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  • Adar Sheni (Jewish month)
  • Adarand Constructors v. Pena (law case)

    affirmative action: In Adarand Constructors v. Pena (1995), the court ruled that federal affirmative action programs were unconstitutional unless they fulfilled a “compelling governmental interest.”

  • Adare language

    Ethio-Semitic languages: …Ethiopia and central Eritrea; Argobba; Hareri; and Gurage. Although some scholars once considered the so-called Ethiopic languages to be a branch within Semitic, these languages are now referred to as Ethio-Semitic. They are generally grouped together with the dialects of the South Arabic language as Southern Peripheral Semitic or South…

  • Adare, Cape (cape, Antarctica)

    Ross Sea: …175° W and lying between Cape Adare in northern Victoria Land on the west and Cape Colbeck on Edward VII Peninsula on the east. The northern limit lies approximately along the edge of the continental shelf and the southern limit along a great barrier wall of ice marking the front…

  • Adarnase IV (king of Georgia)

    Bagratid Dynasty: Another Bagratid, Adarnase IV, became king of Georgia in 888, and his line ruled there intermittently until 1505.

  • adat (Malayan and Indonesian traditional law)

    Adat, customary law of the indigenous peoples of Malaysia and Indonesia. It was the unwritten, traditional code governing all aspects of personal conduct from birth to death. Two kinds of Malay adat law developed prior to the 15th century: Adat Perpateh developed in a matrilineal kinship structure

  • Adat Perpateh (Malayan and Indonesian traditional law)

    adat: …prior to the 15th century: Adat Perpateh developed in a matrilineal kinship structure in areas occupied by the Minangkabau people in Sumatra and Negeri Sembilan; Adat Temenggong originated in bilaterally based territorial social units. Both adat forms were markedly transformed by Islāmic and later European legal systems.

  • Adat Temenggong (Malayan and Indonesian traditional law)

    adat: …in Sumatra and Negeri Sembilan; Adat Temenggong originated in bilaterally based territorial social units. Both adat forms were markedly transformed by Islāmic and later European legal systems.

  • adatom (chemistry)

    electrochemical reaction: Electrocrystallization: …and freely moving atoms, called adatoms. Since the electrons tend to join the rest in the bulk of the metal, adatoms appear to have a partial charge, less than that of the elementary positive charge. The adatoms therefore attract solvent molecules, and the species is partially solvated. This reaction justifies…

  • ADAV (political party, Germany)

    Social Democratic Party of Germany: History: …merger in 1875 of the General German Workers’ Union, led by Ferdinand Lassalle, and the Social Democratic Workers’ Party, headed by August Bebel and Wilhelm Liebknecht. In 1890 it adopted its current name, the Social Democratic Party of Germany. The party’s early history was characterized by frequent and intense internal…

  • adaxial meristem (plant anatomy)

    angiosperm: Leaves: …side facing the stem (adaxial meristem). Growth at this adaxial meristem forms the flattened leaf with the radial (cylindrical) leaf tip typical of the monocotyledons. If the adaxial meristem is long-lived (Figure 10), long flat leaves in the same plane as the stem are formed (Iris; Iridaceae); if short-lived…

  • ADB

    Asian Development Bank (ADB), organization that provides loans and equity investments for development projects in its member countries. The bank also provides technical assistance for projects and programs, and it promotes the investment of capital for development. It was established in August 1966

  • ADB

    African Development Bank (ADB), African organization established in 1964, operational beginning in 1966, and dedicated to financing the economic and social development of its African member countries. Its membership includes 53 African states and 24 non-African countries. ADB headquarters are in

  • adbhutadharma (Buddhism)

    a?gā: Abbhutadhamma, or adbhutadharma (“wondrous phenomena”), stories of miracles and supernatural events. Vedalla (perhaps meaning “subtle analysis”), teachings in catechetical form, according to the Pāli system. The Sanskrit tradition places here, as vaipulya, a number of important Mahāyāna works, including the Lotus Sūtra, A??asāhasrikā-praj?āpāramitā, and

  • ADCO (Emirian company)

    United Arab Emirates: Resources and power: …by another ADNOC company, the Abu Dhabi Company for Onshore Oil Operations, which is likewise partially owned by American, French, Japanese, and British interests. Other concessions also are held by Japanese companies.

