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  • ATP

    railroad: Automated systems: A refinement, generally known as automatic train protection (ATP), has been developed since World War II to provide continuous control of train speed. It has been applied principally to busy urban commuter and rapid-transit routes and to European and Japanese intercity high-speed routes. A display in the cab reproduces either…

  • ATP synthase (enzyme)

    adenosine triphosphate: …is produced by the enzyme ATP synthase, which converts ADP and phosphate to ATP. ATP synthase is located in the membrane of cellular structures called mitochondria; in plant cells, the enzyme also is found in chloroplasts. The central role of ATP in energy metabolism was discovered by Fritz Albert Lipmann…

  • ATP-binding cassette, subfamily A, member 4 (gene)

    macular degeneration: Other forms of macular degeneration: …mutations in a gene called ABCA4 (ATP-binding cassette, subfamily A, member 4). Stargardt-like macular dystrophy differs from Stargardt macular dystrophy in that it is caused by mutations in a gene called ELOVL4 (elongation of very-long-chain fatty acids-like 4). Malattia Leventinese (Doyne honeycomb) retinal dystrophy, which is characterized by a honeycomb-like…

  • ATP7B (gene)

    Wilson disease: …in a gene known as ATP7B, which produces a membrane protein that regulates the transport of copper out of cells. When the ATP7B gene is mutated, the membrane protein becomes dysfunctional, resulting in inefficient cellular export of copper. This in turn results in reduced binding of copper to a protein…

  • ATPase (enzyme)

    cell: The sodium-potassium pump: An enzyme called sodium-potassium-activated ATPase has been shown to be the sodium-potassium pump, the protein that transports the ions across the cell membrane while splitting ATP. Widely distributed in the animal kingdom and always associated with the cell membrane, this ATPase is found at high concentration in cells that…

  • ATR (American organization)

    Mike Enzi: …pledge—created by the special-interest group Americans for Tax Reform, headed by Grover Norquist—in which politicians promised to curb taxation, especially at the federal level. Enzi continued to take a strong interest in energy issues, and he led legislative efforts to open the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge and other public lands…

  • ATR (French company)

    European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company: Aerospatiale Matra: …turboprop regional aircraft and formed ATR as a 50-50 joint venture to develop, market, and support regional transport aircraft. ATR developed a family of high-wing, twin-turboprop aircraft in the 40–70 seat range based the ATR 42, its first product (entered service 1985), and the later ATR 72 (1989). In 1992…

  • Atractaspis (reptile)

    Burrowing asp, (genus Atractaspis), any of 19 species of venomous, secretive snakes, also known as mole vipers and stiletto snakes, of tropical Africa and the Middle East. They belong to the family Atractaspididae, a group distinct from vipers and elapids. Atractaspidids are characterized by a

  • Atractiellales (order of fungi)

    fungus: Annotated classification: Order Atractiellales Parasitic or saprotrophic; minute globuse conidia formed from tips of hyphae; example genera include Atractiella, Saccoblastia, Helicogloea, and Phleogena. Class Classiculomycetes Parasitic; uredinalian septal pores with tremelloid haustorial cells; contains 1 order.

  • Atractiellomycetes (class of fungi)

    fungus: Annotated classification: Class Atractiellomycetes Parasitic or saprotrophic; simple septate; some pycnidial members; auricularoid basidia; gastroid; contains 1 order. Order Atractiellales Parasitic or saprotrophic; minute globuse conidia formed from tips of hyphae; example genera include Atractiella, Saccoblastia, Helicogloea, and Phleogena.

