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  • Auersperg, Johann Weikhart, Prince von (Austrian statesman)

    Johann Weikhart, prince von Auersperg, Austrian diplomat and statesman, head of the Aulic Council (Reichshofrat) under the Habsburg emperor Leopold I. After serving briefly as a Habsburg court councillor, Auersperg was sent to The Hague (1641), and later he took part in peace negotiations at

  • Auerst?dt, Battle of (European history)

    Battle of Jena, (Oct. 14, 1806), military engagement of the Napoleonic Wars, fought between 122,000 French troops and 114,000 Prussians and Saxons, at Jena and Auerst?dt, in Saxony (modern Germany). In the battle, Napoleon smashed the outdated Prussian army inherited from Frederick II the Great,

  • Auerstedt, Louis-Nicolas Davout, Duc d’ (French general)

    Louis-Nicolas Davout, duke of Auerstedt, French marshal who was one of the most distinguished of Napoleon’s field commanders. Born into the noble family of d’Avout, he was educated at the école Royale Militaire in Paris and entered Louis XVI’s service as a second lieutenant in 1788. Amid the

  • Auez-ul?, Mukhtar (Kazakh writer)

    Kazakhstan: Cultural life: An early Soviet Kazakh writer, Mukhtar Auez-ul?, won recognition for the long novel Abay, based on the life and poetry of Kūnanbay-ul?, and for his plays, including ?nglik-Kebek.

  • Auezov, Mukhtar (Kazakh writer)

    Kazakhstan: Cultural life: An early Soviet Kazakh writer, Mukhtar Auez-ul?, won recognition for the long novel Abay, based on the life and poetry of Kūnanbay-ul?, and for his plays, including ?nglik-Kebek.

  • Auf dem See (poem by Goethe)

    Johann Wolfgang von Goethe: Sturm und Drang (1770–76): …Goethe’s most perfect poems, “Auf dem See” (“On the Lake”), and was followed by a walking tour through the mountains, with Goethe sketching all the time. Up on St. Gotthard Pass he contemplated the road down to Italy but turned away toward Lili and home.

  • Auf den Marmorklippen (work by Jünger)

    Ernst Jünger: …novel Auf den Marmorklippen (1939; On the Marble Cliffs), which, surprisingly, passed the censors and was published in Germany. Jünger served as an army staff officer in Paris during World War II, but by 1943 he had turned decisively against Nazi totalitarianism and its goal of world conquest, a change…

  • Auf Wiederseh’n Sweetheart (song by Storch)

    Vera Lynn: …of her material, issued “Auf Wiederseh’n Sweetheart” in the United States in 1952, she became the first English artist to hit number one on the American record charts; “My Son, My Son” (1954) was among her later hits. After leaving Decca in 1960 for EMI, Lynn continued to tour…

  • Auf Wiedersehen, Franziska! (film by K?utner)

    Helmut K?utner: …for a Russian prince, and Auf Wiedersehen, Franziska! (1941; “Goodbye, Franziska!”), which concerns the marital troubles between a reporter and his neglected wife. When the authorities forced K?utner to add an illogical upbeat ending to the latter film, he responded by making the enforced sequence deliberately contrived and farcical. K?utner…

  • Aufbau principle (chemistry)

    Aufbau principle, (from German Aufbauprinzip, “building-up principle”), rationalization of the distribution of electrons among energy levels in the ground (most stable) states of atoms. The principle, formulated by the Danish physicist Niels Bohr about 1920, is an application of the laws of quantum

  • Aufbauprinzip (chemistry)

    Aufbau principle, (from German Aufbauprinzip, “building-up principle”), rationalization of the distribution of electrons among energy levels in the ground (most stable) states of atoms. The principle, formulated by the Danish physicist Niels Bohr about 1920, is an application of the laws of quantum

  • Aufeis (ice formation)

    ice in lakes and rivers: Ice buildups: These are known as icings, Aufeis (German), or naleds (Russian). Icings may become so thick that they completely block culverts and in some cases overflow onto adjacent roads.