  • Adcock, Fleur (New Zealand poet)

    Fleur Adcock, New Zealand-born British poet known for her tranquil domestic lyrics intercut with flashes of irony and glimpses of the fantastic and the macabre. Adcock’s family moved to England in 1939 but returned to New Zealand in 1947. After earning degrees at Wellington Girls’ College and

  • Adcock, Joe (American baseball player)

    Joseph Wilbur Adcock, (“Joe”), American baseball player who hit 336 home runs in a 17-year career in the major leagues; although he once hit four home runs in a single game and established the major league record for total bases (18), his most famous hit came on May 26, 1959, when, playing for the

  • Adcock, Joseph Wilbur (American baseball player)

    Joseph Wilbur Adcock, (“Joe”), American baseball player who hit 336 home runs in a 17-year career in the major leagues; although he once hit four home runs in a single game and established the major league record for total bases (18), his most famous hit came on May 26, 1959, when, playing for the

  • Adcock, Kareen Fleur (New Zealand poet)

    Fleur Adcock, New Zealand-born British poet known for her tranquil domestic lyrics intercut with flashes of irony and glimpses of the fantastic and the macabre. Adcock’s family moved to England in 1939 but returned to New Zealand in 1947. After earning degrees at Wellington Girls’ College and

  • ADD (pathology)

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a behavioral syndrome characterized by inattention and distractibility, restlessness, inability to sit still, and difficulty concentrating on one thing for any period of time. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) most commonly occurs in

  • add-on (software)

    Plug-in, computer software that adds new functions to a host program without altering the host program itself. Widely used in digital audio, video, and Web browsing, plug-ins enable programmers to update a host program while keeping the user within the program’s environment. Plug-ins first gained

  • Adda River (river, Italy)

    Adda River, river, in the Lombardia (Lombardy) regione of northern Italy, issuing from small lakes in the Rhaetian Alps at 7,660 feet (2,335 m). The Adda flows southward from Bormio to Tirano, where it turns west past Sondrio to enter Lake Como near its northern end after a course of 194 miles

  • Adda, Fiume (river, Italy)

    Adda River, river, in the Lombardia (Lombardy) regione of northern Italy, issuing from small lakes in the Rhaetian Alps at 7,660 feet (2,335 m). The Adda flows southward from Bormio to Tirano, where it turns west past Sondrio to enter Lake Como near its northern end after a course of 194 miles

  • Addagoppe (Babylonian priestess)

    history of Mesopotamia: The last kings of Babylonia: His mother, Addagoppe, was a priestess of the god Sin in Harran; she came to Babylon and managed to secure responsible offices for her son at court. The god of the moon rewarded her piety with a long life—she lived to be 103—and she was buried in…

  • Addams Family, The (film by Vernon and Tiernan [2019])

    Christina Aguilera: …True” to the soundtracks for Addams Family (2019) and Mulan (2020), respectively. In 2019 she began a residency show titled Xperience at Planet Hollywood in Las Vegas. Aguilera received numerous accolades and awards for her music, including several Grammy Awards.

  • Addams Family, The (American television series)

    Sidney Lanfield: Television work: …Wagon Train, McHale’s Navy, and The Addams Family; for each of the latter two programs, he directed some 50 episodes. Lanfield retired from directing in 1967.

  • Addams Family, The (film by Sonnenfeld [1991])

    Anjelica Huston: …the drolly dolorous Morticia in The Addams Family (1991) and its sequel, Addams Family Values (1993), to Cuban immigrant Carmela Perez in The Perez Family (1995) to a Buffalo Bills-obsessed housewife in the dark indie Buffalo ’66 (1998). In 1996 she directed Bastard out of Carolina, a film that eventually…

  • Addams, Charles (American cartoonist)

    Charles Addams, cartoonist whose drawings, known mostly through The New Yorker magazine, became famous in the United States as examples of macabre humour. Addams attended various schools from 1929 to 1932; thereafter, aside from a brief period as a commercial artist, he was a free-lance cartoonist,

  • Addams, Charles Samuel (American cartoonist)

