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  • Aurro, Rosemarie Timotea (American singer)

    Timi Yuro, (Rosemarie Timotea Aurro), American pop singer (born Aug. 4, 1940, Chicago, Ill.—died March 30, 2004, Las Vegas, Nev.), bridged musical genres with her husky, soulful voice. Her signature vocal style was influenced by early exposure to African American blues and gospel singers such as D

  • aurum (chemical element)

    Gold (Au), chemical element, a dense lustrous yellow precious metal of Group 11 (Ib), Period 6, of the periodic table. Gold has several qualities that have made it exceptionally valuable throughout history. It is attractive in colour and brightness, durable to the point of virtual

  • aurum coronarium (Roman tax measurement)

    ancient Rome: Caracalla: …taxes, and often required the aurum coronarium (a contribution in gold), thereby ruining the urban middle classes. To counter the effects of a general upward drift of prices and the larger and better-paid army of his own and his father’s making, he created a new silver coin, the antoninianus. It…

  • Aurunci (ancient Italian tribe)

    Aurunci, ancient tribe of Campania, in Italy. They were exterminated by the Romans in 314 bc as the culmination of 50 years of Roman military campaigns against them. The Aurunci occupied a strip of coast situated between the Volturnus and Liris (Volturno and Liri) rivers in what is now the province

  • Aury, Dominique (French writer and translator)

    Dominique Aury, French writer and translator who was a respected member of the literary establishment but gained her greatest fame in 1994 when it was confirmed that she was the author, under the pseudonym Pauline Réage, of the sensational erotic best-seller Histoire d’O, published in 1954 and

  • Aury, Luis (Argentine soldier)

    flag of Guatemala: …into the area by Captain Luis Aury, a privateer sent by the Argentines to stir up rebellion in other Spanish colonies. Subsequently other variations of the national flag and coat of arms were displayed; it was not until 1871 that the basic flag used by Guatemala today was introduced.

  • Aus dem bürgerlichen Heldenleben (work by Sternheim)

    Carl Sternheim: …through 1916, being collectively titled Aus dem bürgerlichen Heldenleben (“From the Lives of Bourgeois Heroes”). The first play, Die Hose (The Underpants), was published and performed in 1911 under the title Der Riese (“The Giant”) because the Berlin police had forbidden the original title on the grounds of gross immorality.…

  • Aus dem Tonleben unserer Zeit (work by Hiller)

    Ferdinand Hiller: …conductor and composer whose memoirs, Aus dem Tonleben unserer Zeit (1867–76; “From the Musical Life of Our Time”), contain revealing sidelights on many famous contemporaries.

  • Aus Italien (work by Strauss)

    Richard Strauss: Life: …being his Aus Italien (1886; From Italy), a “symphonic fantasy” based on his impressions during his first visit to Italy. In Weimar in November 1889, he conducted the first performance of his symphonic poem Don Juan. The triumphant reception of this piece led to Strauss’s acclamation as Wagner’s heir and…

  • Aus meinem Leben (work by Arneth)

    Alfred, Ritter von Arneth: His early reminiscences, Aus meinem Leben, appeared in 1893.

  • Aus meinem Leben: Dichtung und Wahrheit (autobiography by Goethe)

    Johann Wolfgang von Goethe: Napoleonic period (1805–16): …Leben: Dichtung und Wahrheit (1811–13; From My Life: Poetry and Truth).

  • Aus Sibirien (work by Radlov)

    Vasily Radlov: …of northern and Central Asia, Aus Sibirien (1884; “From Siberia”), which advanced a three-stage theory of cultural evolution for the region—hunting to pastoral to agricultural—with shamanism as the main religion. He also translated (1891–1910) Kudatku Bilik, a long medieval poem of the Uighur people.

