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  • Avicularidae (spider)

    Tarantula, (family Theraphosidae), any of numerous hairy and generally large spiders found in the southwestern United States, Mexico, and tropical America. Tarantulas are mygalomorphs (suborder Orthognatha), and thus they have jaws that move forward and down (rather than sideways and together,

  • avicularium (anatomy)

    moss animal: Zooids: Avicularia are found among normal zooids but usually are smaller and attached to normal zooids, as in the gymnolaemate Schizoporella. In the gymnolaemate Bugula the avicularia are movable on short stalks and closely resemble miniature birds’ heads—hence the name avicularium. Another specialized form of zooid…

  • Aviculidae (mollusk)

    bivalve: Annotated classification: Pterioida (pearl oysters and fan shells) Shell equivalve, variably shaped; anisomyarian but often monomyarian; shell structure of outer simple calcitic prisms and inner nacre; ctenidia pseudolamellibranch, often plicate (deeply folded); mantle margin lacking fusions; foot reduced; marine; endobyssate or epibyssate. About 100 species. Order Limoida

  • aviculture

    Aviculture, raising and care of wild birds in captivity, for the breeding of game stock, the perpetuation of declining species, or for display and education. The simulation of natural conditions is a necessary goal of aviculturists, allowing them to study aspects of mating and breeding behaviour

  • avidin (chemistry)

    biotin: …white contains a specific protein, avidin, that combines with biotin and thus prevents its absorption. In practice, biotin deficiency results only from the prolonged consumption of an exceptionally large number of uncooked egg whites; symptoms include dermatitis and hair loss.

  • Avidius Cassius, Gaius (Roman emperor)

    Gaius Avidius Cassius, usurping Roman emperor for three months in ad 175. The son of a high civil servant of the emperor Hadrian (ruled 117–138), Avidius directed operations under the command of the emperor Verus in Rome’s war against the Parthians (161–166). By 165 Avidius had advanced into

  • avidya (Indian philosophy)

    jnana: Its opposite, ajnana (also called avidya), is the false apprehension of reality that keeps the soul from attaining release; it is a form of mistaken knowledge, which has a large measure of validity as far as the realities of the present world are concerned but conceals the…

  • Avignon (France)

    Avignon, city, capital of Vaucluse département, Provence–Alpes–C?te d’Azur région, southeastern France. It lies at a point on the east bank of the Rh?ne River where the narrow valley opens into a broad delta plain, northwest of N?mes. It was the capital of the papacy from 1309 to 1377. Recognized

  • Avignon Festival (French theatrical festival)

    French literature: Theatrical experiments: …drama in the provinces (the Avignon Festival, founded by the great director Jean Vilar in 1947 to reach a younger public with more vibrant and modern acting and staging techniques) and the establishment of remarkable and innovative theatre companies in Paris, such as the Théatre National Populaire and the Compagnie…

  • Avignon papacy (Roman Catholicism)

    Avignon papacy, Roman Catholic papacy during the period 1309–77, when the popes took up residence at Avignon, France, instead of at Rome, primarily because of the current political conditions. Distressed by factionalism in Rome and pressed to come to France by Philip IV, Pope Clement V moved the

  • Avignon Pietà (work attributed to Charonton)

    Enguerrand Charonton: The famous “Avignon Pietà” (shortly before 1457?; now in the Louvre, Paris) exhibits a similar style and has been attributed to him.

  • Avignon school (painting)

    Avignon school, a body of late Gothic painting, not necessarily of a single stylistic evolution, produced in and around the city of Avignon in southeastern France from the second half of the 14th century into the second half of the 15th. Subject to both Italian and Flemish influences—in contrast to

  • Avignon, Fran?ois Lambert d’ (French religious reformer)

    Fran?ois Lambert, Protestant convert from Roman Catholicism and leading reformer in Hesse. At age 15 Lambert entered the Franciscan community at Avignon, France. Sometime after 1517 he became an itinerant friar, traveling through France, Italy, and Switzerland. He left the Franciscans permanently

  • Avignon, Pont d’ (bridge, Avignon, France)

    Avignon: Four arches of the famed Saint-Bénézet bridge (of the song “Sur le pont d’Avignon”) still reach out from the town, its Romanesque St. Nicholas Chapel still perched on the second pier. The Rh?ne currents had defied bridging until St. Bénézet and his disciples built the bridge in the late 12th…

  • avijja (Indian philosophy)

    jnana: Its opposite, ajnana (also called avidya), is the false apprehension of reality that keeps the soul from attaining release; it is a form of mistaken knowledge, which has a large measure of validity as far as the realities of the present world are concerned but conceals the…

  • ávila (province, Spain)

    ávila, provincia (province) in the Castile-León comunidad autónoma (autonomous community), central Spain, on the northern Meseta Central (plateau). ávila is separated from Madrid province by the Sierra de Guadarrama to the east and from Toledo province by the Sierra de Gredos to the south.

