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  • Attaingnant, Pierre (French music printer)

    Pierre Attaingnant, prominent French music printer and publisher in the Renaissance who was one of the earliest to use single-impression printing. (Earlier printers printed the staff and the notes in separate impressions.) Before 1527 Attaingnant began using a newly invented movable music type, in

  • attainment model of stratification (sociology)

    sociology: Social stratification: …stratification was influenced by the attainment model of stratification, initiated at the University of Wisconsin by William H. Sewell. Designed to measure how individuals attain occupational status, this approach assigned each occupation a socioeconomic score and then measured the distance between sons’ and fathers’ scores, also using the educational achievement…

  • Attalea (plant genus)

    palm: Economic importance: …palm, Astrocaryum; the piassava palm, Attalea; the carnauba wax palm, Copernicia; Euterpe; Mauritia; and the babassu palm) was more than $100 million. Entrepreneurs recognized during the 1980s that several genera that have been utilized only from natural stands might be enhanced by the selection, cultivation, and mechanical harvesting that could…

  • Attalea cohune

    cohune oil: …fruits, or nuts, of the cohune palm tree, Attalea cohune. The tree grows in western Central America from the Yucatán Peninsula to Honduras. The oil’s properties, similar to those of coconut oil, have given it increasing importance. Because the nuts are unusually hard and difficult to crack and their collection…

  • Attalea martiana (plant)

    Babassu palm, (Attalea martiana, A. oleifera, or A. speciosa), tall palm tree with feathery leaves that grows wild in tropical northeastern Brazil. The kernels of its hard-shelled nuts are the source of babassu oil, similar in properties and uses to coconut oil and used increasingly as a substitute

  • Attalea oleifera (plant)

    Babassu palm, (Attalea martiana, A. oleifera, or A. speciosa), tall palm tree with feathery leaves that grows wild in tropical northeastern Brazil. The kernels of its hard-shelled nuts are the source of babassu oil, similar in properties and uses to coconut oil and used increasingly as a substitute

  • Attalea speciosa (plant)

    Babassu palm, (Attalea martiana, A. oleifera, or A. speciosa), tall palm tree with feathery leaves that grows wild in tropical northeastern Brazil. The kernels of its hard-shelled nuts are the source of babassu oil, similar in properties and uses to coconut oil and used increasingly as a substitute

  • Attaleia (Turkey)

    Antalya, city and Mediterranean Sea port, southwestern Turkey. It is situated on the Gulf of Antalya. Attalia was founded as a seaport in the 2nd century bce by Attalus II Philadelphus, a king of Pergamum. It was bequeathed to the Romans by his successor, Attalus III Philometor Euergetes. St. Paul,

  • Attalia (Turkey)

    Antalya, city and Mediterranean Sea port, southwestern Turkey. It is situated on the Gulf of Antalya. Attalia was founded as a seaport in the 2nd century bce by Attalus II Philadelphus, a king of Pergamum. It was bequeathed to the Romans by his successor, Attalus III Philometor Euergetes. St. Paul,

  • Attalid (dynasty of Pergamum)

    Pergamum: The original Attalid territory around Pergamum (Mysia) was greatly expanded by 188 bce with the addition of Lydia (excluding most Greek coastal cities), part of Phrygia, Lycaonia, and Pisidia (from 183 bce), all former Seleucid territories. This expansion was accomplished as the result of Eumenes II’s alliance…

  • Attalus I Soter (king of Pergamum)

    Attalus I Soter (“Preserver”), ruler of Pergamum from 241 to 197 bc, with the title of king after about 230. He succeeded his uncle, Eumenes I (reigned 263–241), and by military and diplomatic skill created a powerful Pergamene kingdom. Attalus’ mother, Antiochis, was a princess of the Seleucid

  • Attalus II Philadelphus (king of Pergamum)

    Attalus II Philadelphus (“Brotherly”), king of Pergamum, in northwest Anatolia, from 159 bc until his death. He was the second son of King Attalus I Soter (reigned 241–197) and brother of Eumenes II (reigned 197–159), whom he succeeded. Before his accession he had been a loyal assistant to his

  • Attalus III Philometor Euergetes (king of Pergamum)

    Attalus III Philometor Euergetes (“Loving-his-mother Benefactor”), king of Pergamum from 138 to 133 bc who, by bequeathing his domains to Rome, ended the history of Pergamum as an independent political entity. He was the son of Eumenes II (reigned 197–159) and nephew of Attalus II Philadelphus

