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  • Adams, Diana (American dancer)

    Diana Adams, U.S. ballerina (born March 29, 1926, Staunton, Va.—died Jan. 10, 1993, San Andreas, Calif.), captivated audiences with her radiant beauty and spellbinding dramatic interpretations while performing with Ballet Theatre (now American Ballet Theatre; 1944-50) and the New York City Ballet (

  • Adams, Don (American actor and comedian)

    Don Adams, (Donald James Yarmy), American actor and comedian (born April 13, 1923, New York, N.Y.—died Sept. 25, 2005, Los Angeles, Calif.), portrayed the bumbling Maxwell Smart, Agent 86, in 138 episodes of the television spy-spoof series Get Smart (1965–70) and in a subsequent feature film, m

  • Adams, Douglas (British author)

    Douglas Adams, British comic writer whose works satirize contemporary life through a luckless protagonist who deals ineptly with societal forces beyond his control. Adams is best known for the mock science-fiction series known collectively as The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy. Adams received an

  • Adams, Douglas No?l (British author)

    Douglas Adams, British comic writer whose works satirize contemporary life through a luckless protagonist who deals ineptly with societal forces beyond his control. Adams is best known for the mock science-fiction series known collectively as The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy. Adams received an

  • Adams, Eddie (American photojournalist)

    Eddie Adams, (Edward Thomas Adams), American photojournalist (born June 12, 1933, New Kensington, Pa.—died Sept. 19, 2004, New York, N.Y.), won hundreds of awards during his 45-year career and counted 13 wars among the events he covered but was most renowned for the Pulitzer Prize-winning p

  • Adams, Edie (American actress and singer)

    Edie Adams, (Elizabeth Edith Enke), American singer (born April 16, 1927, Kingston, Pa.—died Oct. 15, 2008, Los Angeles, Calif.), was a sultry blonde beauty who served as the comic foil for her husband, Ernie Kovacs, in his TV comedy-show sketches; she also spent more than two decades appearing in

  • Adams, Edward Thomas (American photojournalist)

    Eddie Adams, (Edward Thomas Adams), American photojournalist (born June 12, 1933, New Kensington, Pa.—died Sept. 19, 2004, New York, N.Y.), won hundreds of awards during his 45-year career and counted 13 wars among the events he covered but was most renowned for the Pulitzer Prize-winning p

  • Adams, Flora (American author)

    Flora Adams Darling, American writer, historian, and organizer, an influential though controversial figure in the founding and early years of the Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR) and other patriotic societies. Educated at Lancaster Academy, Flora Adams in 1860 married Edward I. Darling,

  • Adams, Franklin Pierce (American journalist)

    Franklin Pierce Adams, U.S. newspaper columnist, translator, poet, and radio personality whose humorous syndicated column “The Conning Tower” earned him the reputation of godfather of the contemporary newspaper column. He wrote primarily under his initials, F.P.A. Adams’ newspaper career began in

  • Adams, Gerard (Irish leader)

    Gerry Adams, former president of Sinn Féin, long regarded as the political wing of the Irish Republican Army (IRA), and one of the chief architects of Sinn Féin’s shift to a policy of seeking a peaceful settlement to sectarian violence in Northern Ireland. He was elected several times to the

  • Adams, Gerry (Irish leader)

    Gerry Adams, former president of Sinn Féin, long regarded as the political wing of the Irish Republican Army (IRA), and one of the chief architects of Sinn Féin’s shift to a policy of seeking a peaceful settlement to sectarian violence in Northern Ireland. He was elected several times to the

  • Adams, Hannah (American historian)

    Hannah Adams, American compiler of historical information in the study of religion. Adams was the daughter of a notably eccentric bibliophile father whose lack of business acumen kept the large family in poverty. She inherited his love of books and his remarkable memory, and, although she received

  • Adams, Harriet E. (American author)

    Harriet E. Wilson, one of the first African Americans to publish a novel in English in the United States. Her work, entitled Our Nig; or, Sketches from the Life of a Free Black, in a Two-Story White House, North. Showing That Slavery’s Shadows Fall Even There. By “Our Nig.” (1859), treated racism

  • Adams, Henry (American historian)

    Henry Adams, historian, man of letters, and author of one of the outstanding autobiographies of Western literature, The Education of Henry Adams. Adams was the product of Boston’s Brahmin class, a cultured elite that traced its lineage to Puritan New England. He was the great-grandson of John Adams

