancers’ favourite steps). The final phase of the dances was the exaltación, which included spins and turns by the dancers, who remained separate. The Spanish seguidilla ended with a turn and a bien parado (final pose) with the couple side-by-side…

  • Adorno family (ruling family of Genoa)

    Adorno Family, Genoese family prominent in the politics of that city’s “popular” (democratic) dogeship (1339–1528), when the old aristocracy was exiled and new families seized power. Branches of the family became prominent in Flanders and Spain. They acceded to real power in the 14th century when

  • Adorno, Theodor Wiesengrund (German philosopher and music critic)

    Theodor Wiesengrund Adorno, German philosopher who also wrote on sociology, psychology, and musicology. Adorno obtained a degree in philosophy from Johann Wolfgang Goethe University in Frankfurt in 1924. His early writings, which emphasize aesthetic development as important to historical evolution,

  • Adoula, Cyrille (prime minister of Democratic Republic of the Congo)

    Democratic Republic of the Congo: The Congo crisis: …new civilian government headed by Cyrille Adoula came to power on August 2, 1961.

  • Adour River (river, France)

    Adour River, river in southwestern France. The Adour River rises in the central Pyrenees near Tourmalet Pass, just south of Midi de Bigorre Peak, and flows in a curve, north, then west, to enter the Bay of Biscay just below Bayonne after a course of 208 miles (335 km). Draining a basin of 5,800

  • Adowa (Ethiopia)

    Adwa, town, northern Ethiopia. Adwa lies on the east-west highway between Aksum and Adi Grat at its junction with the road north to Asmara (Asmera), in Eritrea. Adwa is a market centre (grains, honey, hides, coffee) for the Tigray people. The town is located 10 miles (16 km) west of an area of

  • Adowa, Battle of (Italy-Ethiopia [1896])

    Battle of Adwa, (March 1, 1896), military clash at Adwa, in north-central Ethiopia, between the Ethiopian army of Emperor Menilek II and Italian forces. The Ethiopian army’s victory checked Italy’s attempt to build an empire in Africa. The victory had further significance for being the first

  • Adoxa moschatellina (plant)

    Dipsacales: Adoxaceae: Muskroot (Adoxa moschatellina) is widely distributed in northern regions, though it is endangered in several areas. It is a low-growing perennial herb composed of a basal cluster of leaves and a single stem. It has a musky odour (as its name implies), and its cultivation…

  • Adoxaceae (plant family)

    Dipsacales: Adoxaceae: Adoxaceae—the elderberry, or moschatel, family— has five genera and 200 species. The three smallest genera (Adoxa, Sinadoxa, and Tetradoxa) are exclusively herbaceous, while the larger genera (Viburnum and Sambucus) are both woody and herbaceous. These latter genera are found mostly in the north temperate…

  • ADP (Malian political organization)

    Amadou Toumani Touré: …had the backing of the Alliance for Democracy and Progress (ADP), a group of more than 40 parties that formed to support him. Touré captured 71 percent of the vote in the first round of voting, held on April 29, thus avoiding the need for a runoff election. In legislative…

  • ADP (American company)

    Lockheed Martin Corporation: Lockheed Corporation: …established a highly secret section, Advanced Development Projects (ADP), to design a fighter around a British De Havilland jet engine. The result was the P-80 Shooting Star, the first American jet aircraft to enter operational service (1945).

  • ADP (coenzyme)

    heterocyclic compound: Five- and six-membered rings with two or more heteroatoms: Adenosine monophosphate, diphosphate, and triphosphate (AMP, ADP, and ATP, respectively) are important participants in energy processes in the living cell. Each of the compounds is composed of the nucleotide base adenine linked to the sugar ribose, which in turn is linked to a linear “tail” of one,…

  • Adrano (Italy)

    Adrano, town, eastern Sicily, Italy. It lies near the Simeto River on a lava plateau on the western slopes of Mount Etna, northwest of Catania city. It originated as the ancient town of Hadranon, founded about 400 bc by Dionysius I, tyrant of Syracuse, near a sanctuary dedicated to the Siculan god