  • Atractosteus (fish genus)
  • Atractosteus spatula (fish)

    gar: …and relatively short in the alligator gar (A. spatula) of the southern United States. The alligator gar, reaching a length of about 3 metres (10 feet), is one of the largest of all freshwater fishes. Gars are edible but are almost never eaten in the central and northern United States.…

  • Atrahasis, myth of (Babylonian mythology)

    Judaism: Myths: …Babylonian myths of Gilgamesh and Atrahasis. There, however, the hero is eventually made immortal, whereas in the Bible this detail is omitted because, to the Israelite mind, no child of woman could achieve that status. Lastly, while the story of the Tower of Babel was told originally to account for…

  • ATRAN (military technology)

    rocket and missile system: Matador and other programs: However, in 1954 an automatic terrain recognition and guidance (Atran) system was added (and the missile system was subsequently designated Mace). Atran, which used radar map-matching for both en-route and terminal guidance, represented a major breakthrough in accuracy, a problem long associated with cruise missiles. The low availability of…

  • A?rash, Farid al- (Arab musician)

    Islamic arts: The modern period: ?Abd al-Wahhāb, Umm Kulthūm, Farid al-A?rash, Fayrouz, Rashid al-Hundarashi, ?adīqa al-Mulāya, and Mu?ammad al-Gubanshi.

  • Atrato River (river, Colombia)

    Atrato River, river in northwestern Colombia. It rises in the western slopes of the Cordillera Occidental of the Andes and flows generally northward to empty into the Gulf of Urabá of the Caribbean Sea. The river is only 416 miles (670 km) long, but its large discharge of no less than 175,000

  • Atrato, Río (river, Colombia)

    Atrato River, river in northwestern Colombia. It rises in the western slopes of the Cordillera Occidental of the Andes and flows generally northward to empty into the Gulf of Urabá of the Caribbean Sea. The river is only 416 miles (670 km) long, but its large discharge of no less than 175,000

  • Atrax formidabilis (spider)

    funnel-web spider: >A. formidabilis are large brown bulky spiders that are much feared in southern and eastern Australia because of their venomous bites. Several human deaths from the bites of these aggressive spiders have been recorded in the Sydney area since the 1920s. An antidote to the…

  • Atrax robustus (spider)

    funnel-web spider: The species Atrax robustus and A. formidabilis are large brown bulky spiders that are much feared in southern and eastern Australia because of their venomous bites. Several human deaths from the bites of these aggressive spiders have been recorded in the Sydney area since the 1920s. An…

  • Atrebates (people)

    Arras: …(Nemetacum or Nemetocenna) of the Atrebates, one of the last Gallic peoples to surrender to Julius Caesar. The woollen industry dates from the 4th century. The Middle Ages was a period of great material and cultural wealth, when Arras became the English word for tapestry hangings. The fortunes of the…

  • Atrek (river, Turkmenistan)

    Turkmenistan: Drainage: Morghāb (Murgab, or Murgap), and Atrek; there are also numerous small mountain rivers. However, the geographic position of the rivers and the direction of their flow do not coincide with the location of cultivable lands; the most fertile—and still insufficiently used—lands lie chiefly in the south, northeast, and west, whereas…

  • atresia (congenital disorder)

    Atresia and stenosis, absence, usually congenital, of a normal bodily passage or cavity (atresia) or narrowing of a normal passage (stenosis). Most such malformations must be surgically corrected soon after birth. Almost any cavity or passage may be affected; some of the more important of these

  • Atreus (Greek mythology)

    Atreus, in Greek legend, the son of Pelops of Mycenae and his wife, Hippodamia. Atreus was the elder brother of Thyestes and was the king of Mycenae. The story of his family—the House of Atreus—is virtually unrivaled in antiquity for complexity and corruption. There are several different accounts

  • Atreus, Treasury of (archaeological site, Mycenae, Greece)

    Treasury of Atreus, a beehive, or tholos, tomb built about 1350 to 1250 bc at Mycenae, Greece. This surviving architectural structure of the Mycenaean civilization is a pointed dome built up of overhanging (i.e., corbeled) blocks of conglomerate masonry cut and polished to give the impression of a

  • Atri (Italy)

    Atri, town, Abruzzi region, central Italy, northwest of Pescara, on a hill overlooking the Adriatic Sea 7.5 mi (12 km) to the east and the Gran Sasso d’Italia mountain group to the west. Atri originated as Hatria, a town of the Picenes, an ancient Italic people. In 282 bc it became the Roman colony

  • atria (heart)

    Atrium, in vertebrates and the higher invertebrates, heart chamber that receives blood into the heart and drives it into a ventricle, or chamber, for pumping blood away from the heart. Fishes have one atrium; amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals, two. In humans the atria are the two upper