  • Attalus, Priscus (Roman emperor)

    Priscus Attalus, usurping Roman emperor of the West in ad 409–410, the first to be raised to that office by barbarians. Attalus was born a pagan and was baptized by an Arian bishop. He was a senator at the time of Alaric’s second siege of Rome, and he was named emperor of the West by the Goths

  • attan (dance)

    Afghanistan: The arts and cultural institutions: The performance of the attan dance in the open air has long been a feature of Afghan life. It became the national dance of the Pashtun and then of the entire country. Under the Taliban regime, however, all performances of music and dance—and even listening to or watching the…

  • Attaphila (insect)

    orthopteran: General features: …orthopterans: tiny flightless cockroaches (Attaphila), living as commensals in the nests of ants, are only two millimetres long when mature, whereas a species of Megaloblatta found in South America reaches 10 centimetres in length with a wing span of almost 19 centimetres.

  • attapulgite (mineral)

    palygorskite: Attapulgite is a variety of palygorskite found in Attapulgus, Ga. For chemical formula and physical properties of attapulgite, see clay minerals (table).

  • attar of roses (essential oil)

    Attar of roses, fragrant, colourless or pale-yellow liquid essential oil distilled from fresh petals of Rosa damascena and R. gallica and other species of the rose family Rosaceae. Rose oils are a valuable ingredient of fine perfumes and liqueurs. They are also used for flavouring lozenges and

  • ?A??ār, Farīd al-Dīn (Persian poet)

    Farīd al-Dīn ?A??ār, Persian Muslim poet who was one of the greatest Sufi (mystical) writers and thinkers, composing at least 45,000 distichs (couplets) and many brilliant prose works. As a young man Farīd al-Dīn traveled widely, visiting Egypt, Syria, Arabia, India, and Central Asia. He finally

  • ?A??as, ?ayder Abū Bakr al- (president of Yemen [Aden])

    Yemen: Two Yemeni states: …by ?Alī Sālim al-Bay? and ?aydar Abū Bakr al-?A??as. It was this element of the YSP that undertook the negotiations that brought about the unity of the two Yemens. The ability of the new leadership to build popular political support and to revive the faltering development of South Yemen was…

  • Attawapiskat River (river, Ontario, Canada)

    Attawapiskat River, river in northern Ontario, Canada, that issues from Attawapiskat Lake (elevation 815 feet [248 metres]) and flows eastward into James Bay, opposite Akimiski Island. For most of its 465-miles (748-km) course, the river is sluggish and navigable only for canoes. Its lower reaches

  • Attegais (France)

    Athis-Mons, town, southern suburb of Paris, in Essonne département, ?le-de-France région, northern France. Athis-Mons lies near the confluence of the Orge and Seine rivers and is bisected by the N7 road artery leading to the centre of Paris. It was ancient Attegais, later Athis-sur-Orge, where a

  • Attelabidae (insect)

    Leaf-rolling weevil, (family Attelabidae), any member of a subgroup of the weevil family, Curculionidae (insect order Coleoptera) whose females protect newly laid eggs by rolling them up inside a growing leaf. After hatching, the larvae eat the leaf from within. Adults are generally small (3–6 mm

  • Attell, Abe (American boxer)

    Abe Attell, American professional boxer, undisputed world featherweight champion from 1906 through 1912. Attell was from a poor Jewish family and began his boxing career at 15 as a means of supplementing the family’s income. In his first 32 bouts he was victorious 31 times (24 by knockout) and

  • attempt (law)

    criminal law: Attempt: In Anglo-American law there is a class of offenses known as inchoate, or preliminary, crimes because guilt attaches even though the criminal purpose of the parties may not have been achieved. Thus, the offense of incitement or solicitation consists of urging or requesting another…

  • Attempt to Ascertain the Order in Which the Plays of Shakespeare Were Written, An (work by Malone)

    Edmund Malone: Malone’s “An Attempt to Ascertain the Order in Which the Plays of Shakespeare Were Written” (1778) was the first such chronology. His three supplemental volumes (1780–83) to scholar George Steevens’ edition of Johnson’s Shakespeare—containing apocryphal plays, textual emendations, and the first critical edition of the sonnets—are…

  • Attempt Towards a Chemical Conception of the Ether, An (work by Mendeleyev)

