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  • ayre (music)

    Ayre, genre of solo song with lute accompaniment that flourished in England in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. The outstanding composers in the genre were the poet and composer Thomas Campion and the lutenist John Dowland, whose “Flow, my teares” (“Lachrimae”) became so popular that a large

  • Ayrer, Jakob (German dramatist)

    Jakob Ayrer, dramatist who incorporated elements of Elizabethan plays (e.g., spectacular stage effects, violent action, histrionic bombast, the stock figure of the clown) into his own plays, particularly his Fastnachtsspiele, the farces performed at Shrovetide (the three days preceding Ash

  • Ayres Natural Bridge (geographical feature, Wyoming, United States)

    Douglas: …during the Sioux wars, and Ayres Natural Bridge, a 100-foot (30-metre) arch spanning La Prele Creek. A division of the Medicine Bow National Forest is across the river to the south, and the Thunder Basin National Grassland lies to the north. Inc. 1886. Pop. (2000) 5,288; (2010) 6,120.

  • Ayres Rock (tor, Northern Territory, Australia)

    Uluru/Ayers Rock, giant monolith, one of the tors (isolated masses of weathered rock) in southwestern Northern Territory, central Australia. It has long been revered by a variety of Australian Aboriginal peoples of the region, who call it Uluru. The rock was sighted in 1872 by explorer Ernest Giles

  • Ayres, Anna Jean (American occupational therapist and clinical psychologist)

    Anna Jean Ayres, American occupational therapist and clinical psychologist who pioneered the development of therapy for individuals with neurological impairments in sensory integration. Her work with children with cerebral palsy and learning disabilities led to the development of sensory

  • Ayres, Anne (American Episcopal nun)

    Anne Ayres, the first American Protestant religious, who cofounded a sisterhood in the Protestant Episcopal Church. Ayres moved to the United States with her family in 1836 and settled in New York City. Until 1845 she supplemented the family income by teaching daughters of well-to-do families. In

  • Ayres, John (British calligrapher)

    calligraphy: Writing manuals and copybooks (16th to 18th century): 1680) by John Ayres; he identifies “bastard Italians” as “round-hands,” and his alphabets are nearly exact copies of Barbedor’s italienne bastarde. In A Tutor to Penmanship (1697/98), Ayres praises Materot, van den Velde, and Barbedor as great penmen who revived and disseminated the art of writing. Ayres…

  • Ayres, Lew (American actor)

    Lew Ayres, (Lewis Frederick Ayer III), American actor (born Dec. 28, 1908, Minneapolis, Minn.—died Dec. 30, 1996, Los Angeles, Calif.), memorably portrayed a disillusioned German soldier in the 1930 film All Quiet on the Western Front before he was blacklisted for declaring himself a conscientious

  • Ayro, Aden Hashi Farah (Somalian militant)

    al-Shabaab: …and it was led by Aden Hashi Farah Ayro, a Somali operative reportedly trained by al-Qaeda in Afghanistan. Ideologically, al-Shabaab took a more extreme stance than the ICU as a whole, espousing a puritanical version of Islam at odds with the Sufi-influenced form practiced by many Somalis.

  • Ayrshire (former county, Scotland, United Kingdom)

    Ayrshire, historic county, southwestern Scotland. The county is named for Ayr, its historic county town (seat). Apart from a small section in the south that is part of the council area of Dumfries and Galloway, Ayrshire is presently divided into the council areas of South Ayrshire, East Ayrshire,

  • Ayrshire (breed of cattle)

    Ayrshire, breed of hardy dairy cattle originating in the county of Ayr, Scotland, in the latter part of the 18th century and considered to be the only special dairy breed to have originated in the British Isles. The body colour varies from almost pure white to nearly all cherry red or brown with

  • Ayrshire Legatees (work by Galt)

    John Galt: The Ayrshire Legatees tells, in the form of letters to their friends in Scotland, the adventures of the Rev. Pringle and his family in London. The Annals of the Parish, told by the Rev. Micah Balwhidder, Galt’s finest character, is a humorous and truthful picture of…