  • Adranum (Italy)

    Adrano, town, eastern Sicily, Italy. It lies near the Simeto River on a lava plateau on the western slopes of Mount Etna, northwest of Catania city. It originated as the ancient town of Hadranon, founded about 400 bc by Dionysius I, tyrant of Syracuse, near a sanctuary dedicated to the Siculan god

  • Adrar (oasis, Algeria)

    Adrar, palm grove settlement, the largest of the Touat oasis group, southwestern Algeria, in the Sahara. Adrar’s historical name was given it by the local Berber (Amazigh) people, the Timmi, who established their ksar (fortified village) here. The modern name is derived from the Berber adrar

  • Adrar (plateau, Mauritania)

    Adrar, traditional region of central Mauritania in western Africa. It consists of a low central massif with noticeable cliffs that rise to about 800 feet (240 m). The terrain is arid and almost totally unsuitable for cropping. There is, however, sufficient water at the base of the uplands to

  • Adrar des Iforas (plateau, Mali)

    Mali: Relief: …in the north is the Iforas Massif. An extension of the mountainous Hoggar region of the Sahara, this heavily eroded sandstone plateau rises to elevations of more than 2,000 feet.

  • Adrastus (Greek mythology)

    Seven Against Thebes: …married Argeia, daughter of King Adrastus. Another daughter, Deipyle, married Tydeus, son of the exiled king Oeneus of Calydon. At the end of the year, Polyneices’ turn came to rule Thebes. When Eteocles refused to give up the throne, Adrastus mobilized an army, whose chieftains, in Aeschylus’s tragedy about the…

  • adrenal cortex (anatomy)

    adrenal gland: Adrenal cortex: Cells of the adrenal cortex synthesize and secrete chemical derivatives (steroids) of cholesterol. While cholesterol can be synthesized in many body tissues, further modification into steroid hormones takes place only in the adrenal cortex and its embryological cousins, the ovaries and the testes

  • adrenal cortical insufficiency (pathology)

    Addison disease, rare disorder defined by destruction of the outer layer of the adrenal glands, the hormone-producing organs located just above the kidneys. Addison disease is rare because it only occurs when at least 90 percent of the adrenal cortex is destroyed. In the mid-19th century when the

  • adrenal corticosteroid (chemical compound)

    Corticoid, any of a group of more than 40 organic compounds belonging to the steroid family and present in the cortex of the adrenal glands. Of these substances, about six are hormones, secreted into the bloodstream and carried to other tissues, where they elicit physiological responses. (The

  • adrenal crisis (pathology)

    Addison disease: Symptoms: …acute adrenal insufficiency, known as adrenal crisis. Adrenal crisis is characterized by fever, vomiting, diarrhea, and a precipitous fall in blood pressure. The patient may go into shock and die unless he is treated vigorously with an intravenous saline solution and with cortisol or other glucocorticoids. Adrenal crisis may occur…

  • adrenal gland

    Adrenal gland, either of two small triangular endocrine glands one of which is located above each kidney. In humans each adrenal gland weighs about 5 grams (0.18 ounce) and measures about 30 mm (1.2 inches) wide, 50 mm (2 inches) long, and 10 mm (0.4 inch) thick. Each gland consists of two parts:

  • adrenal hormone

    steroid: Adrenal hormones: The adrenal cortex of vertebrates synthesizes oxygenated progesterone derivatives. These compounds are hormones that are vital to survival and are classified according to their biological activity. The glucocorticoids promote the deposition of glycogen in the liver and the breakdown of body proteins. Mineralocorticoids

  • adrenal medulla (anatomy)

    human nervous system: The endocrine system: The adrenal medulla, on the other hand, is innervated by sympathetic preganglionic neurons. Within the adrenal medulla are chromaffin cells, which are homologous to sympathetic neurons and, like sympathetic neurons, are developed from embryonic neural crest cells. Chromaffin cells produce epinephrine (adrenaline) and, to a much…