    Charles Addams, cartoonist whose drawings, known mostly through The New Yorker magazine, became famous in the United States as examples of macabre humour. Addams attended various schools from 1929 to 1932; thereafter, aside from a brief period as a commercial artist, he was a free-lance cartoonist,

  • Addams, Frankie (fictional character)

    Frankie Addams, fictional character, the protagonist of Carson McCullers’s novel The Member of the Wedding (1946). Frankie is a lonely 12-year-old tomboy who feels the need for human connection. She particularly longs to be a member of her brother Jarvis’s wedding and to accompany him on his

  • Addams, Jane (American social reformer)

    Jane Addams, American social reformer and pacifist, cowinner (with Nicholas Murray Butler) of the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1931. She is probably best known as a cofounder of Hull House in Chicago, one of the first social settlements in North America. Addams graduated from Rockford Female Seminary

  • addax (antelope)

    Addax, (Addax nasomaculatus), the most desert-adapted African antelope, formerly found throughout most of the Sahara but nearly exterminated in the wild in the last quarter of the 20th century by poaching from motorized vehicles. The addax’s most striking feature is its long spiral horns. Male

  • Addax nasomaculatus (antelope)

    Addax, (Addax nasomaculatus), the most desert-adapted African antelope, formerly found throughout most of the Sahara but nearly exterminated in the wild in the last quarter of the 20th century by poaching from motorized vehicles. The addax’s most striking feature is its long spiral horns. Male

  • adder (reptile)

    Adder, any of several groups of venomous snakes of the viper family, Viperidae, and the Australo-Papuan death adders, viperlike members of Elapidae, the cobra family. The name adder may also be applied to certain other snakes, such as the hognose snake (Heterodon), a harmless North American genus.

  • adder’s mouth (plant)

    Pogonia: Snakemouth (P. ophioglossoides), also known as rose pogonia and adder’s mouth, is common in bogs and swamps of eastern North America. The plant is about 8 to 53 cm (3 to 21 inches) tall. The Asian pogonia (P. japonica) grows in moist open areas of…

  • adder’s tongue (plant)

    Erythronium: The common dog’s tooth violet, or adder’s tongue, of North America is E. americanum. It has yellow flowers and brown-mottled leaves. Several species of Erythronium are grown as rock-garden ornamentals.

  • adder’s-tongue fern (fern genus)

    Ophioglossaceae: The genus Ophioglossum (adder’s-tongue ferns), with 46 tropical and temperate species, has sporangia in two rows near the tip of a usually unbranched narrow fertile spike. The group is of interest because its members have the highest number of chromosomes of any organisms known to science; O. reticulatum…

  • Adderall (drug)

    attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Treatment: , Adderall) and the drug dextroamphetamine (e.g., Dexedrine) are other stimulants that may be used to treat ADHD. These drugs may be prescribed in a short-acting form, the effects of which last about four hours, or a long-acting form, with effects lasting anywhere from six to…

  • Adderley Street (street, Cape Town, South Africa)

    Cape Town: The city layout: …that name, it was renamed Adderley Street in 1850. Other main roads paralleled it as the town grew. In Strand Street, on what once was the shore of Table Bay, stands the Castle of Good Hope, built by the company between 1666 and 1679. Near the Castle are the Botanic…

  • Adderley, Cannonball (American musician)

    Cannonball Adderley, one of the most prominent and popular American jazz musicians of the 1950s and ’60s whose exuberant music was firmly in the bop school but which also employed the melodic sense of traditional jazz. A multi-instrumentalist, Adderley is best-known for his work on alto saxophone

  • Adderley, Herb (American football player)

    Green Bay Packers: …Davis, tackle Henry Jordan, cornerback Herb Adderley, and safety Willie Wood. They won championships in 1961 and 1962 and followed with three straight championships starting in the 1965–66 season. On January 15, 1967, in the inaugural Super Bowl, the Packers defeated the Kansas City Chiefs 35–10. They successfully defended their…

  • Adderley, Julian Edwin (American musician)

    Cannonball Adderley, one of the most prominent and popular American jazz musicians of the 1950s and ’60s whose exuberant music was firmly in the bop school but which also employed the melodic sense of traditional jazz. A multi-instrumentalist, Adderley is best-known for his work on alto saxophone

  • Adderley, Nat (American musician)