  • Aufgesang (music)

    minnesinger: …called individually Stollen and collectively Aufgesang, and a third section, or Abgesang (the terms derive from the later meistersingers); the formal ratio between Aufgesang and Abgesang is variable. The basic aab pattern was subject to much variation (see Bar form).

  • Aufhaltsame Aufsteig des Arturo Ui, Der (play by Brecht)

    Bertolt Brecht: …Aufstieg des Arturo Ui (1957; The Resistible Rise of Arturo Ui), a parable play of Hitler’s rise to power set in prewar Chicago; Herr Puntila und sein Knecht Matti (1948; Herr Puntila and His Man Matti), a Volksstück (popular play) about a Finnish farmer who oscillates between churlish sobriety and…

  • Aufidius (fictional character)

    Coriolanus: …joins forces with his enemy Aufidius, a Volscian, against Rome. Leading the enemy to the edge of the city, Coriolanus is ultimately persuaded by his mother, Volumnia—who brings with her Coriolanus’s wife, Virgilia, and his son—to make peace with Rome, and in the end he is killed at the instigation…

  • Aufkl?rung (European history)

    Enlightenment, a European intellectual movement of the 17th and 18th centuries in which ideas concerning God, reason, nature, and humanity were synthesized into a worldview that gained wide assent in the West and that instigated revolutionary developments in art, philosophy, and politics. Central

  • Aufstieg und Fall der Stadt Mahagonny (opera by Brecht and Weill)

    Mahagonny, opera in 20 scenes with music by Kurt Weill and text by Bertolt Brecht, published in 1929 and performed in German as Aufstieg und Fall der Stadt Mahagonny in 1930. The opera’s premiere in Leipzig was disrupted by Nazi sympathizers and others hostile to the Weimar Republic. Mahagonny is

  • Aufzeichnungen des Malte Laurids Brigge, Die (novel by Rilke)

    The Notebook of Malte Laurids Brigge, novel in journal form by Rainer Maria Rilke, published in 1910 in German as Die Aufzeichnungen des Malte Laurids Brigge. The book, which is composed of 71 diary-like entries, contains descriptive, reminiscent, and meditative parts. Brigge, its supposed author,

  • Augeas (Greek mythology)

    Augeas, in Greek legend, king of the Epeians in Elis, a son of the sun-god Helios. He possessed an immense wealth of herds, and King Eurystheus imposed upon the Greek hero Heracles the task of clearing out all of Augeas’s stables unaided in one day. Heracles did so by turning the Alpheus (or

  • Augeias (Greek mythology)

    Augeas, in Greek legend, king of the Epeians in Elis, a son of the sun-god Helios. He possessed an immense wealth of herds, and King Eurystheus imposed upon the Greek hero Heracles the task of clearing out all of Augeas’s stables unaided in one day. Heracles did so by turning the Alpheus (or

  • auger (tool)

    Auger, tool (or bit) used with a carpenter’s brace for drilling holes in wood. It looks like a corkscrew and has six parts: screw, spurs, cutting edges, twist, shank, and tang. The screw looks like a tapered wood screw and is short and small in diameter; it centres the bit and draws it into the

  • auger boring (tool)

    Auger, tool (or bit) used with a carpenter’s brace for drilling holes in wood. It looks like a corkscrew and has six parts: screw, spurs, cutting edges, twist, shank, and tang. The screw looks like a tapered wood screw and is short and small in diameter; it centres the bit and draws it into the

  • Auger effect (physics)

    Auger effect, in atomic physics, a spontaneous process in which an atom with an electron vacancy in the innermost (K) shell readjusts itself to a more stable state by ejecting one or more electrons instead of radiating a single X-ray photon. This internal photoelectric process is named for the