  • ávila (Spain)

    ávila, city, capital of ávila provincia (province), in the Castile-León comunidad autónoma (autonomous community), central Spain. The city of ávila is situated on the Adaja River at 3,715 feet (1,132 metres) above sea level and is surrounded by the lofty Sierra de Gredos (south) and the Sierra de

  • ávila Camacho, Manuel (president of Mexico)

    Manuel ávila Camacho, soldier and moderate statesman whose presidency (1940–46) saw a consolidation of the social reforms of the Mexican Revolution and the beginning of an unprecedented period of friendship with the United States. ávila Camacho joined the army of Venustiano Carranza in 1914 and

  • ávila de los Caballeros (Spain)

    ávila, city, capital of ávila provincia (province), in the Castile-León comunidad autónoma (autonomous community), central Spain. The city of ávila is situated on the Adaja River at 3,715 feet (1,132 metres) above sea level and is surrounded by the lofty Sierra de Gredos (south) and the Sierra de

  • Avila, Bobby (Mexican baseball player)

    Latin Americans in Major League Baseball Through the First Years of the 21st Century: The 1930s through World War II: …grabbed the Mexican talent, including Bobby Avila, the first celebrated Mexican player in U.S. major league baseball. As the Cleveland Indians’ second baseman, Avila won the 1954 American League batting championship. Pasquel’s Mexican League offered salaries that competed favourably with those in organized baseball, which caused Major League Baseball to…

  • ávila, Farce of (Spanish history)

    Henry IV: …in effigy in the “Farce of Avila.” After three years of civil war Alfonso died, and Henry vacillated about the claim of his infant daughter. His rivals then recognized his half sister, Isabella (the future Isabella I), who, without Henry’s knowledge or consent, married the heir to the throne…

  • ávila, Gustavo (jockey)

    Canonero II: …far turn when his jockey, Gustavo ávila, let him loose. From the back of the pack he galloped relentlessly, catching the pack and then thundering past the leaders for a three-and-three-quarter-length victory, which was widely deemed a fluke.

  • ávila, Pedro Arias de (Spanish colonial administrator)

    Pedro Arias Dávila, Spanish soldier and colonial administrator who led the first Spanish expedition to found permanent colonies on the American mainland. A soldier in his youth, Arias Dávila served with distinction in wars against the Moors in Granada in the 1490s and in North Africa in 1508–11. It

  • Avildsen, John G. (American director and cinematographer)

    John G. Avildsen , American film director best known for the aspirational boxing classic Rocky (1976) and the Karate Kid martial-arts film franchise. Avildsen began working in the 1960s as an assistant director on various films while holding a day job as a director of television commercials for an

  • Avildsen, John Guilbert (American director and cinematographer)

    John G. Avildsen , American film director best known for the aspirational boxing classic Rocky (1976) and the Karate Kid martial-arts film franchise. Avildsen began working in the 1960s as an assistant director on various films while holding a day job as a director of television commercials for an

  • Avilés (Spain)

    Avilés, city, Asturias provincia (province) and comunidad autónoma (autonomous community), northwestern Spain. It lies along the Ría (inlet) de Avilés, an inlet of the Bay of Biscay. Avilés is rich in medieval architecture, its outstanding examples including the Gothic churches of San Nicolás and

  • Avinu Malkenu (Judaism)

    Avinu Malkenu, (Hebrew: “Our Father, Our King”), the opening words of each verse of a Jewish litany of supplication that is recited in synagogues with special devotion during the Ten Days of Penitence (except on the sabbath), which mark the beginning of the new religious year. Reform Jews recite

  • Avion Corporation (American company)