    Dmitri Mendeleev: Other scientific achievements: …khimicheskogo ponimania mirovogo efira (1902; An Attempt Towards a Chemical Conception of the Ether), he explained these phenomena as movements of ether around heavy atoms, and he tried to classify ether as a chemical element above the group of inert gases (or noble gases). This bold (and ultimately discredited) hypothesis…

  • Attempting Normal (memoir by Maron)

    Marc Maron: …of WTF and Maron’s memoir, Attempting Normal (2013), broadened the audience for his stand-up shows. The comedy TV show Maron, which aired in 2013–16 on IFC (the Independent Film Channel), featured Maron as himself. He also appeared in Easy (2016–19), an anthology series about Chicagoans dealing with everyday issues, and…

  • Attenborough’s pitcher plant (botany)

    Nepenthes: Attenborough’s pitcher plant (N. attenboroughii), is the largest carnivorous plant, reaching up to 1.5 metres (4.9 feet) tall. Its pitchers are 30 cm (11.8 inches) in diameter and are able to capture and digest rodents and other small animals. A number of species, such as…

  • Attenborough, David (English broadcaster, writer, and naturalist)

    David Attenborough, English broadcaster, writer, and naturalist noted for his innovative educational television programs, especially the nine-part Life series. Attenborough grew up in Leicester, England, where his father was principal of the local university; his older brother, Richard

  • Attenborough, Dickie (British actor, director, and producer)

    Richard Attenborough, English actor, director, and producer known for his dynamic on-screen presence, nuanced work behind the camera, and charity efforts. Attenborough—the eldest of three brothers, one of whom was nature documentarian Sir David Attenborough—was raised in Leicester, England, where

  • Attenborough, Richard (British actor, director, and producer)

    Richard Attenborough, English actor, director, and producer known for his dynamic on-screen presence, nuanced work behind the camera, and charity efforts. Attenborough—the eldest of three brothers, one of whom was nature documentarian Sir David Attenborough—was raised in Leicester, England, where

  • Attenborough, Richard Samuel, Baron Attenborough of Richmond-upon-Thames (British actor, director, and producer)

    Richard Attenborough, English actor, director, and producer known for his dynamic on-screen presence, nuanced work behind the camera, and charity efforts. Attenborough—the eldest of three brothers, one of whom was nature documentarian Sir David Attenborough—was raised in Leicester, England, where

  • Attenborough, Sir David Frederick (English broadcaster, writer, and naturalist)

    David Attenborough, English broadcaster, writer, and naturalist noted for his innovative educational television programs, especially the nine-part Life series. Attenborough grew up in Leicester, England, where his father was principal of the local university; his older brother, Richard

  • attending (communications)

    telephone: The telephone network: …continuously (a process known as attending), responds with a dial tone. Upon receiving the dial tone, the customer enters the called party’s telephone number. The central office stores the entered number, translates the number into an equipment location and a path to that location, and tests whether the called party’s…

  • Attendolo, Muzio (Italian condottiere)

    Muzio Attendolo Sforza, soldier of fortune who played an important role in the wars of his period and whose son Francesco became duke of Milan. The son of Giovanni Attendolo, a prosperous farmer of the Romagna (in north-central Italy), Muzio left home in 1384 to join a mercenary band, eventually

  • attention (psychology)

    Attention, in psychology, the concentration of awareness on some phenomenon to the exclusion of other stimuli. Attention is awareness of the here and now in a focal and perceptive way. For early psychologists, such as Edward Bradford Titchener, attention determined the content of consciousness and

  • attention deficit disorder (pathology)

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a behavioral syndrome characterized by inattention and distractibility, restlessness, inability to sit still, and difficulty concentrating on one thing for any period of time. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) most commonly occurs in

  • attention disorder (psychology)

    mental disorder: Attention-deficit disorders: Children with attention-deficit disorders show a degree of inattention and impulsiveness that is markedly inappropriate for their stage of development. Gross overactivity in children can have many causes, including anxiety, conduct disorder (discussed below), or the stresses associated with living in institutions. Learning difficulties…

  • Attention! Tanks! (work by Guderian)

    Heinz Guderian: His Achtung! Panzer! (1937; Attention! Tanks!) incorporated many of the theories of the British general J.F.C. Fuller and General Charles de Gaulle, who advocated the creation of independent armoured formations with strong air and motorized infantry support, intended to increase mobility on the battlefield by quick penetrations of enemy…

  • attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (pathology)