  • Auger electron spectroscopy (physics)

    surface analysis: Auger electron spectroscopy: Energies of Auger electrons (named after French physicist Pierre Auger), like energies of XPS photoelectrons, are characteristic of the individual chemical elements. Thus, it is possible to use AES to analyze surfaces in much the same way as XPS is used. However,…

  • auger mining (coal mining)

    Auger mining, method for recovering coal by boring into a coal seam at the base of strata exposed by excavation. Normally one of the lowest-cost techniques of mining, it is limited to horizontal or slightly pitched seams that have been exposed by geologic erosion. Augering is usually associated

  • auger shell (gastropod)

    gastropod: Classification: Toxoglossa Auger shells (Terebridae), cone shells (Conidae) and turrid shells (Turridae) are carnivorous marine snails with poison glands attached to highly modified radular teeth; several cone shells have caused human deaths through poisoning and can catch and kill fish. Subclass Opisthobranchia

  • Auger yield (physics)

    Auger effect: …be emitted is called the Auger yield for that shell. The Auger yield decreases with atomic number (the number of protons in the nucleus), and at atomic number 30 (zinc) the probabilities of the emission of X rays from the innermost shell and of the emission of Auger electrons is…

  • Auger, Arleen (American opera singer)

    Arleen Auger, U.S. opera singer (born Sept. 13, 1939, South Gate, Calif.—died June 10, 1993, Leusden, Neth.), projected a commanding stage presence and was especially praised for her flexible coloratura soprano voice and subtle interpretations of works by Bach, Handel, Haydn, Monteverdi, Gluck, a

  • Auger, Claudine (French actress)

    Thunderball: …to Largo’s mistress, Domino (Claudine Auger), that Largo had her brother, a NATO pilot, killed, she agrees to help him locate the bombs. Although Bond does find the weapons, he cannot prevent Largo and his army of scuba divers from setting off to Miami Beach, the intended target of…

  • Augereau, Pierre-Fran?ois-Charles, duc de Castiglione (French army officer)

    Pierre-Fran?ois-Charles Augereau, duke de Castiglione, army officer whose military ability won for France a series of brilliant victories in Italy under Napoleon’s command. The son of a poor Parisian servant, Augereau turned to a military career at the age of 17, served in several foreign armies,

  • Aughrabies Falls (waterfall, South Africa)

    Augrabies Falls, series of separately channeled cataracts and rapids on the Orange River in arid Northern Cape province, South Africa. The falls, which form the central feature of Augrabies Falls National Park (established in 1966), occur where the Orange River leaves a plateau formation of

  • Augias (Greek mythology)

    Augeas, in Greek legend, king of the Epeians in Elis, a son of the sun-god Helios. He possessed an immense wealth of herds, and King Eurystheus imposed upon the Greek hero Heracles the task of clearing out all of Augeas’s stables unaided in one day. Heracles did so by turning the Alpheus (or

  • Augier, émile (French dramatist)

    émile Augier, popular dramatist who wrote comedies extolling the virtues of middle-class life and who, with Alexandre Dumas fils and Victorien Sardou, dominated the French stage during the Second Empire (1852–70). Augier was an unbending moralist, and all of his plays are to some extent didactic in

  • Augier, Guillaume-Victor-émile (French dramatist)

    émile Augier, popular dramatist who wrote comedies extolling the virtues of middle-class life and who, with Alexandre Dumas fils and Victorien Sardou, dominated the French stage during the Second Empire (1852–70). Augier was an unbending moralist, and all of his plays are to some extent didactic in

  • augite (mineral)

    Augite, the most common pyroxene mineral (a silicate of calcium, magnesium, iron, titanium, and aluminum). It occurs chiefly as thick, tabular crystals in basalts, gabbros, andesites, and various other dark-coloured igneous rocks. It also is a common constituent of lunar basalts and meteorites rich

  • augmentation (navigation)

    GPS: Augmentation: Although the travel time of a satellite signal to Earth is only a fraction of a second, much can happen to it in that interval. For example, electrically charged particles in the ionosphere and density variations in the troposphere may act to slow and…