  • adrenal steroid (chemical compound)

    Corticoid, any of a group of more than 40 organic compounds belonging to the steroid family and present in the cortex of the adrenal glands. Of these substances, about six are hormones, secreted into the bloodstream and carried to other tissues, where they elicit physiological responses. (The

  • adrenal tumour (pathology)

    adrenal gland: Diseases of the adrenal glands: …be due to either an adrenal tumour or hyperplasia. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, also known as adrenogenital syndrome, is a disorder in which there is an inherited defect in one of the enzymes needed for the production of cortisol. Excessive amounts of adrenal androgens must be produced to overcome the block…

  • adrenaline (hormone)

    Epinephrine, hormone that is secreted mainly by the medulla of the adrenal glands and that functions primarily to increase cardiac output and to raise glucose levels in the blood. Epinephrine typically is released during acute stress, and its stimulatory effects fortify and prepare an individual

  • adrenergic drug

    Adrenergic drug, any of various drugs that mimic or interfere with the functioning of the sympathetic nervous system by affecting the release or action of norepinephrine and epinephrine. These hormones, which are also known as noradrenaline and adrenaline, are secreted by the adrenal gland, hence

  • adrenergic nerve fibre (anatomy)

    Adrenergic nerve fibre, nerve fibre that releases the neurotransmitter norepinephrine (also known as noradrenaline) at the synapse, or junction, between a nerve and its end organ, which may be a muscle, gland, or another nerve. Adrenergic nerve fibres make up the sympathetic nervous system, one of

  • adrenergic receptor (biology)

    nervous system: Epinephrine and norepinephrine: …norepinephrine and epinephrine are called adrenergic receptors. They are divided into two types, α and β. These are further classified into subtypes α1, α2, β1, and β2.

  • adrenoceptor (biology)

    nervous system: Epinephrine and norepinephrine: …norepinephrine and epinephrine are called adrenergic receptors. They are divided into two types, α and β. These are further classified into subtypes α1, α2, β1, and β2.

  • adrenocortical hyperactivity (pathology)

    adrenocorticotropic hormone: …tumour or corticotroph hyperplasia causes adrenocortical hyperfunction, which in turn causes the constellation of symptoms and signs called Cushing syndrome. ACTH deficiency can occur as part of a multiple pituitary hormone deficiency syndrome (panhypopituitarism) or as an isolated deficiency.

  • adrenocortical hyperfunction (pathology)

    adrenocorticotropic hormone: …tumour or corticotroph hyperplasia causes adrenocortical hyperfunction, which in turn causes the constellation of symptoms and signs called Cushing syndrome. ACTH deficiency can occur as part of a multiple pituitary hormone deficiency syndrome (panhypopituitarism) or as an isolated deficiency.

  • adrenocortical hypofunction (pathology)

    Addison disease, rare disorder defined by destruction of the outer layer of the adrenal glands, the hormone-producing organs located just above the kidneys. Addison disease is rare because it only occurs when at least 90 percent of the adrenal cortex is destroyed. In the mid-19th century when the

  • adrenocorticosteroid (chemical compound)

    Corticoid, any of a group of more than 40 organic compounds belonging to the steroid family and present in the cortex of the adrenal glands. Of these substances, about six are hormones, secreted into the bloodstream and carried to other tissues, where they elicit physiological responses. (The

  • adrenocorticotropic hormone

    Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), a polypeptide hormone formed in the pituitary gland that regulates the activity of the outer region (cortex) of the adrenal glands. In mammals the action of ACTH is limited to those areas of the adrenal cortex in which the glucocorticoid hormones—cortisol and

  • adrenocorticotropin

    Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), a polypeptide hormone formed in the pituitary gland that regulates the activity of the outer region (cortex) of the adrenal glands. In mammals the action of ACTH is limited to those areas of the adrenal cortex in which the glucocorticoid hormones—cortisol and