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a behavioral syndrome characterized by inattention and distractibility, restlessness, inability to sit still, and difficulty concentrating on one thing for any period of time. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) most commonly occurs in

  • attenuated growth (biology)

    mammal: Skin and hair: Continuous growth of hair (indeterminate), as seen on the heads of humans, is rare among mammals. Hairs with determinate growth are subject to wear and must be replaced periodically—a process termed molt. The first coat of a young mammal is referred to as the juvenal pelage, which typically is…

  • attenuation (immunization)

    infectious disease: Immunization: …the organisms are weakened, or attenuated, by some laboratory means so that they still stimulate antibodies but do not produce their characteristic disease. However stimulated, the antibody-producing cells of the body remain sensitized to the infectious agent and can respond to it again, pouring out more antibody. One attack of…

  • attenuation (stimulus-response behaviour)

    attention: Selective attention: With the notion of attenuation, rather than exclusion, of nonattended signals came the idea of the establishment of thresholds. Thus threshold sensitivity might be set quite low for certain priority classes of stimuli, which, even when basically unattended and hence attenuated, may nevertheless be capable of activating the perceptual…

  • attenuation (wave)

    sound: Attenuation: A plane wave of a single frequency in theory will propagate forever with no change or loss. This is not the case with a circular or spherical wave, however. One of the most important properties of this type of wave…

  • attenuation coefficient (physics)

    telecommunications media: Transmission media and the problem of signal degradation: …signal is defined as the attenuation coefficient.

  • attenuation spectrum (physics)

    telecommunications media: Transmission media and the problem of signal degradation: …varied is known as the attenuation spectrum, while the average attenuation over the entire frequency range of a transmitted signal is defined as the attenuation coefficient.

  • Atterbom, Per Daniel Amadeus (Swedish author)

    Per Daniel Amadeus Atterbom, leader in the Swedish Romantic movement; a poet, literary historian, and professor of philosophy, aesthetics, and modern literature. While a student at Uppsala he founded, with some friends, the society Musis Amici (1807; renamed Auroraf?rbundet, 1808). Publishing in

  • Atterbury Plot (British history)

    United Kingdom: The supremacy of the Whigs: …assured when he exposed the Atterbury plot. Francis Atterbury was bishop of Rochester. Always a Tory and High Churchman, he drifted after the Hanoverian succession into Jacobite intrigue. In 1721–22 he and a small group of conspirators plotted an armed invasion of Britain on behalf of the Old Pretender. The…

  • Atterbury, Francis (British bishop)

    Francis Atterbury, Anglican bishop, a brilliant polemical writer and orator who was a leader of the Tory High Church Party during the reign of Queen Anne (1702–14); later, he was a prominent Jacobite supporting Stuart claims to the English throne. Educated at Oxford University, Atterbury took holy

  • Attersee (lake, Austria)

    Alpine lakes: Constance, Chiemsee, Attersee) are situated in the foothill zone of the Alps or even some distance beyond.

  • atthakatha (Buddhist text)

    Atthakatha, (Pali: “explanation”) commentaries on the Pali Buddhist canon that provide much information on the society, culture, and religious history of ancient India and Sri Lanka. The earliest commentaries, written in Pali, may have reached Sri Lanka along with the canon itself by the 3rd

  • Atthangika-magga (Buddhism)

    Eightfold Path, in Buddhism, an early formulation of the path to enlightenment. The idea of the Eightfold Path appears in what is regarded as the first sermon of the founder of Buddhism, Siddhartha Gautama, known as the Buddha, which he delivered after his enlightenment. There he sets forth a

  • Atthidographer (ancient Greek historiographers)

    ancient Greek civilization: Historical writings: …men, who are known as Atthidographers, were not simply antiquarians escaping from the monarchic present. On the contrary, the greatest of them, Philochorus, was put to death in the 3rd century by a Macedonian king for his excessive partiality toward King Ptolemy II Philadelphus of Egypt. All these authors were,…

  • Atthis (work by Hellanicus of Lesbos)

    Hellanicus of Lesbos: …two-book history of Attica (Atthis), spanning the time from the mythical kings to the end of the Peloponnesian War, formed the indispensable basis for Thucydides’ history, although Thucydides declared that Hellanicus was inaccurate in his dates.