  • Adams, Henry (American clergyman)

    Adams family: Established in America by Henry Adams, who emigrated from England to Massachusetts Bay Colony about 1636, the family made no special mark until the time of John Adams (1735–1826). Perhaps the most profound political philosopher of the Revolutionary and early national periods of U.S. history, Adams also served as…

  • Adams, Henry Brooks (American historian)

    Henry Adams, historian, man of letters, and author of one of the outstanding autobiographies of Western literature, The Education of Henry Adams. Adams was the product of Boston’s Brahmin class, a cultured elite that traced its lineage to Puritan New England. He was the great-grandson of John Adams

  • Adams, Herbert Baxter (American historian and educator)

    Herbert Baxter Adams, historian and educator, one of the first to use the seminar method in U.S. higher education and one of the founders of the American Historical Association. The son of a successful merchant and manufacturer, Adams graduated from Amherst College, Massachusetts, in 1872 and

  • Adams, James Luther (American religious leader)

    Unitarianism and Universalism: American Unitarianism: …liberal thought; its leader was James Luther Adams, whose writings contributed significantly to Unitarian theology and social thought. Of particular importance for Unitarianism today are his studies of voluntary associations and their implications (On Being Human—Religiously, 1976).

  • Adams, Joan (American art advocate)

    Joan Mondale, (Joan Adams), American supporter of the arts (born Aug. 8, 1930, Eugene, Ore.—died Feb. 3, 2014, Minneapolis, Minn.), used the spotlight provided by her position as wife of politician Walter Mondale to advocate for and bring attention to the visual arts, with a particular emphasis on

  • Adams, John (president of United States)

    John Adams, an early advocate of American independence from Great Britain, a major figure in the Continental Congress (1774–77), the author of the Massachusetts constitution (1780), a signer of the Treaty of Paris (1783), the first American ambassador to the Court of St. James (1785–88), and the

  • Adams, John (American composer and conductor)

    John Adams, American composer and conductor whose works were among the most performed of contemporary classical music. Adams became proficient on the clarinet at an early age (sometimes freelancing with the Boston Symphony Orchestra and performing with other groups) and by his teenage years was

  • Adams, John Coolidge (American composer and conductor)

    John Adams, American composer and conductor whose works were among the most performed of contemporary classical music. Adams became proficient on the clarinet at an early age (sometimes freelancing with the Boston Symphony Orchestra and performing with other groups) and by his teenage years was

  • Adams, John Couch (British astronomer)

    John Couch Adams, British mathematician and astronomer, one of two people who independently discovered the planet Neptune. On July 3, 1841, Adams had entered in his journal: “Formed a design in the beginning of this week of investigating, as soon as possible after taking my degree, the

  • Adams, John Quincy (president of United States)

    John Quincy Adams, sixth president of the United States (1825–29) and eldest son of President John Adams. In his prepresidential years he was one of America’s greatest diplomats (formulating, among other things, what came to be called the Monroe Doctrine), and in his postpresidential years (as a

  • Adams, Léonie (American poet)

    Léonie Adams, American poet and educator whose verse interprets emotions and nature with an almost mystical vision. After graduating from Barnard College (A.B., 1922), Adams became editor of The Measure, a literary publication, in 1924. She was persuaded to publish a volume of poetry, Those Not

  • Adams, Léonie Fuller (American poet)

    Léonie Adams, American poet and educator whose verse interprets emotions and nature with an almost mystical vision. After graduating from Barnard College (A.B., 1922), Adams became editor of The Measure, a literary publication, in 1924. She was persuaded to publish a volume of poetry, Those Not

  • Adams, Louisa (American first lady)

    Louisa Adams, American first lady (1825–29), the wife of John Quincy Adams, sixth president of the United States. Louisa Johnson was born to Joshua Johnson, an American businessman from Maryland, and an Englishwoman, Katherine Nuth Johnson. Louisa was the first first lady born abroad. When she was

  • Adams, Lydia Maria (American pathologist)

    Lydia Maria Adams DeWitt, American experimental pathologist and investigator of the chemotherapy of tuberculosis. In 1878 she married Alton D. DeWitt, a teacher. Lydia DeWitt earned a medical degree at the University of Michigan in 1898 and taught anatomy there until 1908. She subsequently taught

  • Adams, Marian (American socialite and photographer)