  • Atria (Italy)

    Adria, town and episcopal see in the Veneto regione of northern Italy, on the Bianco Canal just east of Rovigo. Founded by the Etruscans or the Veneti of northeastern Italy, it later became a Roman town and was a flourishing port on the Adriatic Sea (to which it gave its name) until the silting up

  • atria (anatomy)

    reptile: Hearing: …typically made up of a tympanum, a thin membrane located at the rear of the head; the stapes, a small bone running between the tympanum and the skull in the tympanic cavity (the middle ear); the inner ear; and a eustachian tube connecting the middle ear with the mouth cavity.…

  • atrial fibrillation (pathology)

    Atrial fibrillation, irregular rhythm of contraction of the muscles of the atrium, the upper chamber of the heart. In some cases the fibrillations are not noticed by the patient, but frequently the chaotic, rapid, and shallow beats are felt as significant palpitations of the heart, often

  • atrial flutter (pathology)

    cardiovascular disease: Supraventricular arrhythmia: Atrial flutter (rapid atrial beat) may occur suddenly and unpredictably or may be a chronic sustained arrhythmia. The heart rate in atrial flutter approximates 300 beats per minute and is difficult to treat pharmacologically. In general, only a fraction of the atrial beats (one-third to…

  • atrial natriuretic peptide (hormone)

    renal system: The role of hormones in renal function: This hormone, called atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), exerts a vasodilator effect on the kidney and also reduces tubular reabsorption of sodium. Both actions result in increased urinary elimination of salt and water and tend to restore atrial pressure toward the normal. It is probably an important hormone controlling…

  • atrial reflex (physiology)

    Bainbridge reflex, acceleration of the heart rate resulting from increased blood pressure in, or increased distension of, the large systemic veins and the right upper chamber of the heart. This reflex, first described by the British physiologist Francis Arthur Bainbridge in 1915, prevents the

  • atrial septal defect (pathology)

    Atrial septal defect, congenital opening in the partition between the two upper chambers (atria) of the heart. The most common atrial septal defect is persistence of the foramen ovale, an opening in this partition that is normal before birth and that normally closes at birth or shortly thereafter.

  • Atrichornis clamosus

    scrub-bird: …western, or noisy, scrub-bird (Atrichornis clamosus), discovered in dry brushlands of Western Australia in the 1840s, was believed extinct after 1889 but was rediscovered in 1961. The 18-centimetre (7-inch) rufous scrub-bird (A. rufescens), discovered in the 1860s in wet forests of New South Wales, 2,500 miles (4,000 km) away…

  • Atrichornis rufescens (bird)

    scrub-bird: The 18-centimetre (7-inch) rufous scrub-bird (A. rufescens), discovered in the 1860s in wet forests of New South Wales, 2,500 miles (4,000 km) away from the other species, is now known to range to Queensland, where it is protected in Lamington National Park.

  • Atrichornithidae (bird)

    Scrub-bird, either of two species of rare Australian birds comprising the family Atrichornithidae (order Passeriformes), allied to lyrebirds. Both species are brown, with a longish, pointed tail—rather like the brown thrasher of the United States. The 22-centimetre (9-inch) western, or noisy,

  • Atriden Tetralogie, Die (work by Hauptmann)

    Gerhart Hauptmann: …work is the Atrides cycle, Die Atriden-Tetralogie (1941–48), which expresses through tragic Greek myths Hauptmann’s horror of the cruelty of his own time.

  • atrioventricular bundle (anatomy)

    Wilhelm His: …muscle fibres (known as the bundle of His) running along the muscular partition between the left and right chambers of the heart. He found that these fibres help communicate a single rhythm of contraction to all parts of the heart.