  • augmentation of honour (heraldry)

    heraldry: The nature and origins of heraldic terminology: …more easily discerned in the augmentations of honour, as they are called, when something has been added to a coat of arms by the (British) crown in recognition of services rendered. The arms of the British naval hero Admiral Horatio Nelson show new heraldic charges added to his ancestral arms…

  • Augmentations, Court of (United Kingdom)

    Court of Augmentations, in Reformation England, the most important of a group of financial courts organized during the reign of Henry VIII; the others were the courts of General Surveyors, First Fruits and Tenths, and Wards and Liveries. They were instituted chiefly so that the crown might gain

  • augmentative and alternative communication

    Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC), form of communication used in place of or in addition to speech. Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) includes the use of communication aids, such as alphabet boards and electronic communication devices that speak, as well as unaided

  • augmented reality (computer science)

    Augmented reality, in computer programming, a process of combining or “augmenting” video or photographic displays by overlaying the images with useful computer-generated data. The earliest applications of augmented reality were almost certainly the “heads-up-displays” (HUDs) used in military

  • Augmented Roman Alphabet

    Initial Teaching Alphabet, alphabet of 44 characters designed by Sir James Pitman to help children learn to read English more effectively. The Initial Teaching Alphabet is based on the phonemic (sound) system of English and uses the Roman alphabet, augmented by 14 additional characters, to

  • augmented sixth chord (music)

    harmony: Use of dissonance for harmonic colour: …a musical passage was the augmented sixth chord. This is an altered chord, or one built by taking a chord normally occurring in its key and chromatically altering it. In this case, two of its notes are changed by a half step. Specifically, an augmented sixth chord is built on…

  • augmented triad (music)

    triad: …the triad is called an augmented triad; if the third is minor and the fifth is diminished, the triad is a diminished triad. Augmented and diminished triads are dissonant.

  • augmentor wing (aviation)

    STOL airplane: …aerodynamic devices, such as the augmentor wing, which was introduced during the early 1960s. It consists of full span slats at the leading edge of the wing and full span double-slotted flaps at the trailing edge. Manipulation of these devices and an air duct system allows use of air turbulence…

  • Augrabies Falls (waterfall, South Africa)

    Augrabies Falls, series of separately channeled cataracts and rapids on the Orange River in arid Northern Cape province, South Africa. The falls, which form the central feature of Augrabies Falls National Park (established in 1966), occur where the Orange River leaves a plateau formation of

  • Augsburg (Germany)

    Augsburg, city, Bavaria Land (state), southern Germany. It lies at the junction of the Wertach and Lech rivers and extends over the plateau country between the two rivers. In 1974 Augsburg annexed the neighbouring cities of G?ggingen and Haunstetten. Traces of an Early Bronze Age settlement have

  • Augsburg Bible (German New Testament)

    biblical literature: German versions: A complete New Testament, the Augsburg Bible, can be dated to 1350, and another from Bohemia, Codex Teplensis (c. 1400), has also survived.

  • Augsburg Confession (Lutheran confession)

    Augsburg Confession, the 28 articles that constitute the basic confession of the Lutheran churches, presented June 25, 1530, in German and Latin at the Diet of Augsburg to the emperor Charles V by seven Lutheran princes and two imperial free cities. The principal author was the Reformer Philipp

  • Augsburg Interim (German history)

    Augsburg Interim, temporary doctrinal agreement between German Catholics and Protestants, proclaimed in May 1548 at the Diet of Augsburg (1547–48), which became imperial law on June 30, 1548. It was prepared and accepted at the insistence of the Holy Roman emperor Charles V, who hoped to establish

  • Augsburg, Diet of (Holy Roman imperial council)

    Germany: Lutheran church organization and confessionalization: …presented for discussion at the Diet of Augsburg in 1530, which was attended by the emperor. The Augsburg Confession, which became a fundamental statement of Lutheran belief, assumed that reconciliation with the Catholics was still possible. This view was shared by Charles, who was pushing the pope toward the summoning…