    Marian Adams, American social arbiter who was widely acknowledged for her wit, as an accomplished photographer in the early 1880s, and as the wife of historian Henry Adams. Marian Hooper—called Clover by family and friends—was the youngest child of Boston Brahmins. Her mother, Ellen Sturgis Hooper,

  • Adams, Maude (American actress)

    Maude Adams, American actress, best known for her portrayals of Sir James Barrie’s heroines. Her mother, whose maiden name she adopted, was leading lady of the Salt Lake City stock company. From Adams’s first triumph, at the age of five as Little Schneider in Fritz at the San Francisco Theatre, she

  • Adams, Neal (American artist)

    superhero: Batmania inspires TV superheroes: …the Dove; and superstar artist Neal Adams began to transform Batman from a masked detective to a dark avenger of the night.

  • Adams, Nick (fictional character)

    Nick Adams, fictional character, protagonist of early semiautobiographical short stories by Ernest Hemingway. Adams first appears in In Our Time (1925), a collection of 15 stories, including coming-of-age experiences in the woods of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. The character also appears, at

  • Adams, Parson (fictional character)

    Parson Adams, fictional character, the protagonist’s traveling companion in the picaresque novel Joseph Andrews (1742) by Henry Fielding. One of the best-known characters in English literature, Parson Adams is an erudite but guileless man who expects the best of everyone and is frequently the

  • Adams, Richard (British author)

    Richard Adams, English author known for reinvigorating the genre of anthropomorphic fiction, most notably with the beloved children’s book Watership Down (1972; film 1978), a novel that presents a naturalistic tale of the travails of a group of wild European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) seeking

  • Adams, Richard George (British author)

    Richard Adams, English author known for reinvigorating the genre of anthropomorphic fiction, most notably with the beloved children’s book Watership Down (1972; film 1978), a novel that presents a naturalistic tale of the travails of a group of wild European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) seeking

  • Adams, Robert (Irish physician)

    Robert Adams, clinician noted for his contributions to the knowledge of heart disease and gout. In 1827 he described a condition characterized by a very slow pulse and by transient giddiness or convulsive seizures, now known as the Stokes-Adams disease or syndrome. Educated at Trinity College,

  • Adams, Robert McCormick (American anthropologist)

    history of Mesopotamia: Mesopotamian protohistory: …surveys of the American archaeologist Robert McCormick Adams and the German archaeologist Hans Nissen have shown how the relative size and number of the settlements gradually shifted: the number of small or very small settlements was reduced overall, whereas the number of larger places grew. The clearest sign of urbanization…

  • Adams, Roger (American chemist)

    Roger Adams, chemist and teacher known for determining the chemical constitution of such natural substances as chaulmoogra oil (used in treating leprosy), the toxic cottonseed pigment gossypol, marijuana, and many alkaloids. He also worked in stereochemistry and with platinum catalysts and the

  • Adams, Samuel (American politician)

    Samuel Adams, politician of the American Revolution, leader of the Massachusetts “radicals,” who was a delegate to the Continental Congress (1774–81) and a signer of the Declaration of Independence. He was later lieutenant governor (1789–93) and governor (1794–97) of Massachusetts. A second cousin

  • Adams, Samuel Hopkins (American author)

    Samuel Hopkins Adams, American journalist and author of more than 50 books of fiction, biography, and exposé. Adams graduated from Hamilton College in 1891 and was with the New York Sun until 1900. From 1901 to 1905 he was associated in various editorial and advertising capacities with McClure’s

  • Adams, Scott (American cartoonist)

    Scott Adams, American cartoonist who captured the malaise of the modern workplace in his comic strip Dilbert. Adams was valedictorian of his high-school class (because, he said, "the other 39 people in my class couldn’t spell valedictorian") and went on to earn a B.A. in economics from Hartwick

  • Adams, Thomas (American inventor)

    chewing gum: Inventor Thomas Adams, whom Santa Anna had contracted to develop a vulcanization process for the substance, was left with a ton of chicle when his experiments failed. However, while conducting tests of various formulas, he had discovered that the desiccated resin was insoluble in water and…

  • Adams, Walter (American astronomer)

    Walter Adams, American astronomer who is best known for his spectroscopic studies. Using the spectroscope, he investigated sunspots and the rotation of the Sun, the velocities and distances of thousands of stars, and planetary atmospheres. Born of missionary parents who returned to the United