  • Ayrshire whitework (embroidery)

    Ayrshire whitework, in embroidery, a type of drawn thread work done in white thread on white material. Although similar work had been executed earlier and in other centres (for example, in 13th- and 14th-century Germany) and other examples are known from the intervening period, whitework became

  • Ayrton, Hertha Marks (British physicist)

    Hertha Marks Ayrton, British physicist who was the first woman nominated to become a fellow of the Royal Society. In 1861 Marks’s father died, and two years later she went to live with her aunt, author Marion Moss Hartog, who ran a school in London. When she was a teenager, Marks changed her first

  • Aysén (region, Chile)

    Aisén, región, southern Chile, bounded on the east by Argentina and on the west by the Pacific Ocean. Aisén includes the Chonos Archipelago, the Taitao Peninsula, and the mainland between the Palena River in the north and O’Higgins Lake in the south. It is divided into the provinces of Aisén,

  • Aythya affinis (bird)

    pochard: …the wing tip; in the lesser scaup (A. affinis), the wing stripe is about half as long. Scaups gather in huge flocks offshore in winter and dive for shellfish (hence scaup, from scallop).

  • Aythya americana (bird)

    Redhead, (Aythya americana), North American diving duck (family Anatidae), a popular game bird. The redhead breeds in marshes from British Columbia to Wisconsin and winters as far south as the Yucatán Peninsula. Breeding males have a round, red-brown head, gray back, and dark breast and tail;

  • Aythya collaris (bird)

    Ring-necked duck, (species Aythya collaris), diving duck (family Anatidae), a popular game bird that is considered excellent table fare. The ring-necked duck is about 43 cm (17 inches) long. The male has a purplish black, iridescent head, a black back, and gray sides with a vertical wedge-shaped

  • Aythya ferina (bird)

    pochard: …common, or European, pochard (Aythya ferina) breeds along northern reedy lakes; some winter in Egypt, India, and southern China. The drake of the red-crested pochard (Netta rufina) has a puffy yellowish red head with fuzzy erectile crown feathers, black throat and breast, and white sides. This is a more…

  • Aythya innotata (bird)

    anseriform: General features: …nene (Branta sandvicensis), and the Madagascar white-eye (Aythya innotata). Extinction has taken at least six species within the last century, with another three likely extinct, having not been seen for a number of years. The Hawaiian goose was once down to fewer than 50 birds, the Laysan race of the…

  • Aythya marila (bird)

    pochard: In the greater scaup (A. marila), a white stripe extends nearly to the wing tip; in the lesser scaup (A. affinis), the wing stripe is about half as long. Scaups gather in huge flocks offshore in winter and dive for shellfish (hence scaup, from scallop).

  • Aythya novaeseelandiae (bird)

    scaup: The third species is the New Zealand scaup (A. novaeseelandiae). In flight, the white stripe on the rear of the wing extends almost to the wingtip in the greater scaup and only halfway in the lesser scaup.

  • Aythya valisineria (bird)

    Canvasback, (Aythya valisineria), bay duck, or pochard, of the family Anatidae, one of the most popular of game birds. The male canvasback is a relatively large duck, weighing about 1.4 kg (3 pounds). During the breeding season he has a red head and neck and a black breast, with white back and

  • Aythyini (bird)

    Pochard, (tribe Aythyini), any of the 14 to 16 species of diving ducks of the tribe Aythyini (family Anatidae, order Anseriformes), often called bay ducks. Pochards are round-bodied, big-headed, rather silent birds of deep water; they dive well, with closed wings, to feed chiefly on aquatic plants.

