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  • Aventine secession (Italian history)

    Aventine secession, the withdrawal by some 150 left and centre deputies from the Italian Chamber of Deputies in June 1924 to show their opposition to the rule of the Fascist leader Benito Mussolini. The move occurred at the time of a public reaction against Mussolini caused by the political murder

  • Aventinus (German humanist and historian)

    Aventinus, Humanist and historian sometimes called the “Bavarian Herodotus.” A student at the universities of Ingolstadt, Vienna, Kraków, and Paris, Aventinus served as tutor (1509–17) to the younger brothers of Duke William IV of Bavaria, during which time he published a Latin grammar and a h

  • Aventis (French-German company)

    Aventis, former French pharmaceutical company founded in 1999 through the merger of the German firm Hoechst and the French company Rh?ne-Poulenc. With headquarters in Strasbourg, France, Aventis was the product of the first transnational merger to combine large rival companies from France and

  • aventuras de Zé Caipora, As (work by Agostini)

    comic strip: The 19th century: His As aventuras de Nh?-Quim & Zé Caipora (initially 1883–86; “The Adventures of Nh?-Quim & Zé Caipora”) set a record length of 23 chapters and 378 drawings, a number eventually tripled to a total of 75 chapters by 1906. Thereafter the story was turned into a…

  • Aventuras sigilosas (work by Lezama Lima)

    José Lezama Lima: In Aventuras sigilosas (1945; “Surreptitious Adventures”), he recreates incidents of his youth and treats his mother’s powerful influence on his artistic and cultural growth after his father’s death. (The writer continued to live with his mother—after his sisters married—until her death in 1964. He married, as…

  • Aventure Ambigu?, L’? (work by Kane)

    African literature: French: …Kane wrote L’Aventure ambigu? (1961; Ambiguous Adventure), a novel that considers the African and Muslim identity of its main character, Samba, within the context of Western philosophical thought. In his novel Le Soleil noir point (1962; “The Sun a Black Dot”), Charles Nokan of C?te d’Ivoire deals with efforts to…

  • Aventures de Télémaque, Les (work by Fénelon)

    Fran?ois de Salignac de La Mothe-Fénelon: …Fénelon composed his best-known work, Les Aventures de Télémaque (1699), in which the adventures of Telemachus in search of his father, Ulysses, symbolically expressed Fénelon’s fundamental political ideas. During the period of his popularity in official circles, Fénelon enjoyed various honours, including his election to the French Academy in 1693…

  • Aventures prodigieuses de Tartarin de Tarascon, Les (work by Daudet)

    Alphonse Daudet: Life: His novel Les Aventures prodigieuses de Tartarin de Tarascon (1872; “The Prodigious Adventures of Tartarin de Tarascon”) was not well received, though its adventurous hero is now celebrated as a caricature of na?veté and boastfulness. His play L’Arlésienne was also a failure (although its 1885 revival was…

  • aventurine (lacquerwork)

    Nashiji, in Japanese lacquerwork, form of maki-e (q.v.) that is frequently employed for the background of a pattern. Gold or silver flakes called nashiji-ko are sprinkled onto the surface of the object (excluding the design), on which lacquer has been applied. Nashiji lacquer is then applied and b

  • aventurine (mineral)

    Aventurine, either of two gem minerals, one a plagioclase feldspar and the other quartz. Both have a sparkling reflection from oriented minute inclusions of mica or hematite. Most aventurine quartz is silvery, yellow, reddish brown, or green. Extensive beds in mica schist occur in the Russian

  • Avenue 5 (American television series)

    Hugh Laurie: In Avenue 5 (2020– ), he played the captain of an intergalactic cruise ship. He also provided the voice for characters in numerous television and movie cartoons.