  • Adams, Walter Sydney (American astronomer)

    Walter Adams, American astronomer who is best known for his spectroscopic studies. Using the spectroscope, he investigated sunspots and the rotation of the Sun, the velocities and distances of thousands of stars, and planetary atmospheres. Born of missionary parents who returned to the United

  • Adams, William (English navigator)

    William Adams, navigator, merchant-adventurer, and the first Englishman to visit Japan. At the age of 12 Adams was apprenticed to a shipbuilder in the merchant marine, and in 1588 he was master of a supply ship for the British navy during the invasion of the Spanish Armada. Soon after the British

  • Adams, William James, Jr. (American musician)

    Black Eyed Peas: …their group Atban Klann, rappers will.i.am (byname of William James Adams, Jr.; b. March 15, 1975, Los Angeles, California, U.S.) and apl.de.ap (byname of Allan Pineda Lindo; b. November 28, 1974, Angeles City, Pampanga, Philippines) recruited MC and dancer Taboo (byname of Jaime Luis Gomez; b. July 14, 1975, East…

  • Adams, William Taylor (American author)

    William Taylor Adams, American teacher and author of juvenile literature, best known for his children’s magazine and the series of adventure books that he wrote under his pseudonym. Although he never graduated from college, Adams was a teacher and principal in Boston elementary schools for more

  • Adams-Morgan (neighborhood, Washington, District of Columbia, United States)

    Washington, D.C.: Adams-Morgan and beyond: Adams-Morgan, situated just north and west of Dupont Circle, is one of Washington’s most ethnically and economically diverse communities, having originally served as a wealthy enclave for prominent Washington scientists and high-ranking government and military personnel. Once known as Lanier Heights, the neighbourhood…

  • Adams-Onís Treaty (Spain-United States [1819])

    Transcontinental Treaty, (1819) accord between the United States and Spain that divided their North American claims along a line from the southwestern corner of what is now Louisiana, north and west to what is now Wyoming, and thence west along the latitude 42° N to the Pacific. Thus, Spain ceded

  • Adams-Stokes syndrome (heart disease)

    cardiology: …the vernacular of cardiology—for example, Adams-Stokes syndrome, a type of heart block named for Irish physicians Robert Adams and William Stokes; Austin Flint murmur, named for the American physician who discovered the disorder; and tetralogy of Fallot, a combination of congenital heart defects named for French

  • adamsite (gas)

    Adamsite, in chemical warfare, sneeze gas developed by the United States and used during World War I. Adamsite is an arsenical diphenylaminechlorarsine and an odourless crystalline organic compound employed in vaporous form as a lung irritant. It appears as a yellow smoke that irritates eyes,

  • Adamson Act (United States [1916])

    Samuel Gompers: … (1914) and passage of the Adamson Act (1916), which established the eight-hour workday for interstate railroad workers.

  • Adamson v. California (law case)

    Stanley F. Reed: …the states, most notably in Adamson v. California (1947), in which Reed wrote for the majority that the reach of each of the amendments of the Bill of Rights did not automatically extend to the states (in this case the Fifth Amendment’s right against self-incrimination). He voted with the majority…

  • Adamson, Andrew (New Zealand producer, director, and writer)
  • Adamson, Joy (conservationist)

    Joy Adamson, conservationist who pioneered the movement to preserve African wildlife. Following an education in Vienna, she relocated to Kenya (1939), where she married George Adamson (1944), a British game warden who had worked in Kenya as a gold prospector, goat trader, and safari hunter from

  • Adamson, Robert (Scottish photographer)

    Hill and Adamson: …and enlisted the collaboration of Robert Adamson, a young chemist who for a year had been experimenting with the calotype, a then-revolutionary photographic process that created the first “negative” from which multiple prints could be made. While Hill and Adamson made portraits of the delegates, most of the prominent Scots…

  • Adamthwaite, Anthony (British historian)

    20th-century international relations: Hitler’s war or Chamberlain’s?: The British historian Anthony Adamthwaite concluded in 1984 that despite the accumulation of sources the fact remains that the appeasers’ determination to reach agreement with Hitler blinded them to reality. If to understand is not to forgive, neither is it to give the past the odour of inevitability.…