  • Ayti

    Haiti, country in the Caribbean Sea that includes the western third of the island of Hispaniola and such smaller islands as Gonave, Tortue (Tortuga), Grande Caye, and Vache. The capital is Port-au-Prince. Haiti, whose population is almost entirely descended from African slaves, won independence

  • Aytmatov, Chingiz (Kyrgyz author)

    Chingiz Aytmatov, author, translator, journalist, and diplomat, best known as a major figure in Kyrgyz and Russian literature. Aytmatov’s father was a Communist Party official executed during the great purges directed by Soviet leader Joseph Stalin in the late 1930s. Aytmatov’s literary career

  • Ayton, Sir Robert (Scottish poet)

    Sir Robert Ayton, one of the earliest Scottish poets to use standard English as a literary medium. Educated at the University of St. Andrews, in the county of Fife, Ayton came into favour at court for a Latin panegyric on the accession of James VI to the English throne. He was knighted in 1612 and

  • Aytoun, Sir Robert (Scottish poet)

    Sir Robert Ayton, one of the earliest Scottish poets to use standard English as a literary medium. Educated at the University of St. Andrews, in the county of Fife, Ayton came into favour at court for a Latin panegyric on the accession of James VI to the English throne. He was knighted in 1612 and

  • Aytoun, William Edmondstoune (Scottish poet)

    William Edmondstoune Aytoun, poet famous for parodies and light verse that greatly influenced the style of later Scottish humorous satire. Born into a literary family, Aytoun learned from his mother to love Scottish ballads and history. He was educated at the University of Edinburgh and in Germany,

  • ayu (fish)

    Sweetfish, delicately flavoured marine fish that migrates upstream to spawn in clear waters. It is found in East Asia and is of the family Osmeridae. The sweetfish is light yellow or olive-coloured, about 30 cm (1 foot) long, and similar to a small trout in appearance. It is distinguished by a

  • Ayub Khan (emir of Afghanistan)
  • Ayub Khan, Mohammad (president of Pakistan)

    Mohammad Ayub Khan, president of Pakistan from 1958 to 1969, whose rule marked a critical period in the modern development of his nation. After studying at Alīgarh Muslim University, in Uttar Pradesh, India, and at the British Royal Military College, at Sandhurst, Ayub Khan was commissioned an

  • Ayudhya (kingdom, Thailand)

    Thailand: The Ayutthayan period, 1351–1767: Whereas Sukhothai was an independent kingdom for only about 200 years, its successor, Ayutthaya—situated in the rich rice plains of the Chao Phraya River basin, about 55 miles (90 km) north of present-day Bangkok—lasted more than 400 years. During the Ayutthayan period…

  • Ayudhya (Thailand)

    Ayutthaya, town and former capital of the Tai state of Ayutthaya (Siam) located in central Thailand, about 55 miles (89 km) north of Bangkok. The site of immense temples and other structures that are important both historically and architecturally, Ayutthaya was added to UNESCO’s World Heritage

  • Ayuntamiento (town hall, Seville, Spain)

    Western architecture: Plateresque: …of the style is the Ayuntamiento, or town hall, of Sevilla (Seville) (begun 1527) by Diego de Ria?o, with Lombard paneled pilasters on the ground floor and half columns completely covered with relief sculpture on the second floor. Also in the Lombard manner are the numerous medallions spotted over the…

  • ayuntamiento (local government)

    Cabildo, (Spanish: “municipal council”), the fundamental unit of local government in colonial Spanish America. Conforming to a tradition going back to the Romans, the Spaniards considered the city to be of paramount importance, with the surrounding countryside directly subordinate to it. In local

  • Ayurparibhadra (emperor of Yuan dynasty)

    Buyantu, (reigned 1311–20), Mongol emperor of the Yuan dynasty (1206–1368) of China, who was a patron of literature. He distributed offices more equitably between Chinese and Mongols than had his predecessors, and during his reign commercial ties with Europe

  • Ayurveda (medical system)

    Ayurveda, traditional system of Indian medicine. Ayurvedic medicine is an example of a well-organized system of traditional health care, both preventive and curative, that is widely practiced in parts of Asia. Ayurveda has a long tradition behind it, having originated in India perhaps as much as

  • Ayurvedic medicine (medical system)

    Ayurveda, traditional system of Indian medicine. Ayurvedic medicine is an example of a well-organized system of traditional health care, both preventive and curative, that is widely practiced in parts of Asia. Ayurveda has a long tradition behind it, having originated in India perhaps as much as