    John Knudsen Northrop: In 1928 Northrop cofounded the Avion Corporation in nearby Burbank, where he perfected a light, strong “multicellular” wing, built up from a number of sheathed-over, boxlike subcompartments. In 1929 Avion was bought by United Aircraft and Transport Corporation and was renamed Northrop Aircraft Corporation. Under this arrangement Northrop produced the…

  • Avion III (aircraft)

    Clément Ader: Avion III was tested on a circular track at Satory on Oct. 12 and 14, 1897. The official report of the trials noted that the machine had not flown but recommended that the tests continue. Officials of the Ministry of War, however, decided that they…

  • avionics (aviation)

    Avionics, (derived from the expression “aviation electronics”), the development and production of electronic instruments for use in aviation and astronautics. The term also refers to the instruments themselves. Such instruments consist of a wide variety of control, performance, communications, and

  • Avions de Transport Régionale (French company)

    European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company: Aerospatiale Matra: …turboprop regional aircraft and formed ATR as a 50-50 joint venture to develop, market, and support regional transport aircraft. ATR developed a family of high-wing, twin-turboprop aircraft in the 40–70 seat range based the ATR 42, its first product (entered service 1985), and the later ATR 72 (1989). In 1992…

  • Avions Marcel Dassault–Breguet Aviation (French company)

    Marcel Dassault: …of transport aircraft, to form Avions Marcel Dassault–Breguet Aviation.

  • avirulence (biology)

    community ecology: Gene-for-gene coevolution: …emits, encoded by a so-called avirulence gene. After being alerted to the threat of the parasite, the host responds to prevent the parasite from invading. The resistance gene will confer an advantage to plants that carry it, allowing individuals to survive and pass on their genotype to future generations. Individuals…

  • avirulence gene (biology)

    gene-for-gene coevolution: …emits, encoded by a so-called avirulence gene. After being alerted to the threat of the parasite, the host responds to prevent the parasite from invading. The resistance gene will confer an advantage to plants that carry it, allowing individuals to survive and pass on their genotype to future generations. Individuals…

  • Avis, Warren Edward (American businessman)

    Warren Edward Avis, American businessman (born Aug. 4, 1915 , Bay City, Mich.—died April 24, 2007 , Ann Arbor, Mich.), was the pioneering founder in 1946 of Avis Rent-a-Car, which became the first car-rental agency to be based at an airport. Avis, a frequent flyer who identified a need for securing

  • Avisha? Scroll (manuscript)

    biblical literature: The Samaritan Pentateuch: The Avisha? Scroll, the sacred copy of the Samaritans, has recently been photographed and critically examined. Only Numbers 35 to Deuteronomy 34 appears to be very old, the rest stemming from the 14th century. A definitive edition, with photographs, of the Samaritan Pentateuch was prepared in…

  • Avision de Christine, L’? (work by Christine de Pisan)

    Christine de Pisan: The story of her life, L’Avision de Christine (1405), told in an allegorical manner, was a reply to her detractors. At the request of the regent, Philip the Bold of Burgundy, Christine wrote the life of the deceased king, Charles—Le Livre des fais et bonnes meurs du sage roy Charles…

  • Avison, Charles (English composer)

    Charles Avison, English composer, organist, and writer on musical aesthetics. Little is known of Avison’s life until he took positions as organist at St. John’s and St. Nicholas’ churches in Newcastle in 1736. He also taught harpsichord, violin, and flute and conducted some of the first

  • Avison, Margaret (Canadian poet)

    Margaret Avison, Canadian poet who revealed the progress of an interior spiritual journey in her three successive volumes of poetry. Her work has often been praised for the beauty of its language and images. The daughter of a Methodist minister, Avison attended the University of Toronto (B.A.,

  • Avisos y reglas para confesores de espa?oles (work by Las Casas)

    Bartolomé de Las Casas: The Apologética and the Destrucción: …January 1545, he immediately issued Avisos y reglas para confesores de espa?oles (“Admonitions and Regulations for the Confessors of Spaniards”), the famous Confesionario, in which he forbade absolution to be given to those who held Indians in encomienda. The rigorous enforcement of his regulations led to vehement opposition on the…

  • Avisseau, Jean-Charles (French artist)

    Bernard Palissy: …1870 copies were executed by Jean-Charles Avisseau of Tours and by Georges Pull of Paris.