  • ADAMTS13 (enzyme)

    von Willebrand factor: …by an enzyme known as ADAMTS13. When VWF is active, it exists in an unfolded form, which exposes its platelet-binding domains and thus allows it to bind to the glycoprotein complexes on platelets. However, unfolding also exposes cleavage sites for ADAMTS13, which cuts VWF into fragments that have little or…

  • Adamus Exul (drama by Grotius)

    Hugo Grotius: Early life: …philological works and a drama, Adamus Exul (1601; Adam in Exile), which was greatly admired by the English poet John Milton. Grotius also published many theological and politico-theological works, including De Veritate Religionis Christianae (1627; The Truth of the Christian Religion), the book that in his lifetime probably enjoyed the…

  • ?Adan (Yemen)

    Aden, city of Yemen. It is situated along the north coast of the Gulf of Aden and lies on a peninsula enclosing the eastern side of Al-Tawāhī Harbour. The peninsula enclosing the western side of the harbour is called Little Aden. Aden has its earliest recorded mention in the Old Testament book of

  • Adán Buenosayres (work by Marechal)

    Leopoldo Marechal: Marechal’s masterpiece is the novel Adán Buenosayres (1948), a work of technical complexity, stylistic innovations, and highly poetic language that was a precursor of the Latin American new novel. The mythical voyage of Adán, the hero, his descent into Hell, and his constant search for the ideal is at once…

  • Adan le Menestrel (French poet and musician)

    Adenet Le Roi, poet and musician, interesting for the detailed documentary evidence of his career as a household minstrel. He received his training in the court of Henry III, duke of Brabant, at Leuven; after his patron’s death in 1261, his fortunes wavered, owing to dynastic rivalries and the

  • Adana (province, Turkey)

    Adana: In 1608 Adana was reconstituted as a province under direct Ottoman administration. Adana became a provincial capital in 1867. One of the earlier extant monuments in the area is a stone bridge 220 yards (200 metres) long spanning the Seyhan River, dating from the time of the…

  • Adana (Turkey)

    Adana, city, south-central Turkey. It is situated in the plain of Cilicia, on the Seyhan River (the ancient Sarus River). An agricultural and industrial centre and the country’s fourth largest city, it probably overlies a Hittite settlement that dates from approximately 1400 bce, and its history

  • Adana Plain (plain, Turkey)

    Turkey: The southern folded zone: …the Gulf of Antalya; the Adana Plain, measuring roughly 90 by 60 miles (145 by 100 km), comprises the combined deltas of the Seyhan and Ceyhan rivers. The mountain system falls into two main parts. West of Antalya a complex series of ridges with a north-south trend reaches 6,500 to…

  • Adangme (people)

    Adangme, people occupying the coastal area of Ghana from Kpone to Ada, on the Volta River, and inland along the Volta; they include the Ada, Kpone, Krobo, Ningo, Osuduku, Prampram, and Shai, all speaking variants of Ga-Adangme of the Kwa branch of the Niger-Congo family of languages. The chief

  • Adanson, Michel (French botanist)

    Michel Adanson, French botanist who devised a natural system of classification and nomenclature of plants, based on all their physical characteristics, with an emphasis on families. In 1749 Adanson left for Senegal to spend four years as an employee with the Compagnie des Indes, a trading company.

  • Adansonia (tree genus)

    Baobab, (genus Adansonia), genus of nine species of deciduous trees of the hibiscus, or mallow, family (Malvaceae). Six of the species (Adansonia grandidieri, A. madagascariensis, A. perrieri, A. rubrostipa, A. suarezensis, and A. za) are endemic to Madagascar, two (A. digitata and A. kilima) are

  • Adansonia digitata (tree, Adansonia digitata)

    baobab: The African baobab (A. digitata) boasts the oldest known angiosperm tree: carbon-14 dating places the age of a specimen in Namibia at about 1,275 years. Known as the “Tree of Life,” the species is found throughout the drier regions of Africa and features a water-storing trunk…

  • Adansonia grandidieri (tree)

    baobab: Six of the species (Adansonia grandidieri, A. madagascariensis, A. perrieri, A. rubrostipa, A. suarezensis, and A. za) are endemic to Madagascar, two (A. digitata and A. kilima) are native to mainland Africa and the

  • Adansonia gregorii (tree, Adansonia gregorii)

    baobab: gregorii, called boab, or bottle tree, is found throughout the Kimberley region of Western Australia. Reaching heights of about 12 metres (39 feet), the tree features the characteristically swollen trunk of the genus and bears compound leaves that are completely shed during drought periods. The white flowers…