  • Ayuthaya (Thailand)

    Ayutthaya, town and former capital of the Tai state of Ayutthaya (Siam) located in central Thailand, about 55 miles (89 km) north of Bangkok. The site of immense temples and other structures that are important both historically and architecturally, Ayutthaya was added to UNESCO’s World Heritage

  • Ayuthia (Thailand)

    Ayutthaya, town and former capital of the Tai state of Ayutthaya (Siam) located in central Thailand, about 55 miles (89 km) north of Bangkok. The site of immense temples and other structures that are important both historically and architecturally, Ayutthaya was added to UNESCO’s World Heritage

  • Ayutthaya (Thailand)

    Ayutthaya, town and former capital of the Tai state of Ayutthaya (Siam) located in central Thailand, about 55 miles (89 km) north of Bangkok. The site of immense temples and other structures that are important both historically and architecturally, Ayutthaya was added to UNESCO’s World Heritage

  • Ayutthaya (kingdom, Thailand)

    Thailand: The Ayutthayan period, 1351–1767: Whereas Sukhothai was an independent kingdom for only about 200 years, its successor, Ayutthaya—situated in the rich rice plains of the Chao Phraya River basin, about 55 miles (90 km) north of present-day Bangkok—lasted more than 400 years. During the Ayutthayan period…

  • Ayyadurai, Shiva (American scientist, entrepreneur, and politician)

    Elizabeth Warren: …campaign in Massachusetts, and independent Shiva Ayyadurai. Warren then became the first major figure to enter the field for the Democratic presidential nomination in 2020 when she announced her candidacy at the end of December 2018. She adopted a progressive platform and was briefly considered a front-runner. However, she was…

  • Ayyalon, Wadi (river, West Bank)

    Yarqon River: …Judaea and Samaria, and the Wadi Ayyalon (Aijalon) in the southeast. In the valley of the latter, according to the Bible, the moon stood still during Joshua’s conquest of the Amorites (Joshua 10).

  • ayyām al-?Arab (prose genre)

    Islamic arts: Prose: …of the various tribes (ayyām al-?Arab, or “The Days of the Arabs”) were told and handed down from generation to generation, usually interspersed with pieces of poetry. Proverbs and proverbial sayings were as common as in most cultures at a comparable level of development. The “literary” genre most typical…

  • Ayyām, Al- (work by ?āhā ?usayn)

    ?āhā ?usayn: , 1929–67; The Days), the first modern Arab literary work to be acclaimed in the West.

  • Ayyappan (Hindu deity)

    Ayyappan, in Hinduism, a deity who is always celibate, generally depicted in a yogic posture, with a bell around his neck. His most-prominent shrine is at Shabarimalai, in the southern Indian state of Kerala, where he is most popular, though the neighbouring states of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka also

  • ?ayyār (Iraqi warrior)

    ?ayyār, (Arabic: “vagabond,” “scoundrel”, ) any member of a class of warriors common to Iraq and Iran in the 9th–12th century, often associated in futūwah, medieval Islāmic urban organizations. Though ?ayyārūn were found fighting for Islām on the frontiers of inner Asia, the most thorough

  • ayyar (Hindu honorary title)

    Smarta sect: …earned the honorary title of shastri (Sanskrit: “men of learning”), or, in Tamil, ayyar, which often follows their names.

  • Ayyūb (governor of Damascus)

    Ayyūb, father of Saladin, and a member of a family of Kurdish soldiers of fortune who in the 12th century took service under the Seljuq Turkish rulers in Iraq and Syria. Appointed governor of Damascus, Ayyūb and his brother Shīrkūh united Syria in preparation for war against the crusaders. He gave

  • Ayyūbid dynasty (Muslim dynasty)

    Ayyūbid dynasty, Sunni Muslim dynasty, founded by Saladin (?alā? al-Dīn), that ruled in the late 12th and early 13th centuries over Egypt and what became upper Iraq, most of Syria, and Yemen. Saladin’s father, Ayyūb (in full, Najm al-Dīn Ayyūb ibn Shādhī), for whom the Ayyūbid dynasty is named, was