  • avitaminosis (pathology)

    nutritional disease: Vitamins: Although deficiency diseases have been described in laboratory animals and humans deprived of single vitamins, in human experience multiple deficiencies are usually present simultaneously. The eight B-complex vitamins function in coordination in numerous enzyme systems and metabolic pathways; thus, a deficiency of one may affect…

  • Avitus (Roman emperor)

    Avitus, Western Roman emperor (455–456). Born of a distinguished Gallic family, Avitus was a son-in-law of the Christian writer Sidonius Apollinaris, whose poetry is an important source for our knowledge of him. By taking advantage of his great influence with the Visigoths who were settled at

  • Aviz, House of (Portuguese dynasty)

    Portugal: The house of Aviz, 1383–1580: The legitimate male line of Henry of Burgundy ended at Ferdinand’s death, and, when the Cortes met at Coimbra in March–April 1385, John of Aviz was declared king (as John I) and became the founder of a new dynasty. This result…

  • AVLIS (physics)

    isotope: Photochemical enrichment methods: In atomic vapour laser isotope separation (AVLIS), the starting material is the element itself; in molecular laser isotope separation (MLIS), the starting material is a chemical compound containing the element. Ordinary light sources are not suitable for isotope separation because they emit a broad range of…

  • AVMT (American organization)

    Cindy McCain: In 1988 she founded the American Voluntary Medical Team (AVMT), a nonprofit organization that provided medical care to people in impoverished and war-ravaged countries throughout the world. Cindy herself led more than 50 excursions to deliver aid and supplies. In the late 1980s she became addicted to prescription painkillers, and…

  • AVNOJ (Yugoslavian organization)

    Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia, umbrella organization established during World War II by the Communist Party of Yugoslavia to coordinate the military campaigns of Josip Broz Tito’s Partisans and the administrative activities of local “liberation committees.” AVNOJ

  • avocado (fruit and tree)

    Avocado, fruit of Persea americana of the family Lauraceae, a tree native to the Western Hemisphere from Mexico south to the Andean regions. Avocado fruits have greenish or yellowish flesh with a buttery consistency and a rich, nutty flavour. They are often eaten in salads, and in many parts of the

  • avocado pear (fruit and tree)

    Avocado, fruit of Persea americana of the family Lauraceae, a tree native to the Western Hemisphere from Mexico south to the Andean regions. Avocado fruits have greenish or yellowish flesh with a buttery consistency and a rich, nutty flavour. They are often eaten in salads, and in many parts of the

  • avocat (French law)

    advocate: In France avocats were formerly an organized body of pleaders, while the preparation of cases was done by avoués; today this distinction exists only before the appellate courts. In Germany, until the distinction between counselor and pleader was abolished in 1879, the Advokat was the adviser rather…

  • avocet (bird)

    Avocet, any of several large shorebirds belonging to the genus Recurvirostra, family Recurvirostridae. Avocets have boldly contrasting plumage, long bluish legs, and a long black bill upturned at the tip. They inhabit fresh and salt marshes that have areas of open shallow water and mud flats, and

  • avocetbill (bird)

    hummingbird: …in the awlbill (Avocettula) and avocetbill (Opisthoprora).

  • Avocettula (bird)

    hummingbird: …at the tip in the awlbill (Avocettula) and avocetbill (Opisthoprora).

  • Avoda (political party, Israel)

    Israel Labour Party, Israeli social-democratic political party founded in January 1968 in the union of three socialist-labour parties. It and its major component, Mapai, dominated Israel’s government from the country’s independence in 1948 until 1977, when the rival Likud coalition first came to

  • Avodath Hakodesh (work by Bloch)

    Ernest Bloch: His sacred service Avodath Hakodesh for baritone, chorus, and orchestra (1930–33) represents the full maturity of his use of music appropriate to Jewish themes and liturgy. Many of Bloch’s works show a strong neoclassical trend, combining musical forms of the past with 20th-century techniques. Examples include his Concerto…

  • Avogadro constant (chemistry)

    Avogadro’s number, number of units in one mole of any substance (defined as its molecular weight in grams), equal to 6.02214076 × 1023. The units may be electrons, atoms, ions, or molecules, depending on the nature of the substance and the character of the reaction (if any).See alsoAvogadro’s

  • Avogadro’s law (chemistry)

    Avogadro’s law, a statement that under the same conditions of temperature and pressure, equal volumes of different gases contain an equal number of molecules. This empirical relation can be derived from the kinetic theory of gases under the assumption of a perfect (ideal) gas. The law is