  • Attianus, Acilius (Roman prefect)

    Hadrian: Early life: …emperor Trajan, and the other, Acilius Attianus, later served as prefect of the emperor’s Praetorian Guard early in Hadrian’s own reign. In 90 Hadrian visited Italica, where he remained for several years. There he received some kind of military training and also developed a fondness for hunting that he kept…

  • attic (anatomy)

    human ear: Middle-ear cavity: …cavity) proper below and the epitympanum above. These chambers are also referred to as the atrium and the attic, respectively. The middle-ear space roughly resembles a rectangular room with four walls, a floor, and a ceiling. The outer (lateral) wall of the middle-ear space is formed by the tympanic membrane.…

  • attic (architecture)

    Attic, in architecture, story immediately under the roof of a structure and wholly or partly within the roof framing. Originally, the word denoted any portion of a wall above the main cornice. Utilized by the ancient Romans principally for decorative purposes and inscriptions, as in triumphal

  • Attic dialect (dialect)

    Attic dialect, Ancient Greek dialect that was the language of ancient Athens. Its closest relative was the Ionic dialect of Euboea. With the ascendance of the Athenian empire in the course of the 5th century bc, Attic became the most prestigious of the Greek dialects and as a result was adopted

  • Attic numeral (ancient numeral system)

    numerals and numeral systems: Greek numerals: The Greeks had two important systems of numerals, besides the primitive plan of repeating single strokes, as in ||| ||| for six, and one of these was again a simple grouping system. Their predecessors in culture—the Babylonians, Egyptians, and Phoenicians—had generally repeated the…

  • Attic talent (unit of weight)

    talent: The Attic talent, which equaled 60 Attic minas, is estimated to have weighed about 56.9 pounds (25.8 kg). It was certainly smaller than the Hebrew talent.

  • Attica (department, Greece)

    Greece: Eastern Greece: Thessalía and Attikí: The western part of this region contains the massive limestone formations so characteristic of northern and western Greece, while to the east the peninsula of Attiikí (Attica) represents the western margin of the Hercynian crystalline rocks of the Aegean shores. Essentially an upland area,…

  • Attica (department, Greece)

    Greece: Eastern Greece: Thessalía and Attikí: The western part of this region contains the massive limestone formations so characteristic of northern and western Greece, while to the east the peninsula of Attiikí (Attica) represents the western margin of the Hercynian crystalline rocks of the Aegean shores. Essentially an upland area,…

  • Attica (ancient district, Greece)

    Attica, ancient district of east-central Greece; Athens was its chief city. Bordering the sea on the south and east, Attica attracted maritime trade. In early times there were several independent settlements there, centring on Eleusis, Athens, and Marathon. Athens may have been paramount in the

  • attica (architecture)

    triumphal arch: …crowned by a superstructure, or attica, that served as a base for statues and bore commemorative inscriptions. In early arches the attic statuary usually represented the victor in his triumphal chariot; in later ones only the emperor was depicted. The function of the arch, therefore, seems to have been that…

  • Attica Correctional Facility (prison, Attica, New York, United States)

    Attica Correctional Facility, prison in Attica, New York, one of the last so-called big house prisons built in the United States. Constructed in 1931, it was the most expensive penal facility of its day. New York state officials believed that a modern secure facility would solve the problems that

  • Attica prison revolt (American history)

    Attica prison revolt, prison insurrection in 1971, lasting from September 9 to September 13, during which inmates in New York’s maximum-security Attica Correctional Facility seized control of the prison and took members of the prison staff hostage to demand improved living conditions. After four

  • Atticists (Roman literature)

    Koine: …a purist movement known as Atticism, which had little effect on the everyday spoken language although it influenced the written language, causing it to have archaizing tendencies.

  • Atticus, Herodes (Greek orator and author)

    Herodes Atticus, most celebrated of the orators and writers of the Second Sophistic, a movement that revitalized the teaching and practice of rhetoric in Greece in the 2nd century ce. Herodes was born into an immensely wealthy Athenian family that had received Roman citizenship during the reign of

  • Atticus, Titus Pomponius (Roman author)

    Titus Pomponius Atticus, wealthy but nonpolitical Roman, famous for his correspondence with the important Roman statesman and writer Cicero. Atticus was born into a family of the equestrian order, wealthy Romans who did not run for political office. He inherited the fortune of an uncle, Quintus

  • Attika (department, Greece)