  • Avenue at Middelharnis, The (work by Hobbema)

    Meindert Hobbema: …of 1689 for his masterpiece The Avenue at Middelharnis and the discovery of a date of 1671 after the cleaning of The Ruins of Brederode Castle show that there was a development to greater maturity in his later works. Although popular and influential after his death, particularly among 18th- and…

  • avenue bower (shelter)

    bowerbird: The “avenue” type consists of two close-set parallel walls of sticks, interwoven and sometimes overarching, on a circular mat of twigs. Avenues are made by the satin bowerbird (Ptilonorhynchus violaceus); the regent bowerbird (Sericulus chrysocephalus) and its relatives; and the spotted bowerbird (Chlamydera maculata) and its…

  • Avenue des Champs-élysées (thoroughfare, Paris, France)

    Champs-élysées, broad avenue in Paris, one of the world’s most famous, which stretches 1.17 miles (1.88 km) from the Arc de Triomphe to the Place de la Concorde. It is divided into two parts by the Rond-Point (“roundabout”) des Champs-élysées. The lower part, toward the Place de la Concorde (and

  • Avenue of Flags (walkway, South Dakota, United States)

    Mount Rushmore National Memorial: The contemporary memorial: Among these is the Avenue of Flags (opened 1976), a walkway leading toward the mountain that is flanked on both sides by flags of the country’s 56 states and territories. Another major renovation, completed in 1998, added the Grand View Terrace and its amphitheatre, affording vistas of the monument…

  • Avenue of Mysteries (novel by Irving)

    John Irving: …which examines sexual identity, and Avenue of Mysteries (2015), about a Mexican writer’s remembrance of his bizarre past.

  • Avenzoar (Spanish Muslim physician)

    Ibn Zuhr, one of medieval Islam’s foremost thinkers and the greatest medical clinician of the western caliphate. An intensely practical man, Ibn Zuhr disliked medical speculation; for that reason, he opposed the teachings of the Persian master physician Avicenna. In his Taysīr fī al-mudāwāt wa

  • ?avera (Judaism)

    ?avera, in Judaism, a moral transgression (or sin) against God or man. It may vary from grievous to slight and is the opposite of mitzwa (commandment), understood in the broad sense of any good deed. Whereas Jews are taught to prefer death to the willful commission of any of the three major

  • average (mathematics)

    probability theory: Variance: …the intuitive notion that the average of repeated observations is less variable than the individual observations. More precisely, it says that the variability of the average is inversely proportional to the square root of the number of observations. This result is tremendously important in problems of statistical inference. (See the…

  • average (maritime law)

    Average, in maritime law, loss or damage, less than total, to maritime property (a ship or its cargo), caused by the perils of the sea. An average may be particular or general. A particular average is one that is borne by the owner of the lost or damaged property (unless he was insured against the

  • average bond length (physics)

    spectroscopy: Energy states of real diatomic molecules: …molecule undergoes vibrational motion, the bond length will oscillate about an average internuclear separation. If the oscillation is harmonic, this average value will not change as the vibrational state of the molecule changes; however, for real molecules the oscillations are anharmonic. The potential for the oscillation of a molecule is…

  • average clause, free of particular (insurance clause)

    insurance: FPA clause: The FPA, or “free of particular average,” clause excludes from coverage partial losses to the cargo or to the hull except those resulting from stranding, sinking, burning, or collision. Under its provisions, losses below a given percentage of value, say 10 percent, are…

  • average cost (finance)

    accounting: Cost of goods sold: …last-in, first-out (LIFO), or (3) average cost. The LIFO method is widely used in the United States, where it is also an acceptable costing method for income tax purposes; companies in most other countries measure inventory cost and the cost of goods sold by some variant of the FIFO or…

  • average deviation (statistics)

    chemical analysis: Evaluation of results: Another statistical term, the average deviation, is calculated by adding the differences, while ignoring the sign, between each result and the average of all the results, and then dividing the sum by the number of results. Confidence limits at a given probability level are values greater than and less…

  • average propensity to consume (economics)

    propensity to consume: …income is known as the average propensity to consume; an increase in consumption caused by an addition to income divided by that increase in income is known as the marginal propensity to consume. Because households divide their incomes between consumption expenditures and saving, the sum of the propensity to consume…

  • average propensity to save (economics)

    propensity to save: The average propensity to save equals the ratio of total saving to total income; the marginal propensity to save equals the ratio of a change in saving to a change in income. The sum of the propensity to consume and the propensity to save always equals…

  • average velocity (physics)

    mechanics: Circular motion: The average velocity of the particle is a vector given by

  • averah (Judaism)

    ?avera, in Judaism, a moral transgression (or sin) against God or man. It may vary from grievous to slight and is the opposite of mitzwa (commandment), understood in the broad sense of any good deed. Whereas Jews are taught to prefer death to the willful commission of any of the three major

  • Averescu, Alexandru (premier of Romania)