  • Augsburg, League of (European alliance)

    League of Augsburg, Coalition formed in 1686 by Emperor Leopold I, the kings of Sweden and Spain, and the electors of Bavaria, Saxony, and the Palatinate. The league was formed to oppose the expansionist plans of Louis XIV of France prior to the War of the Grand Alliance. It proved ineffective

  • Augsburg, Peace of (Germany [1555])

    Peace of Augsburg, first permanent legal basis for the coexistence of Lutheranism and Catholicism in Germany, promulgated on September 25, 1555, by the Diet of the Holy Roman Empire assembled earlier that year at Augsburg. The Peace allowed the state princes to select either Lutheranism or

  • Augsburg, War of the League of (European history)

    War of the Grand Alliance, (1689–97), the third major war of Louis XIV of France, in which his expansionist plans were blocked by an alliance led by England, the United Provinces of the Netherlands, and the Austrian Habsburgs. The deeper issue underlying the war was the balance of power between the

  • Augstein, Rudolf (German publisher)

    Rudolf Karl Augstein, German magazine publisher (born Nov. 5, 1923, Hanover, Ger.—died Nov. 7, 2002, Hamburg, Ger.), was the publisher, editor (until 1995), and chief editorial writer of Der Spiegel, the influential weekly newsmagazine that he founded in January 1947 and guided until the day of h

  • Augstein, Rudolf Karl (German publisher)

    Rudolf Karl Augstein, German magazine publisher (born Nov. 5, 1923, Hanover, Ger.—died Nov. 7, 2002, Hamburg, Ger.), was the publisher, editor (until 1995), and chief editorial writer of Der Spiegel, the influential weekly newsmagazine that he founded in January 1947 and guided until the day of h

  • augur (Roman religious official)

    Augur, in ancient Rome, one of the members of a religious college whose duty it was to observe and interpret the signs (auspices) of approval or disapproval sent by the gods in reference to any proposed undertaking. The augures were originally called auspices, but, while auspex fell into disuse and

  • Augur (Roman jurist)

    Quintus Mucius Scaevola, prominent Roman jurist. He was the cousin of Quintus Mucius Scaevola Pontifex, who founded the scientific study of Roman law. Instructed in law by his father and in philosophy by the stoic Panaetius of Rhodes, Scaevola became governor of the province of Asia about 120.

  • augures (Roman religious official)

    Augur, in ancient Rome, one of the members of a religious college whose duty it was to observe and interpret the signs (auspices) of approval or disapproval sent by the gods in reference to any proposed undertaking. The augures were originally called auspices, but, while auspex fell into disuse and

  • Auguries of Innocence (work by Blake)

    William Blake: Visions of eternity: …he wrote in his “Auguries of Innocence,” his purpose was

  • augurium salutis (Roman religion)

    Salus: The augurium salutis, not involving a personification and possibly antedating the deification of Salus, was an annual ascertainment of the acceptability to the gods of prayers for the public salus. Because it was required to be performed on a day of peace, the constant warfare of…

  • Augurs, Tomb of the (tomb, Tarquinia, Italy)

    Western painting: Etruscan: …depictions are those on the Tomb of the Augurs at Tarquinii, with its scenes of wrestlers, dancers, musicians, and a banquet. These paintings date from the late 6th century bc and, although the style of painting changed somewhat in later periods, the types of scene represented remained standard. The Archaic…

  • augury (divination)

    Augury, prophetic divining of the future by observation of natural phenomena—particularly the behaviour of birds and animals and the examination of their entrails and other parts, but also by scrutiny of man-made objects and situations. The term derives from the official Roman augurs, whose

  • August (film by Hopkins [1996])

    Anthony Hopkins: Directorial efforts: …wrote and directed the film August (1996) and the surreal Slipstream (2007). The former was adapted from Anton Chekhov’s play Uncle Vanya, and the latter followed an aging screenwriter as he encountered his characters in real life. Hopkins played the lead in both films.