  • ?Ayzariyyah, Al- (village, West Bank)

    Bethany, small village and biblical site on the eastern slopes of the Mount of Olives just outside Jerusalem, situated in the West Bank. Under Jordanian control from 1949 to 1967 Bethany became part of the West Bank territory under Israeli occupation following the Six-Day War of 1967 and later came

  • Az égi és a f?ldi szerelemr?l (essay by Nádas)

    Péter Nádas: He followed up with Az égi és a f?ldi szerelemr?l (1991; “On Divine and Earthly Love”), a book-length essay about love in contexts ranging from ancient mythology to the present day, and Párbeszéd: négy nap ezerkilencszáznyolcvankilencben (1992; “Dialogue: Four Days in Nineteen Eighty-nine”), a transcript of a conversation with…

  • aza (Japanese rural unit)

    Japan: Rural settlement: Now called an aza, this unit should not be confused with the administrative terms mura or son in use after 1888.

  • āzād Bilgrami (Indian writer)

    Islamic arts: New importance of Indian literature: …of Arabic in the Deccan, āzād Bilgrami (died 1786) composed numerous poetical and biographical works in Persian, but his chief fame was as the “?assān of Hind,” since he, like the Prophet Muhammad’s protégé ?assān ibn Thābit, wrote some powerful Arabic panegyrics in honour of the Prophet. He even attempted…

  • Azad Hind Fauj (Indian history)

    Subhas Chandra Bose: Activity in exile: …Indian government, and his so-called Indian National Army (Azad Hind Fauj), alongside Japanese troops, advanced to Rangoon (Yangon) and thence overland into India, reaching Indian soil on March 18, 1944, and moving into Kohima and the plains of Imphal. In a stubborn battle, the mixed Indian and Japanese forces, lacking…

  • Azad Kashmir (quasi-state, Kashmir region, India-Pakistan)

    Azad Kashmir, area of the Pakistani-administered sector of the Kashmir region, in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent. Azad (“Free”) Kashmir, established in 1947 after the partition of India, is neither a province nor an agency of Pakistan but has a government of its own that is

  • Azad, Abul Kalam (Indian theologian)

    Abul Kalam Azad, Islamic theologian who was one of the leaders of the Indian independence movement against British rule in the first half of the 20th century. He was highly respected throughout his life as a man of high moral integrity. Azad was the son of an Indian Muslim scholar living in Mecca

  • Azad, Chandra Shekhar (Indian revolutionary)

    Chandrasekhar Azad, Indian revolutionary who organized and led a band of militant youth during India’s independence movement. Azad was drawn into the Indian national movement at a young age. When apprehended by the police at age 15 while participating in Mohandas K. Gandhi’s noncooperation movement

  • Azad, Chandrasekhar (Indian revolutionary)

    Chandrasekhar Azad, Indian revolutionary who organized and led a band of militant youth during India’s independence movement. Azad was drawn into the Indian national movement at a young age. When apprehended by the police at age 15 while participating in Mohandas K. Gandhi’s noncooperation movement

  • Azad, Chandrashekhar (Indian revolutionary)

    Chandrasekhar Azad, Indian revolutionary who organized and led a band of militant youth during India’s independence movement. Azad was drawn into the Indian national movement at a young age. When apprehended by the police at age 15 while participating in Mohandas K. Gandhi’s noncooperation movement

  • Azad, Maulana Abul Kalam (Indian theologian)

    Abul Kalam Azad, Islamic theologian who was one of the leaders of the Indian independence movement against British rule in the first half of the 20th century. He was highly respected throughout his life as a man of high moral integrity. Azad was the son of an Indian Muslim scholar living in Mecca

  • Azadirachta indica (tree)

    Neem, (Azadirachta indica), fast-growing tree of the mahogany family (Meliaceae), valued as a medicinal plant, as a source of organic pesticides, and for its timber. Neem is likely native to the Indian subcontinent and to dry areas throughout South Asia. It has been introduced to parts of Africa,