    Alexandru Averescu, military leader and politician who three times served as premier of Romania and was the country’s national hero in World War I. After serving in the Romanian war of independence against Turkey (Russo-Turkish War, 1877–78), Averescu was sent to Italy for military training. As an

  • Averlino, Antonio di Pietro (Italian architect)

    Filarete, architect, sculptor, and writer, who is chiefly important for his Trattato d’architettura (“Treatise on Architecture”), which described plans for an ideal Renaissance city. Filarete is thought to have been trained under Lorenzo Ghiberti in Florence. From 1433 to 1445 he was employed by

  • avermectin (drug)

    William Campbell: …discovery of the anthelmintic compounds avermectin and ivermectin, which proved vital to the control of certain parasitic infections in humans and other animals. For his discoveries, Campbell was awarded the 2015 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine (shared with Japanese microbiologist ōmura Satoshi and Chinese scientist Tu Youyou).

  • Averno (poetry by Glück)

    Louise Glück: Averno (2006) was her well-received treatment of the Persephone myth. The poems collected in A Village Life (2009)—about existence in a small Mediterranean town—were written in a lavishly descriptive style that significantly departed from the parsimony that characterizes her earlier verse. Poems 1962–2012 (2012) compiled…

  • Averno, Lago d’ (lake, Italy)

    Lake of Averno, crater lake in Napoli province, Campania region, southern Italy, in the Campi Flegrei volcanic region, west of Naples. It is 7 ft (2 m) above sea level, 118 ft deep, and nearly 2 mi (more than 3 km) in circumference, with no natural outlet. Its Greek name, Aornos, was interpreted as

  • Averno, Lake of (lake, Italy)

    Lake of Averno, crater lake in Napoli province, Campania region, southern Italy, in the Campi Flegrei volcanic region, west of Naples. It is 7 ft (2 m) above sea level, 118 ft deep, and nearly 2 mi (more than 3 km) in circumference, with no natural outlet. Its Greek name, Aornos, was interpreted as

  • ?averot (Judaism)

    ?avera, in Judaism, a moral transgression (or sin) against God or man. It may vary from grievous to slight and is the opposite of mitzwa (commandment), understood in the broad sense of any good deed. Whereas Jews are taught to prefer death to the willful commission of any of the three major

  • averoth (Judaism)

    ?avera, in Judaism, a moral transgression (or sin) against God or man. It may vary from grievous to slight and is the opposite of mitzwa (commandment), understood in the broad sense of any good deed. Whereas Jews are taught to prefer death to the willful commission of any of the three major

  • Averrho?s (Muslim philosopher)

    Averro?s, influential Islamic religious philosopher who integrated Islamic traditions with ancient Greek thought. At the request of the Almohad caliph Abū Ya?qūb Yūsuf, he produced a series of summaries and commentaries on most of Aristotle’s works (1169–95) and on Plato’s Republic, which exerted

  • Averro?s (Muslim philosopher)

    Averro?s, influential Islamic religious philosopher who integrated Islamic traditions with ancient Greek thought. At the request of the Almohad caliph Abū Ya?qūb Yūsuf, he produced a series of summaries and commentaries on most of Aristotle’s works (1169–95) and on Plato’s Republic, which exerted

  • Averroism (philosophy)

    Latin Averroism, the teachings of a number of Western Christian philosophers who, in the later Middle Ages and during the Renaissance, drew inspiration from the interpretation of Aristotle put forward by Averro?s, a Muslim philosopher. The basic tenet of Latin Averroism was the assertion that

  • Aversa (Italy)

    Aversa, town and episcopal see, Campania region, southern Italy, in the fertile Campanian plain north of Naples. Founded in 1030 by the Normans, who made it the capital of the first Norman county in Italy, it became a centre of culture, noted for its grammar schools, and a diocese of the Holy See.

  • aversion learning (animal behaviour)

    chemoreception: Associative learning: Thus, aversion learning helps to increase the nutritional quality of the overall diet. In obtaining an ideal diet, generalist feeders are thought to use positive associative learning, aversion learning, and attraction to novel flavours. Over time, as conditions and needs change, new associations can develop.