  • Ausa (Spain)

    Vic, city, Barcelona provincia (province), in the comunidad autónoma (autonomous community) of Catalonia, northeastern Spain. The city is situated on the Vic Plain and lies along the Meder River, which is an affluent of the Ter River. Because it was first inhabited by the Ausetanos, an ancient

  • Auschwitz (Poland)

    O?wi?cim, city, Ma?opolskie województwo (province), southern Poland. It lies at the confluence of the Vistula and So?a rivers. A rail junction and industrial centre, the town became known as the site of an infamous Nazi extermination camp, Auschwitz-Birkenau (O?wi?cim-Brzezinka), established in

  • Auschwitz (concentration camp, Poland)

    Auschwitz, Nazi Germany’s largest concentration camp and extermination camp. Located near the industrial town of O?wi?cim in southern Poland (in a portion of the country that was annexed by Germany at the beginning of World War II), Auschwitz was actually three camps in one: a prison camp, an

  • Auschwitz-Birkenau (concentration camp, Poland)

    Auschwitz, Nazi Germany’s largest concentration camp and extermination camp. Located near the industrial town of O?wi?cim in southern Poland (in a portion of the country that was annexed by Germany at the beginning of World War II), Auschwitz was actually three camps in one: a prison camp, an

  • Auschwitz-Birkenau. The Nazi German Concentration and Extermination Camp (1940–-1945) (concentration camp, Poland)

    Auschwitz, Nazi Germany’s largest concentration camp and extermination camp. Located near the industrial town of O?wi?cim in southern Poland (in a portion of the country that was annexed by Germany at the beginning of World War II), Auschwitz was actually three camps in one: a prison camp, an

  • Ausculta fili (work by Boniface VIII)

    Boniface VIII: Conflicts with Philip IV of France: …here, and in the bull Ausculta fili (“Listen Son”) he sharply rebuked Philip and demanded amends, especially the release of the bishop, who had appealed to Rome. Instead, the king’s chancellor, Pierre Flotte, was allowed to circulate a distorted extract of the bull and thus to prepare public opinion for…

  • auscultation (medicine)

    Auscultation, diagnostic procedure in which the physician listens to sounds within the body to detect certain defects or conditions, such as heart-valve malfunctions or pregnancy. Auscultation originally was performed by placing the ear directly on the chest or abdomen, but it has been practiced

  • Ausdehnungslehre (work by Grassmann)

    history of logic: Charles Sanders Peirce: …Grassmann published in 1844 his Ausdehnungslehre (“The Theory of Extension”), in which he used a novel and difficult notation to explore quantities (“extensions”) of all sorts—logical extension and intension, numerical, spatial, temporal, and so on. Grassmann’s notion of extension is very similar to the use of the broad term “quantity”…

  • Ausdruckstanz (German dance)

    Western dance: The 20th century: …forms earned it the name Ausdruckstanz (“expressionistic dance”). The ballroom dances were thoroughly revolutionized through infusions of new vitality from South American, Creole, and black sources. With the overwhelming popularity of Afro-American jazz, the entire spirit and style of social dancing altered radically, becoming vastly more free, relaxed, and intimate…

  • Auseklis (Baltic deity)

    Auseklis, in Baltic religion, the morning star and deity of the dawn. The Latvian Auseklis was a male god, the Lithuanian Au?rin? a female. Related in name to the Vedic U?as and the Greek Eos, goddesses of dawn, Auseklis is associated in Latvian solar mythology with Mēness (Moon) and Saule (Sun),

  • Ausfragemethode (psychology)

    Karl Bühler: …called this experimental technique the Ausfragemethode—“inquiry method.” After serving in the German Army during World War I, Bühler was named professor of psychiatry at the University of Vienna in 1922. He was forced to flee to Norway in 1938, and he reached the United States in 1939, residing there until…

  • Ausführliche Redekunst (work by Gottsched)

    Johann Christoph Gottsched: …for style, advanced by his Ausführliche Redekunst (1736; “Complete Rhetoric”) and Grundlegung einer deutschen Sprachkunst (1748; “Foundation of a German Literary Language”), helped to regularize German as a literary language.

  • Ausgeführte Bauten (work by Wright)

    Frank Lloyd Wright: Europe and Japan: …record of his buildings (Ausgeführte Bauten, 1911). With a draftsman, Taylor Willey, and his eldest son, Lloyd Wright, the architect produced the numerous beautiful drawings published in these portfolios by reworking renderings brought from Chicago, Oak Park, and Wisconsin.