    Nat Adderley, American cornetist and songwriter who starred in the popular “soul jazz” quintet headed (1959–75) by his older brother, Cannonball Adderley. Although he began playing the trumpet in his teens, Nat Adderley switched in 1950 to the somewhat smaller cornet, playing it in the U.S. Army

  • addiction

    drug use: The nature of drug addiction and dependence: If opium were the only drug of abuse and if the only kind of abuse were one of habitual, compulsive use, discussion of addiction might be a simple matter. But opium is not the only drug of abuse, and there are probably…

  • adding machine (technology)

    Adding machine, a type of calculator (q.v.) used for performing simple arithmetical

  • adding-up game

    card game: Classification: Adding-up games. A running total is kept of the face values of cards played to the table, and the aim is to make or avoid making certain totals. Cribbage, the most sophisticated example, also includes card combinations. Shedding games. The aim is either to be…

  • Addington, Henry, 1st Viscount Sidmouth of Sidmouth (prime minister of Great Britain)

    Henry Addington, 1st Viscount Sidmouth, British prime minister from March 1801 to May 1804. Honest but unimaginative and inflexibly conservative, he proved unable to cope with the problems of the Napoleonic Wars, and later, in his decade as home secretary, he made himself unpopular by his harsh

  • Addington, Maybelle (American musician)

    Maybelle Carter, American guitarist whose distinctive playing style and long influential career mark her as a classic figure in country music. By the time she was 12 years old, Maybelle Addington was well versed in the traditional hill-country songs of the region and had become a skilled and

  • Addis Ababa (national capital, Ethiopia)

    Addis Ababa, capital and largest city of Ethiopia. It is located on a well-watered plateau surrounded by hills and mountains, in the geographic centre of the country. Only since the late 19th century has Addis Ababa been the capital of the Ethiopian state. Its immediate predecessor, Entoto, was

  • Addis Ababa Agreement (Sudanese history)

    Sudan: The Addis Ababa Agreement: …in the signing of the Addis Ababa Agreement on February 27, 1972. The agreement ended the 17-year conflict between the Anya Nya and the Sudanese army and ushered in autonomy for the southern region, which would no longer be divided into the three provinces of Al-Istiwā?iyyah (Equatoria), Ba?r al-Ghazāl, and…

  • Addis Ababa University (university, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia)

    Ethiopia: Education: The country’s oldest university, Addis Ababa University, was founded in 1950 as University College of Addis Ababa. In 1961 it was restructured and renamed Haile Selassie I University, and in 1975 it adopted its present name. Other universities in Ethiopia include Alemaya University in Dire Dawa, Debub University in…

  • Addis Ababa, Treaty of (Italy-Ethiopia [1896])

    Battle of Adwa: Outcome: The Treaty of Addis Ababa, signed in October 1896, abrogated the Treaty of Wichale and reestablished peace. The Italian claim to a protectorate over all of Ethiopia was thereafter abandoned, and the Italian colony of Eritrea, finally delimited by a treaty of peace (September 1900), was…

  • Addis Abeba (national capital, Ethiopia)

    Addis Ababa, capital and largest city of Ethiopia. It is located on a well-watered plateau surrounded by hills and mountains, in the geographic centre of the country. Only since the late 19th century has Addis Ababa been the capital of the Ethiopian state. Its immediate predecessor, Entoto, was

  • Addison (county, Vermont, United States)

    Addison, county, western Vermont, U.S. It is bounded by Lake Champlain (constituting the border with New York state) to the west and the Green Mountains to the east. Lowlands in the west give way to foothills and mountains in the east. The county is drained by Otter Creek, the state’s longest

  • Addison anemia (pathology)

    Pernicious anemia, disease in which the production of red blood cells (erythrocytes) is impaired as a result of the body’s inability to absorb vitamin B12, which is obtained in the diet and is necessary for red blood cells to mature properly in the bone marrow. Pernicious anemia is one of many

  • Addison disease (pathology)

    Addison disease, rare disorder defined by destruction of the outer layer of the adrenal glands, the hormone-producing organs located just above the kidneys. Addison disease is rare because it only occurs when at least 90 percent of the adrenal cortex is destroyed. In the mid-19th century when the