  • aversion therapy (psychology)

    Aversion therapy, psychotherapy designed to cause a patient to reduce or avoid an undesirable behaviour pattern by conditioning the person to associate the behaviour with an undesirable stimulus. The chief stimuli used in the therapy are electrical, chemical, or imagined aversive situations. In the

  • averted vision (physiology)

    human eye: Measurement of the threshold: This feature of vision under these near-threshold, or scotopic, conditions suggests that the cones are effectively blind to weak light stimuli, since they are the only photoreceptors in the fovea. This is the basis of the duplicity theory of vision, which postulates that when the light stimulus is…

  • Avertissements aux protestants (work by Bossuet)

    Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet: The Gallican controversy.: …information and advice to Protestants, Avertissement aux protestans (1689–91).

  • Averulino, Antonio di Pietro (Italian architect)

    Filarete, architect, sculptor, and writer, who is chiefly important for his Trattato d’architettura (“Treatise on Architecture”), which described plans for an ideal Renaissance city. Filarete is thought to have been trained under Lorenzo Ghiberti in Florence. From 1433 to 1445 he was employed by

  • Avery turbine

    turbine: Early precursors: In one such Avery turbine two hollow arms, about 75 centimetres long, were attached at right angles to a hollow shaft through which steam was supplied. Nozzles at the outer end of the arms allowed the steam to escape in a tangential direction, thus producing the reaction to…

  • Avery, Byllye (American health-care activist)

    Byllye Avery, American health care activist whose efforts centred on bettering the welfare of low-income African American women through self-help groups and advocacy networks. Avery studied psychology at Talledega (Alabama) College (B.A., 1959) and received an M.A. in special education from the

  • Avery, Byllye Yvonne (American health-care activist)

    Byllye Avery, American health care activist whose efforts centred on bettering the welfare of low-income African American women through self-help groups and advocacy networks. Avery studied psychology at Talledega (Alabama) College (B.A., 1959) and received an M.A. in special education from the

  • Avery, Cyrus Stevens (American visionary and public servant)

    Cyrus Stevens Avery, American visionary and public servant known as the “Father of Route 66.” Avery held a variety of diverse jobs throughout his career, including farmer, teacher, real-estate broker, oil investor, and politician. He was a leader of the Good Roads Movement of the early 1900s, which

  • Avery, Frederick Bean (American director)

    Tex Avery, influential American director of animated cartoons, primarily for the Warner Bros. and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM) studios. Avery’s only formal art training consisted of a three-month course at the Art Institute of Chicago during the late 1920s. He began his animation career in 1929 for

  • Avery, John (British pirate)

    John Avery, one of Britain’s most renowned pirates of the late 17th century, and the model for Daniel Defoe’s hero in Life, Adventures, and Pyracies, of the Famous Captain Singleton (1720). Avery reputedly served in the Royal Navy and on merchantmen, as well as on buccaneer and slave ships, before

  • Avery, Milton (American painter)

    Milton Avery, painter noted in his later years for depicting the human figure as a contoured flat pattern in vivid colours. In 1905 his family moved to Hartford, Connecticut, where he studied briefly (1913) at the League of Art Students, but he was largely self-taught. He presented his first

  • Avery, Milton Clark (American painter)

    Milton Avery, painter noted in his later years for depicting the human figure as a contoured flat pattern in vivid colours. In 1905 his family moved to Hartford, Connecticut, where he studied briefly (1913) at the League of Art Students, but he was largely self-taught. He presented his first

  • Avery, Oswald (American bacteriologist)

    Oswald Avery, Canadian-born American bacteriologist whose research helped ascertain that DNA is the substance responsible for heredity, thus laying the foundation for the new science of molecular genetics. His work also contributed to the understanding of the chemistry of immunological processes.

  • Avery, Samuel Putnam (American artist and philanthropist)

    Samuel Putnam Avery, artist, connoisseur, art dealer, and philanthropist best remembered for his patronage of arts and letters. Beginning as an engraver on copper (he worked for the American Bank Note Company), Avery became a skilled wood engraver and illustrated numerous books. In 1864 he gave up

  • Avery, Steven (American labourer)

    Steven Avery, American labourer who served 18 years in prison (1985–2003) for rape and attempted murder before his conviction was overturned because of DNA evidence. In 2005 he was charged with murder in a different case and was found guilty two years later. Avery was the subject of the hugely

  • Avery, Tex (American director)

    Tex Avery, influential American director of animated cartoons, primarily for the Warner Bros. and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM) studios. Avery’s only formal art training consisted of a three-month course at the Art Institute of Chicago during the late 1920s. He began his animation career in 1929 for