  • Adansonia kilima (tree)

    baobab: digitata and A. kilima) are native to mainland Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, and one (A. gregorii) is native to northwestern Australia. They have unusual barrel-like trunks and are known for their extraordinary longevity and ethnobotanical importance. Given their peculiar shape, an Arabian legend has it that…

  • Adansonia madagascariensis (tree)

    baobab: …of the species (Adansonia grandidieri, A. madagascariensis, A. perrieri, A. rubrostipa, A. suarezensis, and A. za) are endemic to Madagascar, two (A. digitata and A. kilima) are native to mainland Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, and one (A. gregorii) is native to

  • Adansonia perrieri (tree)

    baobab: madagascariensis, A. perrieri, A. rubrostipa, A. suarezensis, and A. za) are endemic to Madagascar, two (A. digitata and A. kilima) are native to mainland Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, and one (A. gregorii) is native to northwestern Australia. They have

  • Adansonia rubrostipa (tree)

    baobab: perrieri, A. rubrostipa, A. suarezensis, and A. za) are endemic to Madagascar, two (A. digitata and A. kilima) are native to mainland Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, and one (A. gregorii) is native to northwestern Australia. They have unusual barrel-like trunks and are known for their

  • Adansonia suarezensis (tree)

    baobab: rubrostipa, A. suarezensis, and A. za) are endemic to Madagascar, two (A. digitata and A. kilima) are native to mainland Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, and one (A. gregorii) is native to northwestern Australia. They have unusual barrel-like trunks and are known for their extraordinary longevity…

  • Adansonia za (tree)

    baobab: suarezensis, and A. za) are endemic to Madagascar, two (A. digitata and A. kilima) are native to mainland Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, and one (A. gregorii) is native to northwestern Australia. They have unusual barrel-like trunks and are known for their extraordinary longevity and ethnobotanical importance.…

  • Adapa (Mesopotamian mythology)

    Adapa, in Mesopotamian mythology, legendary sage and citizen of the Sumerian city of Eridu, the ruins of which are in southern Iraq. Endowed with vast intelligence by Ea (Sumerian: Enki), the god of wisdom, Adapa became the hero of the Sumerian version of the myth of the fall of man. The myth

  • Adapazar? (Turkey)

    Sakarya, city, northwestern Turkey. It lies in a fertile plain west of the Sakarya River, situated along the old military road from Istanbul to the west. The region came under Ottoman control in the early 14th century, and the city acquired its present name at the end of the 18th century. Sakarya

  • Adapidae (fossil mammal family)

    adapiform: Evolution and classification: …several members of the family Adapidae have been excavated from Eocene karst fissure fillings in the Quercy region of southern France, and, thus, paleontologists have a reasonably complete picture of their paleobiology. Adapis parisiensis, from which the family Adapidae is named, was the first fossil primate to be described, in…

  • adapiform (fossil primate)

    Adapiform, any of several dozen extinct species of primates of the suborder Strepsirrhini (a group that includes lemurs, lorises, and galagos). Adapiforms flourished in Eurasia, North America, and Africa during the Eocene Epoch (56 million to 33.9 million years ago) and are thought to be among the

  • Adapis (fossil primate genus)

    primate: Historical background of primate studies: …the historic distinction of describing Adapis, the first fossil primate genus ever recognized. Fossils such as Adapis, Cuvier believed, were the remains of animals destroyed by past catastrophes such as floods and earthquakes, and living animals were new stocks divinely created to fill the vacuum—a view consistent with the widely…

  • adaptability (psychology)

    human intelligence: …psychologists have generally agreed that adaptation to the environment is the key to understanding both what intelligence is and what it does. Such adaptation may occur in a variety of settings: a student in school learns the material he needs to know in order to do well in a course;…

  • adaptation (psychology)

    human intelligence: …psychologists have generally agreed that adaptation to the environment is the key to understanding both what intelligence is and what it does. Such adaptation may occur in a variety of settings: a student in school learns the material he needs to know in order to do well in a course;…

  • Adaptation (film by Jonze [2002])

    Spike Jonze: …directed his second feature film, Adaptation, which was also written by Kaufman. The acclaimed dramedy centres on a screenwriter named Charlie Kaufman (Nicolas Cage) who has difficulty adapting a book about orchids into a movie. A parallel story line follows the book’s author (Meryl Streep) and the orchid thief (Chris…