  • azadirachtin (chemical compound)

    neem: Uses: The primary active insecticidal ingredient, azadirachtin, works to disrupt the hormones involved with insect molting, preventing larvae from developing properly into adults, and is a feeding inhibitor. Neem oil can kill soft-bodied insects on contact and decreases mating and reproductive behaviours, reducing pest fecundity. As a fungicide, neem oil is…

  • Aza?s, Pierre-Hyacinthe (French philosopher)

    Pierre-Hyacinthe Aza?s, philosopher whose optimism was rooted in the idea that human experience is imbued with a natural and harmonious balance between joy and sadness and that it is in this balance that meaning can be discovered. He advocated the idea in the work that first brought him fame, Des

  • Azak (Russia)

    Azov, town, Rostov oblast (province), southwestern Russia. It lies on the left bank of the Don River, 4 miles (7 km) east of the Sea of Azov. The Greek colony of Tanais, the first known major city in the region, was founded there in the 6th century bc. It changed hands and was renamed several times

  • azalea (plant)

    Azalea, certain species of Rhododendron, of the family Ericaceae, formerly given the generic name Azalea. Neither the nature of the corolla (ring of petals) nor other characteristics are sufficiently constant to serve as a means of separating these plants into two distinct genera, although azaleas

  • Azalī (Iranian religion)

    Azalī, any member of the Bābī movement (followers of a 19th-century Iranian prophet, the Bāb) who chose to remain faithful to the Bāb’s teachings and to his chosen successor, Mirza Ya?ya, given the religious title ?ob?-e Azal, after a split in the movement occurred in 1863. For about 13 years

  • ?A?am Shah (Mughal leader)

    Battle of Jajau: …and his next eldest brother, ?A?am Shah, vied for possession of the throne. Careful preparations and quick movements enabled Bahādur Shah to reach Agra on June 12 to secure the imperial treasure. Both sides numbered some 100,000 combatants, but Bahādur Shah had more artillery. This advantage, along with the desertion…

  • Azamer be-she-vahim (hymn by Luria)

    Isaac ben Solomon Luria: The hymns are known as “Azamer be-she-va?im” (“I Will Sing on the Praises”), “Asader se?udata” (“I Will Order the Festive Meal”), and “Bene hekh-ala de-khesifin” (“Sons of the Temple of Silver”). They are mystical, erotic songs about “the adornment (or fitting) of the bride”—i.e., the sabbath, who was identified with…

  • Azamgarh (India)

    Azamgarh, city, eastern Uttar Pradesh state, northern India. It lies along the Tons River, a tributary of the Ghaghara, north of Varanasi (Benares). Azamgarh was founded in 1665 by A??am Khan, a local chief for whom it is named. The compact city sits on a level plain and is enclosed on three sides

  • Azamukazaru no ki (work by Kunikida Doppo)

    Kunikida Doppo: Azamukazaru no ki (“Diary Without Deceit”) covered the personally tormented years of 1893–97, during which he married and was deserted by his first wife, who later served as the model for the heroine of the novel Aru onna (1919; A Certain Woman) by Arishima Takeo.

  • Aza?a y Díaz, Manuel (president of Spain)

    Manuel Aza?a, Spanish minister and president of the Second Republic whose attempts to fashion a moderately liberal government were halted by the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War. Aza?a studied law in Madrid and became a civil servant, journalist, and writer, figuring prominently in Ateneo, a

  • Aza?a, Manuel (president of Spain)

    Manuel Aza?a, Spanish minister and president of the Second Republic whose attempts to fashion a moderately liberal government were halted by the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War. Aza?a studied law in Madrid and became a civil servant, journalist, and writer, figuring prominently in Ateneo, a

  • Azande (people)

    Zande, a people of Central Africa who speak a language of the Adamawa-Ubangi branch of the Niger-Congo language family. Extending across the Nile-Congo drainage divide, they live partly in South Sudan, partly in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and partly in the Central African Republic. The

  • Azania (historical region, Africa)

    eastern Africa: Azania: Because of offshore islands, better landing places, and wetter climate, Arab traders from about 700 seem to have preferred the East African coast to the south of modern Somalia. They sailed there with the northeast monsoon, returning home in the summer with the southwest.…

  • Azanian People’s Liberation Army (South African military organization)

    Pan-Africanist Congress of Azania: …military wing (now named the Azanian People’s Liberation Army; APLA), with its slogan of “One settler, one bullet,” became popular. The APLA perpetrated several massacres between 1991 and 1994, including killings in a pub and a church in Cape Town.