  • atrioventricular groove (anatomy)

    human cardiovascular system: External surface of the heart: One, the atrioventricular groove, is along the line where the right atrium and the right ventricle meet; it contains a branch of the right coronary artery (the coronary arteries deliver blood to the heart muscle). The other, the anterior interventricular sulcus, runs along the line between the…

  • atrioventricular node (anatomy)

    pacemaker: …patch of conductive tissue, the atrioventricular node, initiating a second discharge along an assembly of conductive fibres called the bundle of His, which induces the contraction of the ventricles. When electrical conduction through the atrioventricular node or bundle of His is interrupted, the condition is called heart block. An artificial…

  • atrioventricular valve (anatomy)

    human cardiovascular system: Origin and development: …the formation of the two atrioventricular valves (the valves between atria and ventricles), which regulate the direction of blood flow through the heart.

  • Atriplex (plant, genus Atriplex)

    Saltbush, (genus Atriplex), genus of about 300 species of herbs and shrubs in the amaranth family (Amaranthaceae), often found on saline soils. Saltbush plants grow throughout temperate and subtropical areas of the world. Young leaves of several species, including the garden orach (A. hortensis),

  • Atriplex canescens (plant)

    saltbush: …of western North America, especially four-wing saltbush, or chamiso (A. canescens), and spiny saltbush (A. confertifolia).

  • Atriplex confertifolia (plant)

    saltbush: canescens), and spiny saltbush (A. confertifolia).

  • Atriplex halimus (plant)
  • Atriplex hortensis (plant)

    saltbush: …of several species, including the garden orach (A. hortensis), are eaten fresh or cooked like spinach. Several species are common salt-tolerant shrubs of western North America, especially four-wing saltbush, or chamiso (A. canescens), and spiny saltbush (A. confertifolia).

  • Atriplex vesicaria (plant)

    angiosperm: Dermal tissue: , saltbush, Atriplex vesicaria; Amaranthaceae) that prevent a toxic internal accumulation of salt. In other cases, trichomes help prevent predation by insects, and many plants produce secretory (glandular) or stinging hairs (e.g., stinging nettle, Urtica dioica; Urticaceae) for chemical defense against herbivores. In insectivorous plants, trichomes have

  • atrium (anatomy)

    reptile: Hearing: …typically made up of a tympanum, a thin membrane located at the rear of the head; the stapes, a small bone running between the tympanum and the skull in the tympanic cavity (the middle ear); the inner ear; and a eustachian tube connecting the middle ear with the mouth cavity.…

  • atrium (heart)

    Atrium, in vertebrates and the higher invertebrates, heart chamber that receives blood into the heart and drives it into a ventricle, or chamber, for pumping blood away from the heart. Fishes have one atrium; amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals, two. In humans the atria are the two upper

  • atrium (architecture)

    Atrium, in architecture, an open central court originally of a Roman house and later of a Christian basilica. In domestic and commercial architecture, the concept of the atrium experienced a revival in the 20th century. In Roman times the hearth was situated in the atrium. With the developing

  • Atrium Vestae, The (work by Van Deman)

    Esther Boise Van Deman: …published her preliminary findings in The Atrium Vestae (1909). Van Deman extended her research to other kinds of concrete and brick constructions and published “Methods of Determining the Date of Roman Concrete Monuments” in The American Journal of Archaeology in 1912. Her basic methodology, with few modifications, became standard procedure…

  • Atrocity Exhibition, The (work by Ballard)

    Michael Moorcock: Ballard that later appeared in The Atrocity Exhibition (1970); Thomas Disch’s Camp Concentration (1968), about an American military camp where political prisoners are subjected to experiments to increase their intelligence; and Brian Aldiss’s Barefoot in the Head (1969), about the aftermath of a war in which Europe had been bombarded…

  • Atropa belladonna (plant)

    Belladonna, (Atropa belladonna), tall bushy herb of the nightshade family (Solanaceae), the source of the crude drug of the same name. The highly poisonous plant is a native of wooded or waste areas in central and southern Eurasia. It grows to about 1.5 metres (4–5 feet) tall and has dull green

  • Atropatene (region, Iran)

    Azerbaijan, geographic region that comprises the extreme northwestern portion of Iran. It is bounded on the north by the Aras River, which separates it from independent Azerbaijan and Armenia; on the east by the Iranian region of Gīlān and the Caspian Sea; on the south by the Iranian regions of

  • Atropates (king of Atropatene)

    Media: …the north was left to Atropates, a former general of Darius III, who succeeded in founding an independent kingdom, named Atropatene, with its capital at Gazaca. In later times Atropatene came under the control of Parthia, Armenia, and Rome.