  • Addison of Stallingborough, Christopher Addison, 1st Viscount, Baron Addison of Stallingborough (British statesman)

    Christopher Addison, Ist Viscount Addison, British surgeon and statesman who was prominent in both Liberal and Labour governments between the wars and after World War II. Addison was educated at Trinity College, Harrogate, Yorkshire, and at St. Bartholomew’s Hospital Medical College, London. He

  • Addison, Christopher Addison, 1st Viscount (British statesman)

    Christopher Addison, Ist Viscount Addison, British surgeon and statesman who was prominent in both Liberal and Labour governments between the wars and after World War II. Addison was educated at Trinity College, Harrogate, Yorkshire, and at St. Bartholomew’s Hospital Medical College, London. He

  • Addison, John (British composer and music director)

    John Mervyn Addison, British composer who specialized for more than 40 years in writing effective, lightly orchestrated scores for motion pictures and television programs and incidental music for the theatre. Among Addison’s most admired films were Seven Days to Noon (1950), Tom Jones (1963), for

  • Addison, John Mervyn (British composer and music director)

    John Mervyn Addison, British composer who specialized for more than 40 years in writing effective, lightly orchestrated scores for motion pictures and television programs and incidental music for the theatre. Among Addison’s most admired films were Seven Days to Noon (1950), Tom Jones (1963), for

  • Addison, Joseph (English author)

    Joseph Addison, English essayist, poet, and dramatist, who, with Richard Steele, was a leading contributor to and guiding spirit of the periodicals The Tatler and The Spectator. His writing skill led to his holding important posts in government while the Whigs were in power. Addison was the eldest

  • Addison, Thomas (British physician)

    Thomas Addison, English physician after whom Addison’s disease, a metabolic dysfunction caused by atrophy of the adrenal cortex, and Addison’s (pernicious) anemia were named. He was the first to correlate a set of disease symptoms with pathological changes in one of the endocrine glands. In 1837

  • addition (mathematics)

    arithmetic: Addition and multiplication: …forming the sum is called addition, the symbol + being read as “plus.” This is the simplest binary operation, where binary refers to the process of combining two objects.

  • addition polyimide (chemical compound)

    major industrial polymers: Polyimides: …of these polymers, condensation and addition. The former are made by step-growth polymerization and are linear in structure; the latter are synthesized by heat-activated addition polymerization of diimides and have a network structure.

  • addition polymer (chemistry)

    surface coating: Step-growth and chain-growth polymers: Step-growth polymers include polyesters, epoxies, polyurethanes, polyamides, melamine, and phenolic resins. They are formed most often by reactions between two dissimilar monomers—acids and

  • addition polymerization (chemical reaction)

    polymerization: In addition polymerization, monomers react to form a polymer without the formation of by-products. Addition polymerizations usually are carried out in the presence of catalysts, which in certain cases exert control over structural details that have important effects on the properties of the polymer.

  • addition reaction (chemical reaction)

    Addition reaction, any of a class of chemical reactions in which an atom or group of atoms is added to a molecule. Addition reactions are typical of unsaturated organic compounds—i.e., alkenes, which contain a carbon-to-carbon double bond, and alkynes, which have a carbon-to-carbon triple bond—and

  • Additional Act (Portugal [1852])

    Maria II: …modified the Charter with the Additional Act (1852). This remained the Portuguese constitution until 1910.

  • additional-member system (politics)

    election: Hybrid systems: …are called mixed-member proportional or additional-members systems. Although there are a number of variants, all mixed-member proportional systems elect some representatives by proportional representation and the remainder by a nonproportional formula. The classic example of the hybrid system is the German Bundestag, which combines the personal link between representatives and…

  • additive (technology)

    man-made fibre: Additives: In order to achieve certain desirable fibre properties that cannot be obtained by polymers alone or to overcome certain deficiencies of polymers, various additives are mixed into polymer melts or solutions prior to the spinning of fibres. Some of the more common additives are…

  • additive (food processing)

    Food additive, any of various chemical substances added to foods to produce specific desirable effects. Additives such as salt, spices, and sulfites have been used since ancient times to preserve foods and make them more palatable. With the increased processing of foods in the 20th century, there