  • Ausgeführte Bauten und Entwürfe (work by Wright)

    Frank Lloyd Wright: Europe and Japan: …portfolio of his drawings (Ausgeführte Bauten und Entwürfe, 1910) and a smaller but full photographic record of his buildings (Ausgeführte Bauten, 1911). With a draftsman, Taylor Willey, and his eldest son, Lloyd Wright, the architect produced the numerous beautiful drawings published in these portfolios by reworking renderings brought from…

  • Ausgleich (Austro-Hungarian history)

    Ausgleich, (German: “Compromise”) the compact, finally concluded on Feb. 8, 1867, that regulated the relations between Austria and Hungary and established the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary. The kingdom of Hungary had desired equal status with the Austrian Empire, which was weakened by its defeat

  • Ausi (king of Israel)

    Hoshea, in the Old Testament (2 Kings 15:30; 17:1–6), son of Elah and last king of Israel (c. 732–724 bc). He became king through a conspiracy in which his predecessor, Pekah, was killed. The Assyrian king Tiglath-pileser III claimed that he made Hoshea king, and Hoshea paid an annual tribute to

  • Auslander, Joseph (American author)

    Joseph Auslander, American novelist and lyric poet who was noted for his war poems. Auslander attended Columbia and Harvard universities, graduating from the latter in 1917. He taught English at Harvard for several years before studying at the Sorbonne in Paris on a Parker fellowship. In 1929 he

  • Ausl?schung: ein Zerfall (novel by Bernhard)

    German literature: The 1970s and ’80s: Ausl?schung: ein Zerfall (1986; Extinction), by Thomas Bernhard, takes the form of a violently insistent and seemingly interminable diatribe by a first-person narrator who returns from Rome to Austria for a family funeral. Bernhard’s novel expresses intense feelings of disgust and anger about Austria’s collaboration in Nazism. Elfriede Jelinek’s…

  • Ausona (Spain)

    Vic, city, Barcelona provincia (province), in the comunidad autónoma (autonomous community) of Catalonia, northeastern Spain. The city is situated on the Vic Plain and lies along the Meder River, which is an affluent of the Ter River. Because it was first inhabited by the Ausetanos, an ancient

  • Ausones (ancient Italian tribe)

    Aurunci: The name Ausones, the Greek form from which the Latin Aurunci was derived, was applied by the Greeks to various Italic tribes, but the name came to denote in particular the tribe that the great Roman historian Livy called Aurunci. The name was later applied to all…

  • Ausonius, Decimus Magnus (Latin poet and rhetorician)

    Decimus Magnus Ausonius, Latin poet and rhetorician interesting chiefly for his preoccupation with the provincial scene of his native Gaul. Ausonius taught in the famous schools of Burdigala (now Bordeaux, Fr.), first as a grammarian and then as a rhetorician, so successfully that Valentinian I

  • Auspicious Incident (Ottoman history)

    Janissary: …June 1826 in the so-called Auspicious Incident. On learning of the formation of new, Westernized troops, the Janissaries revolted. Sultan Mahmud II declared war on the rebels and, on their refusal to surrender, had cannon fire directed on their barracks. Most of the Janissaries were killed, and those who were…

  • Ausra (Lithuanian political magazine)

    Jonas Basanavi?ius: …Lithuanian cultural and political magazine Au?ra (“Dawn”), published 1883–86; it was printed in East Prussia and had to be smuggled into Lithuania because of the tsarist regime’s ban on the printing of Lithuanian in the Latin alphabet. Au?ra significantly influenced the development of the Lithuanian national movement.

  • Ausrine (Baltic deity)

    Auseklis, in Baltic religion, the morning star and deity of the dawn. The Latvian Auseklis was a male god, the Lithuanian Au?rin? a female. Related in name to the Vedic U?as and the Greek Eos, goddesses of dawn, Auseklis is associated in Latvian solar mythology with Mēness (Moon) and Saule (Sun),

  • AUSSAT-1 (communications satellite)
  • AUSSAT-2 (communications satellite)
  • AUSSAT-3 (communications satellite)
  • Aussenalster (lake, Germany)

    Alster River: … (“Inner Alster”) and the northern, Aussenalster (“Outer Alster”).