  • Avery, William (American engineer)

    turbine: Early precursors: …for the units built by William Avery of the United States after 1837. In one such Avery turbine two hollow arms, about 75 centimetres long, were attached at right angles to a hollow shaft through which steam was supplied. Nozzles at the outer end of the arms allowed the steam…

  • Avery, William (American inventor)

    Chanute glider of 1896: Herring, and William Avery in Chicago during the early summer of 1896. Along with the standard glider flown by Otto Lilienthal of Germany, the Chanute glider, designed by Chanute but also incorporating the ideas of his young employee Herring with regard to automatic stability, was the most…

  • Aves (animal)

    Bird, (class Aves), any of the more than 10,400 living species unique in having feathers, the major characteristic that distinguishes them from all other animals. A more-elaborate definition would note that they are warm-blooded vertebrates more related to reptiles than to mammals and that they

  • Aves Island (islet, Caribbean Sea)

    Bird Island, coral-covered sandbank only 15 feet (4.5 metres) high at low tide, located in the Caribbean Sea about 350 miles (560 km) north of Venezuela and 70 miles (110 km) west of Dominica. (The island is not a part of the group of Venezuelan islands of similar name, Islas de Aves, comprising

  • Aves Islands (islands, Venezuela)

    Bird Island: …Venezuelan islands of similar name, Islas de Aves, comprising Aves de Barlovento and Aves de Sotavento, located 145 miles [230 km] north of Caracas, just east of Bonaire.) The uninhabited islet was valued in the past for its abundant guano (used as fertilizer) and was claimed or occupied by a…

  • Aves, Isla (islet, Caribbean Sea)

    Bird Island, coral-covered sandbank only 15 feet (4.5 metres) high at low tide, located in the Caribbean Sea about 350 miles (560 km) north of Venezuela and 70 miles (110 km) west of Dominica. (The island is not a part of the group of Venezuelan islands of similar name, Islas de Aves, comprising

  • Aves, Islas de (islands, Venezuela)

    Bird Island: …Venezuelan islands of similar name, Islas de Aves, comprising Aves de Barlovento and Aves de Sotavento, located 145 miles [230 km] north of Caracas, just east of Bonaire.) The uninhabited islet was valued in the past for its abundant guano (used as fertilizer) and was claimed or occupied by a…

  • Aves, Islote (islet, Caribbean Sea)

    Bird Island, coral-covered sandbank only 15 feet (4.5 metres) high at low tide, located in the Caribbean Sea about 350 miles (560 km) north of Venezuela and 70 miles (110 km) west of Dominica. (The island is not a part of the group of Venezuelan islands of similar name, Islas de Aves, comprising

  • Avesta (Zoroastrian scripture)

    Avesta, sacred book of Zoroastrianism containing its cosmogony, law, and liturgy, the teachings of the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathushtra). The extant Avesta is all that remains of a much larger body of scripture, apparently Zoroaster’s transformation of a very ancient tradition. The voluminous m

  • Avestan alphabet

    Pahlavi alphabet, writing system of the Persian people that dates from as early as the 2nd century bce, some scholars believe, and was in use until the advent of Islam (7th century ce). The Zoroastrian sacred book, the Avesta, is written in a variant of Pahlavi called Avestan. The Pahlavi alphabet

  • Avestan language

    Avestan language, eastern Iranian language of the Avesta, the sacred book of Zoroastrianism. Avestan falls into two strata, the older being that of the Gāthās, which reflects a linguistic stage (dating from c. 600 bc) close to that of Vedic Sanskrit in India. The greater part of the Avesta is w

  • Aveu, L’? (work by Adamov)

    Arthur Adamov: …a nervous breakdown, later writing L’Aveu (1938–43; “The Confession”), an autobiography that revealed his tortured conscience, delving into a terrifying sense of alienation and preparing his personal, neurotic stage for some of the most powerful of all Absurdist dramas. He spent almost a year of World War II in the…

  • Aveux non avenus (work by Cahun)

    Claude Cahun: …was Aveux non avenus (1930; Disavowals; or, Cancelled Confessions), a type of autobiography that Cahun referred to as an “anti-memoir.” The volume, a collaboration between Cahun and Moore, included text and photomontages. In the text, which departs radically from a linear or chronological telling of her life, she talks the…