  • atrophic glossitis (pathology)

    digestive system disease: Mouth and oral cavity: A bald tongue (atrophic glossitis), with a smooth surface due to complete atrophy of the papillae, is associated with malnutrition, severe iron deficiency anemia, pernicious anemia, and pellagra, a disorder of skin and mucous membranes due to niacin deficiency. The condition is endemic in underdeveloped countries in which…

  • atrophic vaginitis

    vaginitis: Atrophic vaginitis occurs in postmenopausal women because the lack of estrogen stimulation causes the surface membrane of the vagina to become thin, dry, and fragile, increasing the likelihood of infection. Hormone replacement therapy restores the protective surface and eliminates vaginitis.

  • atrophy (pathology)

    Atrophy, decrease in size of a body part, cell, organ, or other tissue. The term implies that the atrophied part was of a size normal for the individual, considering age and circumstance, prior to the diminution. In atrophy of an organ or body part, there may be a reduction in the number or in the

  • atropine (chemical compound)

    Atropine, poisonous crystalline substance belonging to a class of compounds known as alkaloids and used in medicine. Atropine occurs naturally in belladonna (Atropa belladonna), from which the crystalline compound was first prepared in 1831. Since then, a number of synthetic and semisynthetic

  • Atropos (Greek mythology)

    Atropos, in Greek mythology, one of the three Fates, the others being Clotho and Lachesis. Atropos’s name (meaning “unalterable” or “inflexible”) indicates her function, that of rendering the decisions of her sisters irreversible or immutable. Atropos is most frequently represented with scales, a

  • Atryn (drug)

    Atryn, trade name of recombinant human antithrombin, an anticoagulant agent used to prevent thrombosis—the formation of a clot in a blood vessel that may block or impede the flow of blood, causing a potentially life-threatening condition. Atryn was developed by U.S.-based GTC Biotherapeutics and

  • Atrypa (fossil brachiopod genus)

    Atrypa, genus of extinct brachiopods, or lamp shells, that has a broad time range and occurs abundantly as fossils in marine rocks from the Silurian through the Early Carboniferous (444 million to 318 million years ago). Many species of Atrypa have been described. The genus is easily recognized by

  • ATSB (United States government)

    Air Transportation Stabilization Board (ATSB), U.S. governmental entity created in the aftermath of the attacks of September 11, 2001, to maintain and provide for safe and efficient commercial aviation. The board was created by the Air Transportation Safety and System Stabilization Act, which was

  • ?Atshanah (ancient Syrian city, Turkey)

    Alalakh, ancient Syrian city in the Orontes (Asi) valley, southern Turkey. Excavations (1936–49) by Sir Leonard Woolley uncovered numerous impressive buildings, including a massive structure known as the palace of Yarim-Lim, dating from c. 1780 bc, when Alalakh was the chief city of the district of

  • Atsina (people)

    Atsina, North American Indian tribe related to the Algonquian-speaking Arapaho, from which they may have separated as early as 1700. The variant name Gros Ventres (French: “Big Bellies”) was a misinterpretation by French trappers of Plains Indian sign language. The Blackfoot called the Atsina the

  • Atsiz (Khwārezm-Shāh ruler)

    Iran: The Khwārezm-Shahs: Atsiz was the military leader who, after Sultan Sanjar’s capture in 1153, succeeded in supplanting Seljuq power in northeastern Iran. His ancestor, Anū?tegin, had been keeper of Malik-Shah’s kitchen utensils and had been rewarded with the governorship of Khwārezm on the Oxus, where he founded…

  • atsugai-hō (Japanese art)

    raden: Atsugai-hō, a technique using thick shell, consists of two methods, one of which is inlay: the shell is inserted into the incised pattern after the surface has been given a first coat of lacquer; after a final coating, the surface is smoothed by burnishing. The…

  • Atsugi (Japan)