  • August (month)

    August, eighth month of the Gregorian calendar. It was named for the first Roman emperor, Augustus Caesar, in 8 bce. Its original name was Sextilus, Latin for “sixth month,” indicating its position in the early Roman

  • August 1914 (work by Solzhenitsyn)

    August 1914, historical novel by Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, published as Avgust chetyrnadtsatogo in Paris in 1971. An enlarged version, nearly double in size, was published in 1983. The novel treats Germany’s crushing victory over Russia in their initial military engagement of World War I, the Battle

  • August 1914 (work by Tuchman)

    Barbara Tuchman: In 1962 Tuchman’s The Guns of August (also published as August 1914) was published to widespread critical and popular acclaim. This work is a detailed account of the first month of World War I, and it vividly describes the series of military errors and miscalculations that led to…

  • August Comte and Positivism (work by Mill)

    John Stuart Mill: The later years: …William Hamilton’s Philosophy and his Auguste Comte and Positivism, but in both writings his motives were largely political. It was because he regarded the writings and sayings of Sir William Hamilton as the great fortress of intuitional philosophy in Great Britain that Mill undertook to counter his pretensions. In dealing…

  • August Coup (Soviet history)

    collapse of the Soviet Union: The coup against Gorbachev: That the Soviet Union was disintegrating had been subtly apparent for some time, but the final act began at 4:50 pm on Sunday, August 18, 1991. Soviet Pres. Mikhail Gorbachev was at his dacha in the Crimean resort of Foros when…

  • August der Starke (king of Poland and elector of Saxony)

    Augustus II, king of Poland and elector of Saxony (as Frederick Augustus I). Though he regained Poland’s former provinces of Podolia and the Ukraine, his reign marked the beginning of Poland’s decline as a European power. The second son of Elector John George III of Saxony, Augustus succeeded his

  • August for the People (play by Dennis)

    Nigel Dennis: …journalism sharpened the satire of August for the People (1961), a much-praised play about the power of the press. His nonfiction included a critical biography of Jonathan Swift.

  • August Friedrich (king of Poland and elector of Saxony)

    Augustus III, king of Poland and elector of Saxony (as Frederick Augustus II), whose reign witnessed one of the greatest periods of disorder within Poland. More interested in ease and pleasure than in affairs of state, this notable patron of the arts left the administration of Saxony and Poland to

  • August Friedrich (king of Poland and elector of Saxony)

    Augustus II, king of Poland and elector of Saxony (as Frederick Augustus I). Though he regained Poland’s former provinces of Podolia and the Ukraine, his reign marked the beginning of Poland’s decline as a European power. The second son of Elector John George III of Saxony, Augustus succeeded his

  • August II Wettin (king of Poland and elector of Saxony)

    Augustus II, king of Poland and elector of Saxony (as Frederick Augustus I). Though he regained Poland’s former provinces of Podolia and the Ukraine, his reign marked the beginning of Poland’s decline as a European power. The second son of Elector John George III of Saxony, Augustus succeeded his

  • August III Wettin (king of Poland and elector of Saxony)

    Augustus III, king of Poland and elector of Saxony (as Frederick Augustus II), whose reign witnessed one of the greatest periods of disorder within Poland. More interested in ease and pleasure than in affairs of state, this notable patron of the arts left the administration of Saxony and Poland to

  • August Mocny (king of Poland and elector of Saxony)

    Augustus II, king of Poland and elector of Saxony (as Frederick Augustus I). Though he regained Poland’s former provinces of Podolia and the Ukraine, his reign marked the beginning of Poland’s decline as a European power. The second son of Elector John George III of Saxony, Augustus succeeded his

  • August Piccard (mesoscaphe)

    Jacques Piccard: His first mesoscaphe, the Auguste Piccard, capable of carrying 40 passengers, transported some 33,000 tourists through the depths of Lake Geneva during the 1964 Swiss National Exhibition in Lausanne. In 1969 he drifted some 3,000 km (1,800 miles) along the east coast of North America in the mesoscaphe Ben…

  • August Revolution, The (work by Truong Chinh)

    Truong Chinh: …these events in his book The August Revolution. The PCI was disbanded but reemerged as the Alliance for the Dissemination of Marxism, with Truong Chinh as its chairman and leading theoretician. In 1951 the Vietnam Workers’ Party (Dang Lao-Dong Viet-Nam) was born, with Truong Chinh as secretary-general.