  • Aussig (Czech Republic)

    ústí nad Labem, city, northwestern Czech Republic. It is a port on the left (west) bank of the Elbe (Labe) River at the latter’s confluence with the Bílina River. Although dating from the 10th century, the city has developed mainly since the 19th century and has been largely reconstructed since

  • austausch coefficient (physics)

    Austausch coefficient, in fluid mechanics, particularly in its applications to meteorology and oceanography, the proportionality between the rate of transport of a component of a turbulent fluid and the rate of change of density of the component. In this context, the term component signifies not

  • Austen, Jane (English novelist)

    Jane Austen, English writer who first gave the novel its distinctly modern character through her treatment of ordinary people in everyday life. She published four novels during her lifetime: Sense and Sensibility (1811), Pride and Prejudice (1813), Mansfield Park (1814), and Emma (1815). In these

  • austenite (metallurgy)

    Austenite, solid solution of carbon and other constituents in a particular form of iron known as γ (gamma) iron. This is a face-centred cubic structure formed when iron is heated above 910° C (1,670° F); gamma iron becomes unstable at temperatures above 1,390° C (2,530° F). Austenite is an

  • austenitic steel (metallurgy)

    stainless steel: Austenitic steels, which contain 16 to 26 percent chromium and up to 35 percent nickel, usually have the highest corrosion resistance. They are not hardenable by heat treatment and are nonmagnetic. The most common type is the 18/8, or 304, grade, which contains 18 percent…

  • Auster, Paul (American author)

    Paul Auster, American novelist, essayist, translator, screenwriter, and poet whose complex novels, several of which are mysteries, are often concerned with the search for identity and personal meaning. After graduating from Columbia University (M.A., 1970), Auster moved to France, where he began

  • Auster, Paul Benjamin (American author)

    Paul Auster, American novelist, essayist, translator, screenwriter, and poet whose complex novels, several of which are mysteries, are often concerned with the search for identity and personal meaning. After graduating from Columbia University (M.A., 1970), Auster moved to France, where he began

  • Austere Academy, The (work by Handler)
  • austerity (economics)

    Austerity, a set of economic policies, usually consisting of tax increases, spending cuts, or a combination of the two, used by governments to reduce budget deficits. Austerity measures can in principle be used at any time when there is concern about government expenditures exceeding government

  • austerity measures (economics)

    Austerity, a set of economic policies, usually consisting of tax increases, spending cuts, or a combination of the two, used by governments to reduce budget deficits. Austerity measures can in principle be used at any time when there is concern about government expenditures exceeding government

  • Austerlitz (novel by Sebald)

    German literature: The turn of the 21st century: Austerlitz)—the story of a man who had been saved from Nazi Germany and adopted by an English couple but who has been traveling in search of the places he believes to have been way stations in his early life—has had international success as a moving,…

  • Austerlitz, Battle of (European history)

    Battle of Austerlitz, (December 2, 1805), the first engagement of the War of the Third Coalition and one of Napoleon’s greatest victories. His 68,000 troops defeated almost 90,000 Russians and Austrians nominally under General M.I. Kutuzov, forcing Austria to make peace with France (Treaty of

  • Austerlitz, Frederick (American dancer and singer)

    Fred Astaire, American dancer onstage and in motion pictures who was best known for a number of highly successful musical comedy films in which he starred with Ginger Rogers. He is regarded by many as the greatest popular-music dancer of all time. Astaire studied dancing from the age of four, and

  • Austin (Minnesota, United States)

    Austin, city, seat (1856) of Mower county, southeastern Minnesota, U.S. It lies about 100 miles (160 km) south of St. Paul. Austin is situated along the Cedar River, just north of the Iowa state line, in a farming area specializing in corn (maize), soybeans, peas, and livestock. It was settled in

  • Austin (Roman Catholic religious order)

    Augustinian, member of any of the Roman Catholic religious orders and congregations of men and women whose constitutions are based on the Rule of St. Augustine. More specifically, the name is used to designate members of two main branches of Augustinians—namely, the Augustinian Canons and the

  • Austin (song by Kent and Manna)

    Blake Shelton: …Shelton recorded the song “Austin,” a love ballad written as a series of answering-machine messages, and Giant released it to country stations. It quickly rose to number one on Billboard’s country singles chart and to 18 on the Hot 100 listing. When Giant Records folded, Warner Brothers picked up…

  • Austin (Texas, United States)

    Austin, city, capital of Texas, U.S., and seat (1840) of Travis county. It is located at the point at which the Colorado River crosses the Balcones Escarpment in the south-central part of the state, about 80 miles (130 km) northeast of San Antonio. Austin’s metropolitan area encompasses Hays,

  • Austin (work by Kelly)

    Ellsworth Kelly: The structure, called Austin, was constructed posthumously and opened to the public in 2018. Described as a “secular chapel” by Kelly’s partner of 30 years, Jack Shear, the building is the only work of its kind by Kelly.