  • Avogadro’s number (chemistry)

    Avogadro’s number, number of units in one mole of any substance (defined as its molecular weight in grams), equal to 6.02214076 × 1023. The units may be electrons, atoms, ions, or molecules, depending on the nature of the substance and the character of the reaction (if any).See alsoAvogadro’s

  • Avogadro, Amedeo (Italian physicist)

    Amedeo Avogadro, Italian mathematical physicist who showed in what became known as Avogadro’s law that, under controlled conditions of temperature and pressure, equal volumes of gases contain an equal number of molecules. Avogadro was the son of Filippo Avogadro, conte di Quaregna e Cerreto, a

  • Avogadro, Lorenzo Romano Amedeo Carlo, conte di Quaregna e Cerreto (Italian physicist)

    Amedeo Avogadro, Italian mathematical physicist who showed in what became known as Avogadro’s law that, under controlled conditions of temperature and pressure, equal volumes of gases contain an equal number of molecules. Avogadro was the son of Filippo Avogadro, conte di Quaregna e Cerreto, a

  • avoidance behaviour (psychology)

    Avoidance behaviour, type of activity, seen in animals exposed to adverse stimuli, in which the tendency to act defensively is stronger than the tendency to attack. The underlying implication that a single neural mechanism is involved (such as a specific part of the brain, which, under electrical

  • avoidance relationship (anthropology)

    Avoidance relationship, in human societies, the institutionalized, formal avoidance of one individual by another. Avoidance relationships usually involve persons of opposite sexes who have a specific kin relationship to one another. Formal rules for avoidance have generally been interpreted by

  • avoidance, principle of (biology)

    plant disease: Exclusion and avoidance: The principle of exclusion and avoidance is to keep the pathogen away from the growing host plant. This practice commonly excludes pathogens by disinfection of plants, seeds, or other parts, using chemicals or heat. Inspection and certification of seed and other planting stock help ensure freedom…

  • avoidance, zone of (astronomy)

    Zone of avoidance, region characterized by an apparent absence of galaxies near the plane of the Milky Way Galaxy and caused by the obscuring effect of interstellar dust. It was so called by the American astronomer Edwin P. Hubble. The zone of avoidance is entirely a local Milky Way Galaxy effect.

  • avoidance-avoidance conflict (psychology)

    conflict: …two dangers or threats (avoidance-avoidance conflict) is usually more disturbing. A man may dislike his job intensely but fear the threat of unemployment if he quits. A conflict between a need and a fear may also be intense. A child may be dependent on his mother but fear her…

  • avoidant personality disorder (psychology)

    mental disorder: Avoidant personality disorder: People with this disorder feel personally inadequate and fear that others judge them to be so in social situations. They show extreme sensitivity to rejection and may lead socially withdrawn lives, tending to avoid social situations for fear of being evaluated negatively by…

  • avoirdupois weight (measurement system)

    Avoirdupois weight, traditional system of weight in the British Imperial System and the United States Customary System of weights and measures. The name derives ultimately from French avoir de pois (“goods of weight” or “property”). The avoirdupois pound contains 7,000 grains, or 256 drams of

  • Avola (Italy)

    Avola, town, southeastern Sicily, Italy, southwest of Syracuse. Rebuilt after an earthquake in 1693, the town has several fine 18th-century churches. Sugar refining and almond packing are the main industries. Pop. (2006 est.) mun.,

  • Avon (former county, England, United Kingdom)

    Avon, region and former administrative county, southwestern England, bordering the Severn estuary and the Bristol Channel. The region comprises parts of the historic counties of Gloucestershire and Somerset to the north and south, respectively. It is divided administratively into the following

  • Avon (France)

    pottery: Lead-glazed wares of the 16th century: …style was continued at the Avon pottery, near Fontainebleau.

  • Avon Calling

    During the 1990s the untapped direct-sales markets in Russia and China provided a prime opportunity for Avon Products Inc. and Mary Kay Corp., two leading American cosmetic companies, to expand their businesses overseas. Women in those countries had long been employed in jobs for which they were

  • Avon Gorge (gorge, England, United Kingdom)

    Carboniferous Period: Mississippian subsystem: …units exposed at the famous Avon Gorge section at Bristol, Eng., include (in ascending order): Shirehampton beds, Lower Limestone Shale, Black Rock Limestone, Gully Oolite, Clifton Down Mudstone, Goblin Combe Oolite, Clifton Down Limestone, Hotwells Limestone, and the Upper Cromhall Sandstone. Other well-known Mississippian formations outside North America include: limestones…

  • Avon Products, Inc. (American company)

    Andrea Jung: …(2001–12) and CEO (1999–2012) of Avon Products, Inc. She later became president and CEO (2014– ) of Grameen America.