  • adrenogenital syndrome (pathology)

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, any of a group of inherited disorders that are characterized by enlargement of the adrenal glands resulting primarily from excessive secretion of androgenic hormones by the adrenal cortex. It is a disorder in which the deficiency or absence of a single enzyme has

  • Adret, Rabbi Shlomo ben Abraham (Spanish rabbi)

    Solomon ben Abraham Adret, outstanding spiritual leader of Spanish Jewry of his time (known as El Rab de Espa?a [the Rabbi of Spain]); he is remembered partly for his controversial decree of 1305 threatening to excommunicate all Jews less than 25 years old (except medical students) who studied

  • Adret, Solomon ben Abraham (Spanish rabbi)

    Solomon ben Abraham Adret, outstanding spiritual leader of Spanish Jewry of his time (known as El Rab de Espa?a [the Rabbi of Spain]); he is remembered partly for his controversial decree of 1305 threatening to excommunicate all Jews less than 25 years old (except medical students) who studied

  • Adrets, Fran?ois de Beaumont, baron des (French military leader)

    Fran?ois de Beaumont, baron des Adrets, French military leader of the Wars of Religion, notorious for his cruelty. During the reign of Henry II of France, Adrets served with distinction in the royal army and became colonel of the “legions” of Dauphiné, Provence, and Languedoc. In 1562, however, he

  • Adria (Italy)

    Adria, town and episcopal see in the Veneto regione of northern Italy, on the Bianco Canal just east of Rovigo. Founded by the Etruscans or the Veneti of northeastern Italy, it later became a Roman town and was a flourishing port on the Adriatic Sea (to which it gave its name) until the silting up

  • Adrià Acosta, Fernando (Catalan chef)

    Ferran Adrià, Catalan chef who, as the creative force behind the restaurant El Bulli (closed in 2011), pioneered the influential culinary trend known as molecular gastronomy, which uses precise scientific techniques to create inventive and evocative high-end cuisine. In the early 21st century many

  • Adria pipeline (pipeline, Europe)

    Adria pipeline, pipeline completed in 1974 to carry Middle Eastern and North African crude petroleum from the deepwater port of Omisalj on the island of Krk, in Croatia, to inland refineries. The pipeline connects refineries in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, and Slovenia—including Sisak,

  • Adrià, Ferran (Catalan chef)

    Ferran Adrià, Catalan chef who, as the creative force behind the restaurant El Bulli (closed in 2011), pioneered the influential culinary trend known as molecular gastronomy, which uses precise scientific techniques to create inventive and evocative high-end cuisine. In the early 21st century many

  • Adriamandisoarivo (African ruler)

    Boina: The other son, Adriamandisoarivo, continued the migration northward and established his rule over a second Sakalava kingdom, Boina. At his death about 1710, Boina covered the broad coastal plain between the Manambalo and Mahajamba rivers and collected tribute from neighbouring states. Some disintegration followed his death, but Boina…

  • Adrian (Roman emperor)

    Hadrian, Roman emperor (117–138 ce), the emperor Trajan’s cousin and successor, who was a cultivated admirer of Greek civilization and who unified and consolidated Rome’s vast empire. He was the third of the so-called Five Good Emperors. Hadrian’s Roman forebears left Picenum in Italy for southern

  • Adrian (Michigan, United States)

    Adrian, city, seat (1838) of Lenawee county, southeastern Michigan, U.S., on the River Raisin, 40 miles (65 km) southwest of Ann Arbor. Addison J. Comstock settled the site in 1826 as Logan and renamed it in 1828 for the Roman emperor Hadrian (the H was dropped in 1838). With his father, Darius,

  • Adrian (English abbot)

    Saint Theodore of Canterbury: Adrian, abbot of Nerida, Italy, and Benedict Biscop, later abbot of Wearmouth and Jarrow, Durham. In 669 they reached Canterbury, where Theodore made Adrian the abbot of SS. Peter and Paul monastery, afterward named St. Augustine’s. There they created a famous school influential in the…