  • Austin Canons (Roman Catholic order)

    Augustinian:

  • Austin College (college, Sherman, Texas, United States)

    Austin College, private, coeducational institution of higher education in Sherman, Texas, U.S. Austin, a liberal arts college, is affiliated with the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.). The college offers bachelor’s degree programs in humanities, math and science, and social sciences, as well as

  • Austin Flint murmur (medicine)

    Austin Flint: …a disorder—now known as the Austin Flint murmur—characterized by regurgitation of blood from the aorta into the heart before contraction of the ventricles.

  • Austin Friar (religious order)

    Augustinian:

  • Austin High Gang (jazz group)

    Chicago style: Similarly, some recordings by the Austin High Gang, as McPartland and his fellow white players were often called, are quite elaborate, yet others by them are informal.

  • Austin Method 1 (chemistry)

    chemical bonding: Computational approaches to molecular structure: …acronyms, such as AM1 (Austin Method 1) and MINDO (Modified Intermediate Neglect of Differential Overlap), which are two popular semiempirical procedures.

  • Austin Motor Co. Ltd. (British company)

    British Leyland Motor Corporation, Ltd.: …1952 another venerable car manufacturer, Austin Motor Co. Ltd. (founded in 1905 by Herbert Austin), merged with Morris Motors to form British Motor Corporation Ltd. It continued to turn out Austin, Morris, M.G., and Wolseley cars and the highly successful “Mini” series. Although production of the Mini Cooper ended in…

  • Austin of Canterbury, Saint (archbishop of Canterbury)

    Saint Augustine of Canterbury, ; feast day in England and Wales May 26, elsewhere May 28), first archbishop of Canterbury and the apostle to England, who founded the Christian church in southern England. Probably of aristocratic birth, Augustine was prior of the Benedictine monastery of St. Andrew,

  • Austin Powers: International Man of Mystery (film by Roach [1997])

    Will Ferrell: …as the James Bond parody Austin Powers: International Man of Mystery (1997); Dick (1999), a satire of the Watergate scandal; and Zoolander (2001; he later appeared in its 2016 sequel as well), a fashion-industry send-up.

  • Austin v. Michigan Chamber of Commerce (law case)

    Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission: …two previous Supreme Court rulings: Austin v. Michigan Chamber of Commerce (1990) and McConnell v. Federal Election Commission (2003).

  • Austin, A. Everett, Jr. (American museum director)

    Wadsworth Atheneum: …the young Harvard University graduate A. Everett (“Chick”) Austin, Jr., was hired as director (through 1944). He expanded the museum’s collection of European paintings, emphasizing works from the Baroque period, and, as one of the first museum directors to do so, began purchasing works by living European and American avant-garde…

  • Austin, Alfred (British poet)

    Alfred Austin, English poet and journalist who succeeded Alfred, Lord Tennyson, as poet laureate. After a devoutly Roman Catholic upbringing and a brief career as a lawyer, Austin inherited money and published a lively and well-received satirical poem, The Season (1861). As his religious faith

  • Austin, Frederic (British singer and composer)

    Frederic Austin, baritone singer and composer, known especially for his arrangement of John Gay’s Beggar’s Opera for its first modern performance (1920–23). He made his London debut as a singer in 1902 and later took leading roles at Covent Garden and with the Beecham Opera Company. A proponent of

  • Austin, Harry (American scholar and mystery writer)

    Ralph Matthew McInerny, (Harry Austin; Matthew Fitzralph; Ernan Mackey; Edward Mackin; Monica Quill), American scholar and mystery writer (born Feb. 24, 1929, Minneapolis, Minn.—died Jan. 29, 2010, Mishawaka, Ind.), had a dual career as a medieval scholar (1955–2009) at the University of Notre