  • Avon, River (river, central England, United Kingdom)

    River Avon, river, eastern tributary of the River Severn that rises near Naseby in central England and flows generally southwestward for 96 miles (154 km) through the counties of Northamptonshire, Leicestershire, Warwickshire, and Worcestershire. The river shares the name Avon (derived from a

  • Avon, River (river, southern England, United Kingdom)

    River Avon, river that rises 3 miles (5 km) east of Devizes, Wiltshire, England, on the north side of the Vale of Pewsey and flows generally southward for 48 miles (77 km) to the English Channel. The river shares the name Avon (derived from a Celtic word meaning “river”) with several other rivers

  • Avon, River (river, western England, United Kingdom)

    River Avon, river that rises on the southeastern slope of the Cotswolds, England, and flows through Gloucestershire, Wiltshire, and Somerset. The river shares the name Avon (derived from a Celtic word meaning “river”) with several other rivers in Great Britain, including the Avon of Warwickshire

  • Avon, Robert Anthony Eden, 1st Earl of (prime minister of United Kingdom)

    Anthony Eden, British foreign secretary in 1935–38, 1940–45, and 1951–55 and prime minister from 1955 to 1957. After combat service in World War I, Eden studied Oriental languages (Arabic and Persian) at Christ Church, Oxford. He was elected to the House of Commons in 1923 and was appointed

  • Avon, Vale of (valley, England, United Kingdom)

    West Wiltshire: …the south and the lower-lying valley of the River Avon in the north are differentiated by a steep, well-defined chalk escarpment that extends through the area. The oolitic limestone of the Cotswold Hills that border the area on the northwest has long provided building stone that is much in evidence…

  • Avondale (Arizona, United States)

    Avondale, city, Maricopa county, central Arizona, U.S. Originally a station of the Southern Pacific Railroad some 20 miles (30 km) west of Phoenix, Avondale is situated near the Gila River in the Salt River valley, on the edge of the Sonoran Desert. In the early 20th century the city grew to

  • avonden, De (work by Reve)

    Gerard Reve: …Simon van het Reve, was De avonden (1947; “The Evenings”), a work that describes 10 nights in the life of the cynical and aimless Frits van Egters; it is considered the most representative work of fiction of the Dutch postwar generation. An early novella, Werther Nieland (1949), was highly popular,…

  • Avory, Mick (British musician)

    the Kinks: …23, 2010, Herlev, Denmark), and Mick Avory (b. February 15, 1944, London).

  • Avot (Judaism)

    Simeon ben Zemah Duran: …of an important commentary on Avot (“Fathers”), a popular ethical tractate in the Talmud, the rabbinical compendium of law, lore, and commentary. Before the 14th century, the rabbinical post had been almost invariably honorary; Duran set a precedent in accepting a salary. His commentary Magen Avot (“The Shield of the…

  • avoué (French law)

    lawyer: …the avocats, there were also avoués and agréés; the former represented litigants in all procedural matters except the oral presentation, prepared briefs, and negotiated settlements, while the latter, few in number, were responsible for pleading in certain commercial courts. Today the distinction between avoués and avocats has been abolished in…

  • Avout, Louis-Nicolas d’ (French general)

    Louis-Nicolas Davout, duke of Auerstedt, French marshal who was one of the most distinguished of Napoleon’s field commanders. Born into the noble family of d’Avout, he was educated at the école Royale Militaire in Paris and entered Louis XVI’s service as a second lieutenant in 1788. Amid the

  • AVPR2 (gene)

    diabetes insipidus: Types and causes: …mutations in a gene designated AVPR2 (arginine vasopressin receptor 2), which encodes a specific form of the vasopressin receptor, or by mutations in a gene known as AQP2 (aquaporin 2), which encodes a specific form of aquaporin. The vasopressin receptor gene AVPR2 is located on the X chromosome. As a…

  • Avraham (Hebrew patriarch)