  • Adrian I (pope)

    Adrian I, pope from 772 to 795 whose close relationship with the emperor Charlemagne symbolized the medieval ideal of union of church and state in a united Christendom. Having been born an aristocrat and having served Popes Paul I and Stephen III (IV), he was elected pope on February 1 with the

  • Adrian II (pope)

    Adrian II, pope from 867 to 872. A relative of two previous popes, Stephen V and Sergius II, he had been called to the papacy twice before but declined. He accepted the call on Dec. 14, 867. Under his vigorous predecessor, St. Nicholas I, the papacy had reached a high point that Adrian could not

  • Adrian III, Saint (pope)

    Saint Adrian III, ; canonized June 2, 1891; feast day July 8), pope from 884 to 885. Adrian’s brief pontificate came during troubled times. He died en route to the Diet of Worms after being summoned by the Frankish king Charles III the Fat to settle the succession to the empire and discuss the

  • Adrian IV (pope)

    Adrian IV, the only Englishman to occupy the papal throne (1154–59). He became a canon regular of St. Ruf near Avignon, Fr., and in about 1150 Pope Eugenius III appointed him cardinal bishop of Albano, Italy. Eugenius sent him in 1152 as legate to Scandinavia, where his mission to reorganize the

  • Adrian of Cambridge, Edgar Douglas Adrian, 1st Baron (British electrophysiologist)

    Edgar Douglas Adrian, 1st Baron Adrian, British electrophysiologist who with Sir Charles Sherrington won the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1932 for discoveries regarding the nerve cell. Adrian graduated in medicine in 1915 from Trinity College, Cambridge. After medical service during

  • Adrian of Utrecht (pope)

    Adrian VI, the only Dutch pope, elected in 1522. He was the last non-Italian pope until the election of John Paul II in 1978. He studied at the Catholic University of Leuven (Louvain), where he was ordained priest and became, successively, professor of theology, chancellor, and rector. The great

  • Adrian V (pope)

    Adrian V, pope for about five weeks in 1276. His uncle Pope Innocent IV appointed him cardinal. He was legate to England (1265–68), charged with establishing peace between the English king Henry III and the rebellious barons in 1265. Elected as successor to Innocent V on July 11, he died a little

  • Adrian VI (pope)

    Adrian VI, the only Dutch pope, elected in 1522. He was the last non-Italian pope until the election of John Paul II in 1978. He studied at the Catholic University of Leuven (Louvain), where he was ordained priest and became, successively, professor of theology, chancellor, and rector. The great

  • Adriana, Villa (villa, Tivoli, Italy)

    Hadrian’s Villa, country residence built (c. 125–134 ce) at Tivoli near Rome by the emperor Hadrian. This villa is considered the epitome in architecture of the opulence and elegance of the Roman world. Covering approximately 7 square miles (18 square km), the complex was more an imperial garden

  • Adrianople (Turkey)

    Edirne, city, extreme western Turkey. It lies at the junction of the Tunca and Maritsa (Turkish: Meri?) rivers, near the borders of Greece and Bulgaria. The largest and oldest part of the town occupies a meander of the Tunca around the ruins of an ancient citadel. Edirne’s site and turbulent

  • Adrianople, Battle of (Roman history [378])

    Battle of Adrianople, Adrianople also spelled Hadrianopolis, (Aug. 9, ad 378), battle fought at present Edirne, in European Turkey, resulting in the defeat of a Roman army commanded by the emperor Valens at the hands of the Germanic Visigoths led by Fritigern and augmented by Ostrogothic and other

  • Adrianople, Peace of (1878)

    history of Transcaucasia: Russian penetration: …this failed, and, by the Peace of Adrianople, Russia succeeded in adding to its Transcaucasian territories the districts of Kars, Batumi, and Ardahan.