    Greece: Eastern Greece: Thessalía and Attikí: The western part of this region contains the massive limestone formations so characteristic of northern and western Greece, while to the east the peninsula of Attiikí (Attica) represents the western margin of the Hercynian crystalline rocks of the Aegean shores. Essentially an upland area,…

  • Attike (department, Greece)

    Greece: Eastern Greece: Thessalía and Attikí: The western part of this region contains the massive limestone formations so characteristic of northern and western Greece, while to the east the peninsula of Attiikí (Attica) represents the western margin of the Hercynian crystalline rocks of the Aegean shores. Essentially an upland area,…

  • Attikē (ancient district, Greece)

    Attica, ancient district of east-central Greece; Athens was its chief city. Bordering the sea on the south and east, Attica attracted maritime trade. In early times there were several independent settlements there, centring on Eleusis, Athens, and Marathon. Athens may have been paramount in the

  • Attike (ancient district, Greece)

    Attica, ancient district of east-central Greece; Athens was its chief city. Bordering the sea on the south and east, Attica attracted maritime trade. In early times there were several independent settlements there, centring on Eleusis, Athens, and Marathon. Athens may have been paramount in the

  • Attiki (ancient district, Greece)

    Attica, ancient district of east-central Greece; Athens was its chief city. Bordering the sea on the south and east, Attica attracted maritime trade. In early times there were several independent settlements there, centring on Eleusis, Athens, and Marathon. Athens may have been paramount in the

  • Attikí (department, Greece)

    Greece: Eastern Greece: Thessalía and Attikí: The western part of this region contains the massive limestone formations so characteristic of northern and western Greece, while to the east the peninsula of Attiikí (Attica) represents the western margin of the Hercynian crystalline rocks of the Aegean shores. Essentially an upland area,…

  • Attikí (ancient district, Greece)

    Attica, ancient district of east-central Greece; Athens was its chief city. Bordering the sea on the south and east, Attica attracted maritime trade. In early times there were several independent settlements there, centring on Eleusis, Athens, and Marathon. Athens may have been paramount in the

  • Attila (king of the Huns)

    Attila, king of the Huns from 434 to 453 (ruling jointly with his elder brother Bleda until 445). He was one of the greatest of the barbarian rulers who assailed the Roman Empire, invading the southern Balkan provinces and Greece and then Gaul and Italy. In legend he appears under the name Etzel in

  • Attila (play by Corneille)

    Pierre Corneille: Years of declining power.: …including Sertorius (performed 1662) and Attila (performed 1667), both of which contain an amount of violent and surprising incident.

  • Attila (bird genus)

    Cotingidae: Many forms (Attila and relatives) are flycatcher-like in appearance and habits and are considered by some authorities to belong in the family Tyrannidae. The Cotingidae include some of the most bizarre and vivid examples of male ornamentation found among birds. Many species have odd calls—some sound like…

  • Attila József University (university, Szeged, Hungary)

    Hungary: Higher education: …Janus Pannonius University of Pécs, Attila József University of Szeged, the Technical University of Budapest, and the Budapest University of Economic Sciences. There were also dozens of specialized schools and colleges throughout the country. In 2000 most of these specialized colleges were combined with older universities or with one another…

  • Attini (insect tribe)

    Leafcutter ant, (tribe Attini), any of 39 ant species abundant in the American tropics, easily recognized by their foraging columns composed of hundreds or thousands of ants carrying small pieces of leaves. These moving trails of cut foliage often stretch over 30 metres (100 feet) across the forest

  • attire (clothing)

    Dress, clothing and accessories for the human body. The variety of dress is immense. The style that a particular individual selects is often linked to that person’s sex, age, socioeconomic status, culture, geographic area, and historical era. This article considers the chronological development of

  • Attiret, Jean Denis (Jesuit priest)

    garden and landscape design: Chinese: …garden, but the account of Father Attiret, a Jesuit at the Manchu (Qing) court, published in France in 1747 and in England five years later, promoted the use of Chinese ornament in such gardens as Kew and Wroxton and hastened the “irregularizing” of grounds. The famous Dissertation on Oriental Gardening…

  • Attis (Phrygian deity)

    Attis, mythical consort of the Great Mother of the Gods (q.v.; classical Cybele, or Agdistis); he was worshipped in Phrygia, Asia Minor, and later throughout the Roman Empire, where he was made a solar deity in the 2nd century ad. The worship of Attis and the Great Mother included the annual c

  • attitude (ballet position)

    ballet position: The attitude is a position similar to the arabesque except that the knee of the raised leg is bent. The raised leg is held at a 90° angle to the body in back or in front (attitude an avant); the knee may be either well bent…

  • attitude (psychology)

    Attitude, in social psychology, a cognition, often with some degree of aversion or attraction (emotional valence), that reflects the classification and evaluation of objects and events. While attitudes logically are hypothetical constructs (i.e., they are inferred but not objectively observable),

  • attitude control (space flight)

    satellite communication: How satellites work: …satellite’s thrusters are called “attitude control.” A satellite’s life span is determined by the amount of fuel it has to power these thrusters. Once the fuel runs out, the satellite eventually drifts into space and out of operation, becoming space debris.