  • Avey, Linda (American biologist)

    Anne Wojcicki: …cofounded 23andMe with American biologist Linda Avey. Wojcicki and Avey believed that individuals provided with personal knowledge of disease risk would be empowered and better prepared to take steps toward disease prevention. The company’s mission—to make genetic testing and its results, including findings about predisposition to disease, available to anyone…

  • Aveyron (department, France)

    Midi-Pyrénées: …the southwestern départements of Lot, Aveyron, Tarn, Tarn-et-Garonne, Gers, Hautes-Pyrénées, Haute-Garonne, and Ariège. In 2016 Midi-Pyrénées was joined with the région of Languedoc-Roussillon to form the new administrative entity of Occitanie.

  • Aveyron, sauvage de l’ (French deaf-mute)

    Jean-Marc-Gaspard Itard: …deaf and with the “wild boy of Aveyron.”

  • Aveyron, wild boy of (French deaf-mute)

    Jean-Marc-Gaspard Itard: …deaf and with the “wild boy of Aveyron.”

  • Avezzano (Italy)

    Avezzano, town, Abruzzi regione, central Italy. Avezzano lies south of L’Aquila city. Built on the reclaimed Fucino Basin (q.v.), the town was destroyed in 1915 by an earthquake, of which it was the epicentre, and was subsequently rebuilt. In World War II it was heavily damaged again. Only the

  • AVF (military force)

    All-volunteer force (AVF), military force composed solely of volunteers, without resorting to a military draft. The United Kingdom was one of the first nations to abolish conscription and has relied on an AVF since 1960, followed by New Zealand and Australia in 1972. The United States adopted an

  • AVF cyclotron

    cyclotron: …in this way are called isochronous, or azimuthally-varying-field (AVF) cyclotrons.

  • AVG (United States military)

    Flying Tigers, American volunteer pilots recruited by Claire L. Chennault, a retired U.S. Army captain, to fight the Japanese in Burma (Myanmar) and China during 1941–42, at a time when Japan’s control over China’s ports and transportation system had almost cut off China’s Nationalist government

  • avgolemono (food)

    sauce: Greek avgolemono sauce of stock, lemon juice, and egg yolks is extensively used with lamb, vegetables, and fish.

  • Avgust 1914 (work by Solzhenitsyn)

    August 1914, historical novel by Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, published as Avgust chetyrnadtsatogo in Paris in 1971. An enlarged version, nearly double in size, was published in 1983. The novel treats Germany’s crushing victory over Russia in their initial military engagement of World War I, the Battle

  • Avgust chetyrnadtsatogo (work by Solzhenitsyn)

    August 1914, historical novel by Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, published as Avgust chetyrnadtsatogo in Paris in 1971. An enlarged version, nearly double in size, was published in 1983. The novel treats Germany’s crushing victory over Russia in their initial military engagement of World War I, the Battle

  • avian influenza (disease)

    Bird flu, a viral respiratory disease mainly of poultry and certain other bird species, including migratory waterbirds, some imported pet birds, and ostriches, that can be transmitted directly to humans. The first known cases in humans were reported in 1997, when an outbreak of avian influenza A

  • avian malaria (bird disease)

    Avian malaria, infectious disease of birds that is known particularly for its devastation of native bird populations on the Hawaiian Islands. It is similar to human malaria in that it is caused by single-celled protozoans of the genus Plasmodium and is transmitted through the bite of infected

  • avian pneumoencephalitis (bird disease)

    Newcastle disease, a serious viral disease of birds caused by a paramyxovirus and marked by respiratory and nervous system problems. Some adult birds recover, although mortality rates are high in tropical and subtropical regions. Young chickens are especially susceptible and rarely survive. Signs

  • Avianca (Colombian airline)

    Colombia: Transportation: The government-controlled airline Avianca claims to be the oldest commercial airline operating in the Western Hemisphere. Frequent flights link all important cities, reducing travel times inordinately from those on the tortuous, indirect, and slow mountain highways. Most people travel by air in Colombia, which is claimed to have…

  • aviary

    Aviary, a structure for the keeping of captive birds, usually spacious enough for the aviculturist to enter. Aviaries range from small enclosures a metre or so on a side to large flight cages 30 m (100 feet) or more long and as much as 15 m high. Enclosures for birds that fly only little or weakly

  • aviation

    Aviation, the development and operation of heavier-than-air aircraft. The term “civil aviation” refers to the air-transportation service provided to the public by airlines, while “military aviation” refers to the development and use of military aircraft. A brief treatment of aviation follows. For

  • Aviation and Transportation Security Act (United States [2001])

    Transportation Security Administration: It was established by the Aviation and Transportation Security Act, which was passed by Congress and signed into law by Pres. George W. Bush on November 19, 2001. Originally part of the U.S. Department of Transportation, in 2003 the TSA became part of the newly created Department of Homeland Security.