  • Austin, Henry Wilfred (British athlete)

    Henry Wilfred Austin, (“Bunny”), British tennis player (born Aug. 26, 1906, London, Eng.—died Aug. 26, 2000, Coulsdon, Surrey, Eng.), was one of the world’s highest-ranked players in the 1930s, twice a finalist at the All-England (Wimbledon) Championships (1932 and 1938), and a pivotal member of t

  • Austin, Herbert Austin, Baron (British industrialist)

    Herbert Austin, Baron Austin, founder and first chairman of the Austin Motor Company, whose Austin Seven model greatly influenced British and European light-car design. An engineer and engineering manager in Australia (1883–90), he became manager and later director of the Wolseley Sheep-Shearing

  • Austin, J. L. (British philosopher)

    J.L. Austin, British philosopher best known for his individualistic analysis of human thought derived from detailed study of ordinary language. After receiving early education at Shrewsbury School and Balliol College, Oxford, he became a fellow at All Souls College (1933) and Magdalen College

  • Austin, John (English jurist)

    John Austin, English jurist whose writings, especially The Province of Jurisprudence Determined (1832), advocated a definition of law as a species of command and sought to distinguish positive law from morality. He had little influence during his lifetime outside the circle of Utilitarian

  • Austin, John Langshaw (British philosopher)

    J.L. Austin, British philosopher best known for his individualistic analysis of human thought derived from detailed study of ordinary language. After receiving early education at Shrewsbury School and Balliol College, Oxford, he became a fellow at All Souls College (1933) and Magdalen College

  • Austin, Louis Troy (English singer)

    One Direction: …Holmes Chapel, Cheshire, England), and Louis Tomlinson (b. December 24, 1991, Doncaster, South Yorkshire, England).

  • Austin, Louis Winslow (American physicist)

    Louis Winslow Austin, physicist known for research on long-range radio transmissions. He was educated at Middlebury College, Vermont, and the University of Strasbourg, Germany. In 1904 he began work on radio transmissions for the U.S. Bureau of Standards. In 1908 Austin became head of a naval

  • Austin, Lovie (American musician)

    Alberta Hunter: …during her nursing career, with Lovie Austin in 1961 and Jimmy Archey in 1962. Five months after her retirement party, she returned to performing at the Cookery, a nightclub in Greenwich Village, New York City. Her comeback led to greater fame than she had ever experienced during her earlier singing…

  • Austin, Mary (American writer)

    Mary Austin, novelist and essayist who wrote about Native American culture and social problems. Mary Hunter graduated from Blackburn College in 1888 and soon afterward moved with her family to Bakersfield, California. She married Stafford W. Austin in 1891, and for several years they lived in

  • Austin, Stephen (American pioneer)

    Stephen Austin, founder in the 1820s of the principal settlements of English-speaking people in Texas when that territory was still part of Mexico. Raised on the Missouri frontier, Austin was educated at Transylvania University in Lexington, Kentucky, and served in the Missouri territorial

  • Austin, Stephen Fuller (American pioneer)

    Stephen Austin, founder in the 1820s of the principal settlements of English-speaking people in Texas when that territory was still part of Mexico. Raised on the Missouri frontier, Austin was educated at Transylvania University in Lexington, Kentucky, and served in the Missouri territorial

  • Austin, Thomas (American businessman)

    Tom Yawkey, American professional baseball executive, sportsman, and owner of the American League Boston Red Sox (1933–76)—the last of the patriarchal owners of early baseball. Austin was taken into the home of his maternal uncle William Yawkey and received a B.S. degree (in mining engineering and

  • Austin, University of Texas at (university, Austin, Texas, United States)

    Fisher v. University of Texas at Austin: …undergraduate admissions policy of the University of Texas at Austin, which incorporated a limited program of affirmative action with the aim of increasing racial and ethnic diversity among its students. In an earlier version of the same case, subsequently known as “Fisher I,” the Supreme Court had vacated and remanded…

  • austracismo (European history)