  • azapirone (drug)

    antianxiety drug: Other antianxiety drugs: Buspirone is another antianxiety drug that is unrelated to the benzodiazepines. It does not affect the GABA receptor, nor does it have any muscle-relaxant or anticonvulsive properties. It also lacks the prominent sedative effect that is associated with other drugs used to treat anxiety. Instead,…

  • Azara’s agouti (rodent)

    agouti: …lowland and montane tropical rainforests, Azara’s agouti (Dasyprocta azarae) also inhabits the drier cerrado (savanna and scrub) and chaco environments south of the Amazon basin into Paraguay and northeastern Argentina. Three different agoutis have been introduced into the West Indies, presumably by native Caribbean tribes: D. mexicana in Cuba, D.…

  • Azarbaijan (region, Iran)

    Azerbaijan, geographic region that comprises the extreme northwestern portion of Iran. It is bounded on the north by the Aras River, which separates it from independent Azerbaijan and Armenia; on the east by the Iranian region of Gīlān and the Caspian Sea; on the south by the Iranian regions of

  • Az?rbayjan Respublikasi

    Azerbaijan, country of eastern Transcaucasia. Occupying an area that fringes the southern flanks of the Caucasus Mountains, it is bounded on the north by Russia, on the east by the Caspian Sea, on the south by Iran, on the west by Armenia, and on the northwest by Georgia. The exclave of Nax??van

  • Azare (Nigeria)

    Azare, town, seat of the Katagum traditional emirate, Bauchi state, northeastern Nigeria, located in the northern extension of Bauchi state. The town and emirate are peopled by the Hausa, Fulani, and Kanuri ethnic groups, who are predominantly Muslim. The area is chiefly agricultural, the principal

  • Azariah (king of Judah)

    Uzziah, in the Old Testament (2 Chronicles 26), son and successor of Amaziah, and king of Judah for 52 years (c. 791–739 bc). Assyrian records indicate that Uzziah reigned for 42 years (c. 783–742). His reign marked the height of Judah’s power. He fought successfully against other nations and

  • Azariah dei Rossi (Jewish scholar)

    Judaism: Conflicts and new movements: …turn introduced Jews such as Azariah dei Rossi (c. 1513–78), whose Meor ?enayim (“Enlightenment of the Eyes”) inaugurated critical textual study of rabbinical texts, to new bodies of literature that had been lost to the Jewish community, such as the works of Philo and Josephus.

  • Azariah, The Prayer of (apocryphal literature)

    The Prayer of Azariah, apocryphal insertion into The Book of Daniel in the Greek (Septuagint) Bible and subsequently included in the Latin (Vulgate) Bible and the Roman Catholic biblical canon. The Prayer of Azariah and the accompanying Song of the Three Young Men form part of chapter three and

  • Azariah, Vedanayakam Samuel (Indian bishop)

    Vedanayakam Samuel Azariah, first Indian bishop of the Anglican Church in India. He was the son of an Indian clergyman and was educated at the Madras Christian College. In 1896 he became a traveling secretary for the Young Men’s Christian Association and in 1906 secretary of the National Missionary

  • Azarias (archangel)

    Raphael, in the Bible, one of the archangels. In the apocryphal Old Testament (Hebrew Bible) Book of Tobit, he is the one who, in human disguise and under the name of Azarias (“Yahweh helps”), accompanied Tobias in his adventurous journey and conquered the demon Asmodeus. He is said (Tobit 12:15)