    Atsugi, city, central Kanagawa ken (prefecture), east-central Honshu, Japan. It lies in the Sagami River valley, at the confluence of the Sagami and Nakatsu rivers. Until the late 19th century, Atsugi flourished as a river port, post town, and centre for sericulture. Now an important commercial

  • Atsukimi (emperor of Japan)

    Daigo, 60th emperor of Japan. He was unsuccessful in continuing his father’s policy of limiting the power of the important Fujiwara family, which dominated the Japanese government from 857 to 1160. The son of the emperor Uda, he ascended the throne in 897 and assumed the reign name Daigo; Uda,

  • Atsumi Kiyoshi (Japanese actor)

    Atsumi Kiyoshi, Japanese comic actor who portrayed the bumbling hero Tora-jiro Kuruma (widely known as Tora-san) in the 48-film series Otoko wa tsurai yo (“It’s Tough Being a Man”). The series ran from 1968 to 1996 and was the longest-running film series in which the same actor portrayed the

  • Atsunobu (Japanese philosopher)

    Kaibara Ekken, neo-Confucian philosopher, travel writer, and pioneer botanist of the early Tokugawa period (1603–1867) who explicated the Confucian doctrines in simple language that could be understood by Japanese of all classes. He was the first to apply Confucian ethics to women and children and

  • Atsuta (Japan)

    Atsuta, ku (ward), Nagoya city, eastern Aichi ken (prefecture), central Honshu, Japan. It constitutes the south-central part of the city. Atsuta was a port town and early religious centre. In the Edo (Tokugawa) period (1603–1867) it was one of the most-prosperous post towns on the Tōkaidō (“Eastern

  • Atsuta Shrine (shrine, Nagoya, Japan)

    Nagoya: The Atsuta Shrine and the nearby Grand Shrine of Ise are the oldest and most highly esteemed Shintō shrines in Japan. Other institutions include Citizen Hall, Aichi Cultural Centre, Chūnichi Hall, and Misono Theatre. Higashiyama Park is noted for its zoological and botanical gardens. Pop. (2005)…

  • ATT (president of Mali)

    Amadou Toumani Touré, Malian politician and military leader who twice led his country. He served as interim president (1991–92) after a coup and was elected president in 2002. In March 2012 he was deposed in a military coup. He officially resigned the next month. Touré studied to be a teacher and

  • atta (food)

    cereal processing: Human food: …mills into a meal called atta. This meal is cooked into flat cakes known as chapatis.

  • Atta (ant genus)

    leafcutter ant: Nests of the Atta genus are characterized by ants of different sizes corresponding to castes of workers, soldiers, reproductives, and “guards.” Deep within the nest, the ants physically and chemically cultivate subterranean “gardens” of fungus that grow on the chewed leaves. The ants remove contaminants and produce amino…

  • Atta capiguara (ant)

    leafcutter ant: …accomplish similar feats: one species, A. capiguara, reduces the commercial value of pasture land in Brazil and Paraguay by as much as 10 percent.

  • Atta cephalotes (ant)

    leafcutter ant: …study site in Costa Rica, A. cephalotes attacked only 17 of 332 available plant species, selecting woody species over herbaceous ones and introduced species over natives. Members of the plant families Compositae, Solanaceae, and Euphorbiaceae are frequently attacked. Within the favoured species, the ants prefer freshly sprouted leaves, flowers, and…

  • Atta sexdens (ant)

    leafcutter ant: …cubic feet), a colony of A. sexdens leafcutters may turn over 40,000 kg (88,000 pounds) of soil in tropical moist forests, stimulating root growth of many plant species. In New World tropical rainforests, the large nests of these ants are often found among large trees that are spaced far apart…

  • Atta Troll, a Midsummer Night’s Dream (poem by Heine)

    Heinrich Heine: Later life and works: Ein Sommernachtstraum (1843–45; Atta Troll, a Midsummer Night’s Dream), a comic spoof of radical pomposity and the clumsiness of contemporary political verse.

  • Atta Troll, Ein Sommernachtstraum (poem by Heine)

    Heinrich Heine: Later life and works: Ein Sommernachtstraum (1843–45; Atta Troll, a Midsummer Night’s Dream), a comic spoof of radical pomposity and the clumsiness of contemporary political verse.