    Gaspar de Guzmán y Pimental, count-duke de Olivares: Prime ministry: …guided by the dream of austracismo, a joint European hegemony of the Austrian and Spanish Habsburg kingdoms. This policy meant continued Spanish involvement in the Thirty Years’ War and ended with the eclipse of Spanish power by France. Yet in the period of the Counter-Reformation it is difficult to conceive…

  • Austral English (language)

    English language: Australian and New Zealand English: The blanket term Austral English is sometimes used to cover the language of the whole of Australasia, but this term is far from popular with New Zealanders because it makes no reference to New Zealand and gives all the prominence, so they feel, to Australia. Between North and…

  • Austral Group (Argentine architectural group)

    Latin American architecture: Argentina: …Aires and formed the “Austral” group in 1938 with Jorge Ferrari Hardoy, Juan Kurchan, Horacio Vera Barros, Abel López Chas, and others. They were interested in reacting against the official architecture and design and in developing an Argentine experimental style based on their manifesto of 1939. Perhaps the best…

  • Austral Islands (archipelago, French Polynesia)

    Tubuai Islands, southernmost archipelago of French Polynesia in the central South Pacific Ocean. Volcanic in origin, the islands are part of a vast submerged mountain chain, probably a southeasterly extension of the Cook Islands (New Zealand). Scattered over an area some 800 miles (1,300 km) long,

  • Austral Plan (Argentine economic policy)

    Raúl Alfonsín: …introduced an economic program, the Austral Plan (1985), that met with limited success. He prosecuted members of the armed forces for the human rights abuses of the late 1970s, and several high-ranking officials, including former Argentine presidents Jorge Rafaél Videla (1976–81) and Roberto Viola (1981), received life prison sentences. Later,…

  • Australasia (region, Oceania)

    Australasia, geographical term that has never had a precise definition and that was originally employed to denote land believed to exist south of Asia. In its widest sense it has been taken to include, besides Australia (with Tasmania) and New Zealand, the Malay Archipelago, the Philippines,

  • Australasian Football Council (sports organization)

    Australian rules football: Rise of the Victorian Football League: A national body, the Australasian Football Council, was formed in 1906 to regulate interstate player movement and develop contests on the national level, though it remained under the auspices of the VFL. As the council’s name suggests, efforts to keep the game alive in New Zealand were part of…

  • Australasian gannet (bird)

    gannet: …off South Africa, and the Australian (or Australasian) gannet (M. serrator), which breeds around Tasmania and New Zealand.

  • Australasian robin (bird)

    passeriform: Annotated classification: Family Petroicidae (Australasian robins) Small thrushlike and chatlike songbirds, 11–22 cm (4.3–8.7 inches). Some flycatcher-like in habits, but also engage in wing and tail flicking. Drab brown to colourful (yellow and red) plumages. DNA revealed they are not related to similar species of Eurasia but instead part…

  • Australasian shoveler (bird)
  • Australia (work by Hancock)

    Australian literature: Nationalism and expansion: …is present in Keith Hancock’s Australia (1930), a reading of Australian history in terms of character.

  • Australia (film by Luhrmann [2008])

    Baz Luhrmann: …filmic effort was the multithemed Australia (2008), starring Nicole Kidman and Hugh Jackman; it unleashed a fierce national debate over its historical accuracy, though its director had not intended a documentary. Luhrmann’s following project was a series of eight short videos—featuring Judy Davis as fashion designer Elsa Schiaparelli, who died…

  • Australia

    Australia, the smallest continent and one of the largest countries on Earth, lying between the Pacific and Indian oceans in the Southern Hemisphere. Australia’s capital is Canberra, located in the southeast between the larger and more important economic and cultural centres of Sydney and Melbourne.

  • Australia and New Zealand

    By 1997 public opinion in Australia and New Zealand was demanding that a solution be found to the great gap in the standards of living between the indigenous people of each nation and those who arrived later. The governments of Australia and New Zealand and the Aboriginal and Maori people all

  • Australia and New Zealand Closer Economic Relations Trade Agreement (Australian-New Zealand relations)

    New Zealand: Trade: …provided the basis of the Australia and New Zealand Closer Economic Relations Trade Agreement (known as CER), signed in 1983. That agreement eventually eliminated duties and commodity quotas between the two countries and was seen by some as the first step toward integrating their economies. New Zealand also has a…

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