  • adaptation (biology and physiology)

    Adaptation, in biology, the process by which a species becomes fitted to its environment; it is the result of natural selection’s acting upon heritable variation over several generations. Organisms are adapted to their environments in a great variety of ways: in their structure, physiology, and

  • adaptive agent (science)

    complexity: The science of complexity: Intelligent and adaptive agents. Not only are there a medium-sized number of agents, but these agents are “intelligent” and adaptive. This means that they make decisions on the basis of rules and that they are ready to modify the rules on the basis of new information that…

  • adaptive control (technology)

    machine tool: Adaptive control: Improvements in CNC machine tools depend on the refinement of adaptive control, which is the automatic monitoring and adjustment of machining conditions in response to variations in operation performance. With a manually controlled machine tool, the operator watches for changes in machining performance (caused,…

  • adaptive design (biology)

    animal behaviour: Adaptive design: Many features of animal behaviour are so well suited to their function that it is impossible to imagine that they arose by chance. Echolocation by bats, the nest-building skills of weaver birds (family Ploceidae), and the alarm signals of ground squirrels all serve…

  • adaptive immunity (physiology)

    immune system: Specific, acquired immunity: It has been known for centuries that persons who contract certain diseases and survive generally do not catch those illnesses again. Greek historian Thucydides recorded that, when the plague was raging in Athens during the 5th century bce, the sick and dying…

  • adaptive inactivity (biology)

    sleep: Functional theories: Another theory is that of adaptive inactivity. This theory considers that sleep serves a universal function, one in which an animal’s ecological niche shapes its sleep behaviour. For example, carnivores whose prey is nocturnal tend to be most active at night. Thus, the carnivore sleeps during the day, when hunting…

  • adaptive management

    Adaptive management, iterative approach by which resource managers work toward ecological restoration goals while simultaneously monitoring and studying the effects and impacts of previous management techniques. Adaptive management uses hypothesis testing to inform decisions about the next stage of

  • adaptive optics (astronomy)

    Neptune: Later observations from Earth: …successful of these, known as adaptive optics, continually processes information from infrared star images and applies it nearly instantaneously to correct the shape of the telescope mirror and thereby compensate for the distortion. As a consequence, large Earth-based telescopes now routinely achieve resolutions better than those of the HST. Images…

  • adaptive radiation (biology)

    Adaptive radiation, evolution of an animal or plant group into a wide variety of types adapted to specialized modes of life. Adaptive radiations are best exemplified in closely related groups that have evolved in a relatively short time. A striking example is the radiation, beginning in the

  • adaptive resource management

    Adaptive management, iterative approach by which resource managers work toward ecological restoration goals while simultaneously monitoring and studying the effects and impacts of previous management techniques. Adaptive management uses hypothesis testing to inform decisions about the next stage of

  • adaptive thermogenesis (physiology)

    human nutrition: BMR and REE: energy balance: Adaptive thermogenesis, another small but important component of energy expenditure, reflects alterations in metabolism due to changes in ambient temperature, hormone production, emotional stress, or other factors. Finally, the most variable component in energy expenditure is physical activity, which includes exercise and other voluntary activities…

  • adaptive value (biology)

    kin selection: …play when evaluating the genetic fitness of a given individual. It is based on the concept of inclusive fitness, which is made up of individual survival and reproduction (direct fitness) and any impact that an individual has on the survival and reproduction of relatives (indirect fitness). Kin selection occurs when…

  • adaptor ribonucleic acid (chemical compound)

    Transfer RNA (tRNA), small molecule in cells that carries amino acids to organelles called ribosomes, where they are linked into proteins. In addition to tRNA there are two other major types of RNA: messenger RNA (mRNA) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA). By 1960 the involvement of tRNAs in the assembly of

  • Adar (Jewish month)

    Judaism: Months and notable days: During leap year the Adar holidays are postponed to Second Adar. Since 1948 many Jewish calendars list Iyyar 5—Israel Independence Day—among the Jewish holidays.

  • Adar Doutchi (region, Niger)

    Niger: Relief: …region consists of the rocky Adar Doutchi and Majia areas; it is the region of the gulbi (dried-up valleys of former tributaries of the Sokoto River) and the Tegama—a tableland of sandstone, ending, toward the A?r, at the Tiguidit scarp. To the east the underlying rock reappears in the Damagarim,…

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