  • Adrianople, Peace of (1713)

    Peter I: The Turkish War (1710–13): …to renew hostilities, but the Peace of Adrianople (Edirne) was concluded in 1713, leaving Azov to the Turks. From that time on Peter’s military effort was concentrated on winning his war against Sweden.

  • Adrianople, Peace of (1829)

    Treaty of Edirne, (Sept. 14, 1829), pact concluding the Russo-Turkish War of 1828–29, signed at Edirne (ancient Adrianople), Tur.; it strengthened the Russian position in eastern Europe and weakened that of the Ottoman Empire. The treaty foreshadowed the Ottoman Empire’s future dependence on the

  • Adrianople, Siege of (Balkan Wars [1912-1913])

    Siege of Adrianople, (3 November 1912–26 March 1913), decisive conflict of the first of the two Balkan Wars (1912–13). Adrianople was one of the largest cities in the Ottoman Empire. When the Bulgarians stormed the city in the First Balkan War, it seemed they would become the predominant power in

  • Adrianople, Treaty of (1829)

    Treaty of Edirne, (Sept. 14, 1829), pact concluding the Russo-Turkish War of 1828–29, signed at Edirne (ancient Adrianople), Tur.; it strengthened the Russian position in eastern Europe and weakened that of the Ottoman Empire. The treaty foreshadowed the Ottoman Empire’s future dependence on the

  • Adrianople, Treaty of (1190)

    Isaac II Angelus: Isaac concluded the Treaty of Adrianople with Frederick in February 1190, and in the following month Frederick’s forces were transported across the Hellespont to Asia Minor.

  • Adriatic Karst (geological region, southeastern Europe)

    cave: Geographic distribution of karst terrain: …geologic structure and to the Adriatic coastline. Although isolated poljes have been identified elsewhere, their large numbers in the karst of the Dinaric Alps are attributable to a system of active faults as well as to intense solution activity in nearly 9,000 metres of carbonate rock.

  • Adriatic Sea (sea, Mediterranean Sea)

    Adriatic Sea, arm of the Mediterranean Sea, lying between the Italian and Balkan peninsulas. The Strait of Otranto at its southeasterly limit links it with the Ionian Sea. It is about 500 miles (800 km) long with an average width of 100 miles, a maximum depth of 4,035 feet (1,324 metres), and an

  • Adrien de Gerlache (Belgian naval officer)

    Adrien-Victor-Joseph, baron de Gerlache de Gomery, Belgian naval officer who led the first Antarctic expedition concentrating on scientific observation (1897–99). Sailing with him as mate on the Belgica was Roald Amundsen, who on a subsequent expedition of his own was the first to reach the South

  • Adrienne Lecouvreur (work by Scribe)

    Eugène Scribe: His Adrienne Lecouvreur (1849), a melodrama about an actress who loves a nobleman, unaware of his high rank and true identity, was favoured as a vehicle by such notable actresses as Sarah Bernhardt and Helena Modjeska. Scribe also wrote a ballet and several opera libretti. He…

  • adrishta (Indian philosophy)

    Indian philosophy: Organization and contents: …to the supersensible force, called adrishta. Chapter 6 argues that performance of Vedic injunctions generates this supersensible force and that the merits and demerits accumulated lead to moksha. Chapter 7 argues that qualities of eternal things are eternal and those of noneternal things are noneternal. Chapter 8 argues that the…

  • Adroa (African deity)

    Lugbara: …believe in a creator god, Adroa. They are one of the peoples least affected by modern changes in Uganda, maintaining a strong sense of their own identity.

  • Adrock (American musician and rapper)

    Beastie Boys: …1965, New York City), and Adrock (byname of Adam Horovitz; b. October 31, 1966, South Orange, New Jersey).

  • Adroqué, Esteban (Argentine politician)

    Almirante Brown: Esteban Adroqué petitioned the provincial government to expropriate land from the existing counties of San Vicente and Quilmes to establish the new one. The original settlers were residents of Buenos Aires city who fled the capital during an epidemic of yellow fever. In 1886 Adroqué…

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