  • additive (electrocrystallization)

    electrochemical reaction: Electrocrystallization: …some foreign species, called an additive, is present in solution and adsorbs on the surface and inhibits the process of discharge. If those molecules are incorporated into a growing deposit, a situation may arise in which their supply to recessed parts of the surface becomes slower than to elevated parts.…

  • additive colour film (photography)

    technology of photography: Additive colour films: These are simpler in structure and consist, in addition to protective and other interlayers, of a film base, carrying a filter raster, and a black-and-white emulsion layer. The raster consists of sequences of very narrow red, green, and blue transparent filter lines…

  • additive mixture (colour)

    colour: The laws of colour mixture: As the names imply, additive mixture involves the addition of spectral components, and subtractive mixture concerns the subtraction or absorption of parts of the spectrum.

  • additive synthesis (electronic sound)

    music synthesizer: …of Illinois, in contrast, used additive synthesis—building tones from signals for pure tones, i.e., without overtones (sine-wave signals)—and offered certain advantages in the nuances of tone colours produced.

  • additive synthesis (colour)

    colour: The laws of colour mixture: As the names imply, additive mixture involves the addition of spectral components, and subtractive mixture concerns the subtraction or absorption of parts of the spectrum.

  • additive variation (genetics)

    animal breeding: Breeding and variation: …partition total genetic variation into additive, dominance, and epistatic types of gene action, which are defined in the following paragraphs. Additive variation is easiest to use in breeding because it is common and the effect of each allele at a locus just adds to the effect of other alleles at…

  • additivity relationship (chemistry)

    industrial glass: Properties of glass: …applying what are known as additivity relationships over a narrow range of compositions. In additivity relationships, it is assumed that each ingredient in a glass contributes to the properties of the glass by an amount equal to the concentration of that ingredient multiplied by a specific additivity factor. Many properties…

  • Addlestone (England, United Kingdom)

    Runnymede: The town of Addlestone is the administrative centre.

  • Addo Elephant National Park (national park, South Africa)

    Addo Elephant National Park, national park in Eastern province, South Africa. It has an area of 208 square miles (540 square km) and consists of two sections connected by a corridor. The southern part of the park lies in the Sundays River valley south of the Suurberg Range, north of Port

  • AddRan Christian College (university, Fort Worth, Texas, United States)

    Texas Christian University, private, coeducational institution of higher education in Fort Worth, Texas, U.S. It is affiliated with the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ). It grants about 14 undergraduate degrees in more than 80 areas and about 14 graduate degrees in more than 30 fields,

  • AddRan Male and Female College (university, Fort Worth, Texas, United States)

    Texas Christian University, private, coeducational institution of higher education in Fort Worth, Texas, U.S. It is affiliated with the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ). It grants about 14 undergraduate degrees in more than 80 areas and about 14 graduate degrees in more than 30 fields,

  • Address and the Provisional Rules of the International Working Men’s Association (writing by Marx)

    Karl Marx: Role in the First International: His “Address and the Provisional Rules of the International Working Men’s Association,” unlike his other writings, stressed the positive achievements of the cooperative movement and of parliamentary legislation; the gradual conquest of political power would enable the British proletariat to extend these achievements on a national…

  • Address at Divinity College (lecture by Emerson)

    Ralph Waldo Emerson: Mature life and works: Emerson’s “Address at Divinity College,” Harvard University, in 1838 was another challenge, this time directed against a lifeless Christian tradition, especially Unitarianism as he had known it. He dismissed religious institutions and the divinity of Jesus as failures in man’s attempt to encounter deity directly through…

  • address electrode (electronics)

    television: Plasma display panels: …and discharge electrodes and an address electrode. An alternating current is applied continuously to the sustain electrode, the voltage of this current carefully chosen to be just below the threshold of a plasma discharge. When a small extra voltage is then applied across the discharge and address electrodes, the gas…

  • Address of the Central Committee to the Communist League (work by Marx and Engels)

    Karl Marx: Early years in London: An “Address of the Central Committee to the Communist League,” written with Engels in March 1850, urged that in future revolutionary situations they struggle to make the revolution “permanent” by avoiding subservience to the bourgeois party and by setting up “their own revolutionary workers’ governments” alongside…