  • Azarias (king of Judah)

    Uzziah, in the Old Testament (2 Chronicles 26), son and successor of Amaziah, and king of Judah for 52 years (c. 791–739 bc). Assyrian records indicate that Uzziah reigned for 42 years (c. 783–742). His reign marked the height of Judah’s power. He fought successfully against other nations and

  • Azāriqah (Islamic sect)

    Khārijite: Within the Khārijite movement the Azāriqah of Basra were the most extreme subsect, separating themselves from the Muslim community and declaring death to all sinners and their families. The more moderate subsect of the Ibā?īyah, however, survived into the 20th century in North Africa, Oman, and Zanzibar, with about 500,000…

  • Azarov, Mykola (prime minister of Ukraine)

    Ukraine: The Yanukovych presidency: …vote of no confidence and Mykola Azarov of the Party of Regions was installed as prime minister. President Yanukovych gained greater executive authority later in 2010 when the Constitutional Court overturned the 2006 reform that had enhanced the powers of the prime minister.

  • Azarquiel (Spanish Muslim scholar)

    Spain: Science: …simplify the astrolabe, and finally al-Zarqālī (Azarquiel; died 1100) achieved success by inventing the apparatus called the azafea (Arabic: al-?afī?ah), which was widely used by navigators until the 16th century. Al-Zarqālī also anticipated Johannes Kepler by suggesting that the orbits of the planets are not circular but ovoid. The Arab…

  • azathioprine (drug)

    Azathioprine, immunosuppressive drug that is used to treat rheumatoid arthritis and to suppress the body’s rejection of transplanted organs. By inhibiting several enzymatic pathways required for the synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), azathioprine decreases the number of lymphocytes (a type

  • Azay-le-Br?lé (France)

    Azay-le-Rideau, town and chateau, Indre-et-Loire département, Centre région, central France. The town lies along the Indre River a few miles upstream from its confluence with the Loire River, about 15 miles (24 km) southwest of Tours. Originally the site of a Roman villa, the town was known in the

  • Azay-le-Rideau (France)

    Azay-le-Rideau, town and chateau, Indre-et-Loire département, Centre région, central France. The town lies along the Indre River a few miles upstream from its confluence with the Loire River, about 15 miles (24 km) southwest of Tours. Originally the site of a Roman villa, the town was known in the

  • Azay-le-Rideau, Treaty of (France [1189])

    Philip II: Territorial expansion: Finally, by the Treaty of Azay-le-Rideau, or of Colombières (July 4, 1189), Henry was forced to renew his own homage, to confirm the cession of Issoudun, with Gra?ay also, to Philip, and to renounce his claim to suzerainty over Auvergne. Henry died two days later.

  • Azayum (France)

    Azay-le-Rideau, town and chateau, Indre-et-Loire département, Centre région, central France. The town lies along the Indre River a few miles upstream from its confluence with the Loire River, about 15 miles (24 km) southwest of Tours. Originally the site of a Roman villa, the town was known in the

  • Azazel (Jewish legend)

    Azazel, in Jewish legends, a demon or evil spirit to whom, in the ancient rite of Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement), a scapegoat was sent bearing the sins of the Jewish people. Two male goats were chosen for the ritual, one designated by lots “for the Lord,” the other “for Azazel” (Leviticus 16:8). The

  • Azbakiyyah, al- (district, Cairo, Egypt)

    Cairo: Development of the city: …design of the districts of Al-Azbakiyyah (with its large park), ?Abdīn, and Ismā?īliyyah—all now central zones of contemporary Cairo. By the end of the 19th century these districts were well-developed, but with the beginning of British rule of Egypt in 1882 they were transformed into a colonial enclave.

  • A?be, Anton (Slovenian artist)

    Wassily Kandinsky: Munich period: …school at Munich run by Anton Azbé. Two years of study under Azbé were followed by a year of work alone and then by enrollment at the Munich Academy in the class of Franz von Stuck. Kandinsky emerged from the academy with a diploma in 1900 and, during the next…

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