  • August Thyssen-Hütte AG (German firm)

    Thyssen AG, former German corporation that, prior to its 1999 merger with Krupp AG, was the largest steel producer in Europe. It operated ironworks, steelmaking plants, and rolling mills; made building materials, automotive parts, and machinery; and engaged in trading and financial services. Its

  • August Wilhelm Anton, Graf Neidhardt von Gneisenau (Prussian field marshal)

    August, Count Neidhardt von Gneisenau, Prussian field marshal and reformer, one of the key figures in rebuilding and reorganizing the Prussian army shattered by Napoleon in 1806 and the architect of its victory during the wars of liberation (1813–15). Of impoverished noble parentage, Gneisenau

  • August: Osage County (film by Wells [2013])

    Chris Cooper: …The Company You Keep (2012), August: Osage County (2013), and Demolition (2015), and he portrayed J.D. Salinger in Coming Through the Rye (2015). In 2017 he lent his voice to the Pixar animated film Cars 3. Cooper’s film credits from 2019 included A Beautiful Day in the Neighborhood,

  • August: Osage County (play by Letts)

    Tracy Letts: His subsequent play, August: Osage County, was a black comedy depicting a wildly dysfunctional Oklahoma family coping with the death of its patriarch. Performed by Steppenwolf as well as on Broadway (with Letts’s own father in the role of the patriarch) in 2007, August: Osage County won a…

  • Augusta (Italy)

    Augusta, town, Sicily, Italy, north of the city of Syracuse; it lies on a long sandy island off the southeast coast between the Golfo (gulf) di Augusta and the Ionian Sea and is connected by two bridges with the mainland. The town was founded near the site of the ancient Dorian town of Megara

  • Augusta (empress of Germany)

    Augusta, queen consort of Prussia from 1861 and German empress from 1871, the wife of William I. The younger daughter of Charles Frederick, grand duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, she was married to the future king and emperor on June 11, 1829. She was jealously devoted to her children, Frederick

  • Augusta (Georgia, United States)

    Augusta, city, river port, and seat (1777) of Richmond county, eastern Georgia, U.S. It lies on the Savannah River (there bridged to North Augusta, South Carolina), on the fall line where the Piedmont Plateau meets the Coastal Plain. The area was explored in 1540 by the Spanish conquistador

  • Augusta (Maine, United States)

    Augusta, capital (1831) of Maine, U.S., seat (1799) of Kennebec county, at the head of navigation on the Kennebec River, 57 miles (92 km) northeast of Portland. The city’s establishment and early prosperity, which began with the arrival of traders from the Plymouth colony of Massachusetts in 1628,

  • Augusta Academy (university, Lexington, Virginia, United States)

    Washington and Lee University, private, coeducational institution of higher learning in Lexington, Virginia, U.S. The university, one of the oldest in the United States, comprises the College, the School of Law, and the Williams School of Commerce, Economics, and Politics. It offers undergraduate

  • Augusta Antonina (Turkey)

    Istanbul: …Severus rebuilt it, naming it Augusta Antonina in honour of his son. In 330 ce, when Constantine the Great dedicated the city as his capital, he called it New Rome. The coinage, nevertheless, continued to be stamped Byzantium until he ordered the substitution of Constantinopolis. At the end of the…

  • Augusta Emerita (Spain)