  • Address on Religious Instruction (work by Gregory of Nyssa)

    patristic literature: The Cappadocian Fathers: …successful of which is the Great Catechetical Oration, a systematic theology in miniature. The output of Gregory of Nazianzus was much smaller, but his 45 Orations, as well as being masterpieces of eloquence, contain his classic statement of Trinitarian orthodoxy. Basil’s vast correspondence testifies to his practical efforts to reconcile…

  • Address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation (manifesto by Luther)

    Germany: The Reformation: …pamphlet he published that year, Address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation, urged the empire’s secular rulers to reform a church that would not set its own house in order. Popes and prelates are not sacrosanct, he argued; they may be brought to justice. As every Christian can…

  • Address to the People of England, Scotland, and Ireland (work by Macaulay)

    Catharine Macaulay: …British colonial taxation in her Address to the People of England, Scotland and Ireland (1775). On a visit to Paris at the peak of her fame in 1777, she met Jacques Turgot and Benjamin Franklin; but her marriage the following year to William Graham, the 21-year-old brother of a quack…

  • Address to Young Men (work by Basil the Great)

    St. Basil the Great: Works and legacy: …of the best known, the Address to Young Men, defends the study of pagan literature by Christians (Basil himself made considerable critical use of Greek philosophical thought). In the Hexa?meron (“Six Days”), nine Lenten sermons on the days of the Creation, Basil speaks of the varied beauty of the world…

  • addressable electrode (electronics)

    television: Plasma display panels: …and discharge electrodes and an address electrode. An alternating current is applied continuously to the sustain electrode, the voltage of this current carefully chosen to be just below the threshold of a plasma discharge. When a small extra voltage is then applied across the discharge and address electrodes, the gas…

  • Addresses to the German Nation (lectures by Fichte)

    Johann Gottlieb Fichte: Last years: …an die deutsche Nation (Addresses to the German Nation), full of practical views on the only true foundation for national recovery and glory. From 1810 to 1812 he was rector of the new University of Berlin. During the great effort of Germany for national independence in 1813, he lectured…

  • Addressing Racial Diversity in Ballet

    In 2015 the lack of racial diversity in Ballet was one of the dance world’s most-discussed issues. Among the top international companies, few rosters included dancers of non-European descent. In the United States attention focused on the absence of African Americans and other women of colour from

  • adduct (chemistry)

    acid–base reaction: Reactions of Lewis acids: …is the formation of an adduct in which the two species are joined by a covalent bond; proton transfers are not normally involved. If both the Lewis acid and base are uncharged, the resulting bond is termed semipolar or coordinate, as in the reaction of boron trifluoride with ammonia:

  • adductor brevis muscle

    adductor muscle: …of the human thigh—adductor longus, adductor brevis, and adductor magnus. Originating at the pubis and the ischium (lower portions of the pelvis—the hipbone), these ribbonlike muscles are attached along the femur (thighbone). Their primary action is adduction of the thigh, as in squeezing the thighs together; they also aid in…

  • adductor hallucis muscle (anatomy)

    adductor muscle: …opposes the thumb, and the adductor hallucis, which acts on the great toe.

  • adductor longus muscle (anatomy)

    adductor muscle: …muscles of the human thigh—adductor longus, adductor brevis, and adductor magnus. Originating at the pubis and the ischium (lower portions of the pelvis—the hipbone), these ribbonlike muscles are attached along the femur (thighbone). Their primary action is adduction of the thigh, as in squeezing the thighs together; they also…

  • adductor magnus muscle (anatomy)

    adductor muscle: adductor magnus. Originating at the pubis and the ischium (lower portions of the pelvis—the hipbone), these ribbonlike muscles are attached along the femur (thighbone). Their primary action is adduction of the thigh, as in squeezing the thighs together; they also aid in rotation and flexion…

  • adductor muscle (anatomy)

    Adductor muscle, any of the muscles that draw a part of the body toward its median line or toward the axis of an extremity (compare abductor muscle), particularly three powerful muscles of the human thigh—adductor longus, adductor brevis, and adductor magnus. Originating at the pubis and the

  • adductor pollicis muscle (anatomy)

    adductor muscle: …for this function include the adductor pollicis, which draws in and opposes the thumb, and the adductor hallucis, which acts on the great toe.

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