  • attitude gyro (instrument)

    avionics: Control apparatus includes the attitude gyro and any number of instruments that indicate power, such as the tachometer (in propeller craft), torquemeter (in turboprops), and exhaust pressure ratio indicator (in turbojets). Performance instruments include the altimeter, Machmeter, turn and slip indicator, and varied devices

  • Attius, Lucius (Roman poet)

    Lucius Accius, one of the greatest of the Roman tragic poets, in the view of his contemporaries. His plays (more than 40 titles are known, and about 700 lines survive) were mostly free translations from Greek tragedy, many from Euripides, with violent plots, flamboyant characterizations, and

  • Attleboro (Massachusetts, United States)

    Attleboro, city, Bristol county, southeastern Massachusetts, U.S. It lies just northeast of Pawtucket and Providence, Rhode Island. Settled in 1643, it was part of the adjacent town of Rehoboth until separately incorporated as a town (township) in 1694 and named for Attleborough, England. In 1887

  • Attlee, Clement (prime minister of United Kingdom)

    Clement Attlee, British Labour Party leader (1935–55) and prime minister (1945–51). He presided over the establishment of the welfare state in Great Britain and the granting of independence to India, the most important step in the conversion of the British Empire into the Commonwealth of Nations.

  • Attlee, Clement Richard, 1st Earl Attlee of Walthamstow, Viscount Prestwood (prime minister of United Kingdom)

    Clement Attlee, British Labour Party leader (1935–55) and prime minister (1945–51). He presided over the establishment of the welfare state in Great Britain and the granting of independence to India, the most important step in the conversion of the British Empire into the Commonwealth of Nations.

  • Attles, Al (American basketball player and coach)

    Golden State Warriors: Former Warriors player Al Attles took over as the team’s head coach during the 1969–70 season, and he proceeded to lead the franchise for all or part of 14 seasons. In 1971 the franchise—which had been experiencing years of disappointing financial returns—relocated across the East Bay to Oakland…

  • Atto Adalbert (count of Canossa)

    Atto Adalbert, count of Canossa (located near Reggio nell’Emilia, Italy) and founder of the house of Attoni. Son of Siegfried, baron of Lucca, Atto joined the army of the bishop of Reggio, who rewarded him by giving him the fief of Canossa. In 951 Atto rescued Queen Adelaide, widow of King Lothar

  • attornatus (English law)

    agency: Medieval influence of canon law and Germanic law: …the figures of ballivus and attornatus. His position in the household of his master empowered the ballivus to transact commercial business for his master, reminiscent of the power of the slave to bind his master under Roman law. Later the ballivus was given more authority, especially in his frequent role…

  • attorney

    legal profession: England after the Conquest: The “attorneys,” authorized by legislation, at first shared the life of the Inns with the “apprentices” in advocacy, who themselves in time acquired the title of barrister. Indeed, there were cases of men working as both barristers and attorneys. When in the 16th century the Court…

  • attorney general

    Attorney general, the chief law officer of a state or nation and the legal adviser to the chief executive. The office is common in almost every country in which the legal system of England has taken root. The office of attorney general dates from the European Middle Ages, but it did not assume its

  • Attorney General of the Government of Israel v. Eichmann (law case)

    law of war: War crimes: …taken in the case of Attorney General of the Government of Israel v. Eichmann, which was decided by the District Court of Jerusalem in 1961. Adolf Eichmann, head of the Jewish office of the Gestapo during World War II, was convicted of war crimes, crimes against the Jewish people, and…

  • attorney, power of (law)

    Power of attorney, authorization to act as agent or attorney for another. Common-law and civil-law systems differ considerably with respect to powers of attorney, and there is also considerable diversity among the civil-law systems themselves. Many of the general powers of attorney that are

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