    Mérida, town, north-central Badajoz provincia (province), in the comunidad autónoma (autonomous community) of Extremadura, western Spain. It is located on the north bank of the Guadiana River, about 35 miles (55 km) east of Badajoz, the provincial capital. The town was founded by the Romans in 25

  • Augusta National Golf Club (golf club, Augusta, Georgia, United States)

    Augusta: Augusta National Golf Club in the city hosts the annual Masters Tournament, one of professional golf’s most prestigious events. Fort Gordon, site of the U.S. Army Signal Center and several Signal Corps schools, is located southwest of downtown; and the Savannah River Site, a federal…

  • Augusta State University (college, Augusta, Georgia, United States)

    Augusta: Augusta State University, originally part of the Academy of Richmond County (1783), was chartered as a college in 1925; in 2013 it merged with Georgia Health Sciences University to become Georgia Regents University, which includes the Medical College of Georgia (founded as the Medical Academy…

  • Augusta Taurinorum (Italy)

    Turin, city, capital of Torino provincia and of Piemonte (Piedmont) regione, northwestern Italy. It is located on the Po River near its junction with the Sangone, Dora Riparia, and Stura di Lanzo rivers. The original settlement of Taurisia, founded by the Taurini, was partly destroyed by the

  • Augusta Trajana (Bulgaria)

    Stara Zagora, town, central Bulgaria. It lies in the southern foothills of the Sredna Mountains and on the fringe of the fertile Stara Zagora plain. The town has varied industries producing cotton, textiles, chemicals, fertilizers, agricultural implements, machine tools, and cigarettes as well as

  • Augusta Treverorum (Germany)

    Trier, city, Rhineland-Palatinate Land (state), southwestern Germany. It lies on the right bank of the Moselle (Mosel) River, surrounded by the foothills of the Eifel, Hunsrück, and Mosel mountains, just east of the border with Luxembourg. A shrine of the Treveri, a Germanic tribe, existed at the

  • Augusta Victoria (empress of Germany)

    William II: Youth and early influences: In 1881 William married Princess Augusta Victoria of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg, a plain, unimaginative woman with few intellectual interests and no talents, who bored him and encouraged his reactionary tendencies but all the same represented a point of stability in his life. During their marriage, Augusta gave birth to six sons and…

  • Augusta Vindelicorum (Germany)

    Augsburg, city, Bavaria Land (state), southern Germany. It lies at the junction of the Wertach and Lech rivers and extends over the plateau country between the two rivers. In 1974 Augsburg annexed the neighbouring cities of G?ggingen and Haunstetten. Traces of an Early Bronze Age settlement have

  • Augusta, Treaty of (Great Britain [1773])

    Cherokee: …hectares) in Georgia through the Treaty of Augusta.

  • augustale (coin)

    coin: Italy and Sicily: His gold augustale (patterned after the aureus) and their halves, struck about 1231 at Brindisi and Messina, were accompanied by billon deniers. Sicily soon passed to Charles I of Anjou (1266–85), and its Angevin coinage, like that of Naples, assumed the French medieval style, succeeded in turn…

  • Augustan Age (Latin literature)

    Augustan Age, one of the most illustrious periods in Latin literary history, from approximately 43 bc to ad 18; together with the preceding Ciceronian period (q.v.), it forms the Golden Age (q.v.) of Latin literature. Marked by civil peace and prosperity, the age reached its highest literary

  • Augustan Age (sculpture)

    Western sculpture: Augustan Age: The hallmark of portraits of Augustus is a naturalistic classicism. The rendering of his features and the forking of his hair above the brow is individual. But the Emperor is consistently idealized and never shown as elderly or aging. A marble statue from…

  • Augustan Age (English literature)

    Sir Richard Steele: Early life and works.: …he published in 1701 a moralistic tract, “The Christian Hero,” of which 10 editions were sold in his lifetime. This tract led to Steele’s being accused of hypocrisy and mocked for the contrast between his austere precepts and his genially convivial practice. For many of his contemporaries, however, its polite…

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