    Abraham, the first of the Hebrew patriarchs and a figure revered by the three great monotheistic religions—Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. According to the biblical book of Genesis, Abraham left Ur, in Mesopotamia, because God called him to found a new nation in an undesignated land that he later

  • Avram (Hebrew patriarch)

    Abraham, the first of the Hebrew patriarchs and a figure revered by the three great monotheistic religions—Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. According to the biblical book of Genesis, Abraham left Ur, in Mesopotamia, because God called him to found a new nation in an undesignated land that he later

  • Avranches (France)

    Avranches, town and port, Manche département, Normandy région, northwestern France, on a hill overlooking the Sée estuary. The celebrated sanctuary of Mont-Saint-Michel is situated on a rock in the bay. Important under the Romans, Avranches retained its position under the Norman dukes. In 1172 the

  • Avranches, Hugh of, 1st Earl of Chester, Vicomte d’Avranches (Norman noble)

    Hugh of Avranches, 1st earl of Chester, son of Richard, Viscount d’Avranches, and probable companion of William the Conqueror, who made him Earl of Chester in 1071. (He inherited his father’s viscountship sometime after 1082.) He had special privileges in his earldom, and he held land in 20

  • Avril, Prosper (president of Haiti)

    Haiti: Democratic aspirations: Prosper Avril took power, but his unstable regime ended in March 1990.

  • Avro 504 (airplane)

    Sir Alliott Verdon Roe: Of his early planes, the Avro 504 was the most successful: more than 17,000 were manufactured. It was used on bombing missions in the early part of World War I and served as a trainer for British pilots. Ten years after the war, Roe severed all ties with his company…

  • Avro Lancaster (airplane)

    Lancaster, the most successful British heavy bomber of World War II. The Lancaster emerged from the response by A.V. Roe & Company, Ltd., to a 1936 Royal Air Force specification calling for a bomber powered by two 24-cylinder Rolls-Royce Vulture engines. The resultant aircraft, the Manchester,

  • Avtomat Fyodorova (firearm)

    assault rifle: …unveiled his new weapon, the Avtomat Fyodorova. Owing to the turmoil of the Russian Revolution of 1917, only about 3,200 of Fyodorov’s weapons were delivered. Nevertheless, they pointed the way to future infantry weapon design.

  • Avtomat Kalashnikova (Soviet firearm)

    AK-47, Soviet assault rifle, possibly the most widely used shoulder weapon in the world. The initials AK represent Avtomat Kalashnikova, Russian for “automatic Kalashnikov,” for its designer, Mikhail Timofeyevich Kalashnikov, who designed the accepted version of the weapon in 1947. Almost from the

  • Avulavirus (virus genus)

    paramyxovirus: …viruses and the mumps viruses; Avulavirus, which contains the species Newcastle disease virus (of poultry) as well as various avian paramyxoviruses; and Morbillivirus, which contains the agents that cause measles in humans, distemper in dogs and cats, and rinderpest in cattle. Species of Pneumovirus, which

  • avunculate (anthropology)

    Avunculate, relationship between a man and his sister’s children, particularly her sons, that prevails in many societies. The term is derived from the Latin avunculus, meaning “uncle.” It typically involves for the maternal uncle a measure of authority over his nephews (and sometimes his nieces),

  • avunculocal residence (anthropology)

    avunculate: …societies, an arrangement known as avunculocal residence obtains, in which boys leave their natal homes during adolescence and join the household of one of their mother’s brothers. Girls in these cultures generally remain in their mothers’ homes until they marry, at which time they move to their husband’s household. Hence,…

  • Avus highway (German expressway)

    roads and highways: The freeway: …and 1921 a group called AVUS had built 10 kilometres (6 miles) of parkway through the Grunewald park in Berlin. Their successful experience led to the world’s first full freeway being built from Cologne to Bonn between 1929 and 1932. In 1933 Adolf Hitler began construction of an integrated freeway…

  • Avvai shanmugi (film [1996])

    Gemini Ganesan: …significant screen appearance was in Avvai shanmugi (1996), a Tamil remake of the American film Mrs. Doubtfire, in which he played the romantic rival.

  • Avvakum Petrovich (Russian priest)

    Avvakum Petrovich, archpriest, leader of the Old Believers, conservative clergy who brought on one of the most serious crises in the history of the Russian church by separating from the Russian Orthodox church to support the “old rite,” consisting of many purely local Russian developments. He is

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