  • Aviation Civile Internationale, Organisation de l’ (intergovernmental organization)

    International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), intergovernmental specialized agency associated with the United Nations (UN). Established in 1947 by the Convention on International Civil Aviation (1944), which had been signed by 52 states three years earlier in Chicago, the ICAO is dedicated to

  • Aviation Corporation (American company)

    American Airlines: …under a holding company, the Aviation Corporation, which was reorganized as an operating company and renamed American Airways, Inc., in 1930. In that year, in the amalgamation of several airlines, the company had routes extending from Boston and New York City to San Diego and Los Angeles, via Cleveland and…

  • aviation insurance

    insurance: Aviation insurance: Aviation insurance normally covers physical damage to the aircraft and legal liability arising out of its ownership and operation. Specific policies are also available to cover the legal liability of airport owners arising out of the operation of hangars or from the sale…

  • aviation medicine

    Aerospace medicine, specialized branch of medical science concerned with those medical problems encountered in human flight in the atmosphere (aviation medicine) and beyond the atmosphere (space medicine). The ultimate aim of this specialty is to promote the safety and effectiveness of humans while

  • Aviator, The (film by Scorsese [2004])

    Alan Alda: …actor for his performance in The Aviator (2004). Films he directed included Sweet Liberty (1986) and Betsy’s Wedding (1990).

  • Avicebron (Jewish poet and philosopher)

    Ibn Gabirol, one of the outstanding figures of the Hebrew school of religious and secular poetry during the Jewish Golden Age in Moorish Spain. He was also an important Neoplatonic philosopher. Born in Málaga about 1022, Ibn Gabirol received his higher education in Saragossa, where he joined the

  • Aviceda (bird)

    falcon: The cuckoo falcons, several species of Aviceda, are kites of the subfamily Perninae (family Accipitridae). They range over Asia and the South Pacific, hunting at twilight, mainly for insects. Some hunt lizards. See also caracara; hobby; kestrel; merlin; peregrine falcon.

  • Avicenna (Persian philosopher and scientist)

    Avicenna, Muslim physician, the most famous and influential of the philosopher-scientists of the medieval Islamic world. He was particularly noted for his contributions in the fields of Aristotelian philosophy and medicine. He composed the Kitāb al-shifā? (Book of the Cure), a vast philosophical

  • Avicennia (plant genus)

    Avicennia, genus comprising at least eight species of trees or shrubs in the family Acanthaceae. Avicennia has a wide geographical distribution, with members found in intertidal estuaries along many of the world’s tropical and warm temperate coasts. Their fleshy, leathery leaves are opposite and

  • Avicennia marina (plant)

    mangrove: …the family Rhizophoraceae and the black mangroves (usually Avicennia nitida, sometimes A. marina) of the family Acanthaceae. Mangrove formations in Southeast Asia also include Sonneratia of the family Lythraceae and the nipa palm (Nypa fruticans) of the family Arecaceae. The trunks and branches of most mangrove species constantly produce adventitious…

  • Avicennia nitida (plant)

    mangrove: …the family Rhizophoraceae and the black mangroves (usually Avicennia nitida, sometimes A. marina) of the family Acanthaceae. Mangrove formations in Southeast Asia also include Sonneratia of the family Lythraceae and the nipa palm (Nypa fruticans) of the family Arecaceae. The trunks and branches of most mangrove species constantly produce adventitious…

  • avicularia (anatomy)

    moss animal: Zooids: Avicularia are found among normal zooids but usually are smaller and attached to normal zooids, as in the gymnolaemate Schizoporella. In the gymnolaemate Bugula the avicularia are movable on short stalks and closely resemble miniature birds’ heads—hence the name avicularium. Another specialized form of zooid…

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