  • Atta, Mohammed (Egyptian militant)

    Mohammed Atta, Egyptian militant Islamist and al-Qaeda operative who helped plot and lead the September 11 attacks. He led the team of hijackers who took control of American Airlines flight 11 and flew it into the north tower of New York City’s World Trade Center. Atta studied architecture and

  • ATTAC (international organization)

    antiglobalization: The antiglobalization movement: …most well-known antiglobalization group is ATTAC (Association pour la Taxation des Transactions Financière et l’Aide aux Citoyens, “Association for the Taxation of Financial Transactions and Aid to Citizens”), which exists in more than 30 countries. ATTAC holds that financial globalization leads to a less secure and a less equal playing…

  • attacca (musical technique)

    Horn Concerto No. 1 in E-flat Major: …a musical technique known as attacca. Although concerti typically began with the orchestra stating the main themes and the soloist entering later on, Strauss took the opposite approach: after a single strong chord for the orchestra, the soloist begins a heroic theme based on rising and falling arpeggios. The movement…

  • attaché

    diplomacy: The United Nations and the changing world order: …came from other agencies as attachés or counselors. Disarmament negotiations, for example, required specialized knowledge beyond the scope of military attachés. Environmental abuse gave rise to a host of topics, such as the law of the sea, global warming, and means of preventing or abating pollution. The complexity of diplomatic…

  • attached column (architecture)

    Western architecture: The Archaic period (c. 750–500 bc): …not freestanding but were half-columns engaged against (that is, partially attached to) a continuous solid wall. An earlier Sicilian variant of this use of the plastically molded wall mass with the orders applied decoratively can be seen in the columnar curtain walls of Temple F at Selinus, begun about 560…

  • attachment (law)

    Attachment, in U.S. law, a writ issuing from a court of law to seize the person or property of a defendant. In several of the older states in the United States, attachments against property are issued at the commencement of suits in order to secure any judgment that may be entered for the

  • attachment theory (psychology)

    Attachment theory, in developmental psychology, the theory that humans are born with a need to form a close emotional bond with a caregiver and that such a bond will develop during the first six months of a child’s life if the caregiver is appropriately responsive. Developed by the British

  • attack (sound)

    envelope: attack, sustain, and decay of a sound. Attack transients consist of changes occurring before the sound reaches its steady-state intensity. Sustain refers to the steady state of a sound at its maximum intensity, and decay is the rate at which it fades to silence. In…

  • attack (aggressive behaviour)

    aggressive behaviour: Physiological causes of aggression: …cause or motivation of an attack by one animal on another lies in the attacker’s response to certain cues or stimuli. Such cues can be visual (robins will vigorously attack a bunch of red feathers placed in their territory), auditory (robins will also attack a tape recorder playing the song…

  • attack aircraft (military)

    Attack aircraft, type of military aircraft that supports ground troops by making strafing and low-level bombing attacks on enemy ground forces, tanks and other armoured vehicles, and installations. Attack aircraft are typically slower and less maneuverable than air-combat fighters but carry a

  • attack rate (epidemiology)

    Attack rate, in epidemiology, the proportion of people who become ill with (or who die from) a disease in a population initially free of the disease. The term attack rate is sometimes used interchangeably with the term incidence proportion. Attack rates typically are used in the investigation of

  • attack submarine (military technology)

    submarine: The nuclear navies: …revolution in antisubmarine warfare, with attack submarines becoming the primary antisubmarine weapons. Attack submarines are armed with torpedoes and, in some cases, with antiship missiles. Strategic submarines may carry similar weapons, but their primary weapons are submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs), such as the U.S. and British Trident.

  • attack transient (music)

    sound: Other effects on tone: Attack transients, such as the way in which a string is bowed, a trumpet tongued, or a piano key struck, and decay transients, such as the way the sound of a plucked string dies away, are very important in many instruments, particularly those that are…

  • Attack! (film by Aldrich [1956])

    Attack!, American war film, released in 1956, that was considered groundbreaking for its exploration of cowardice and nepotism in the U.S. military. The film, set in the European theatre during World War II, follows an American platoon that must contend with both a superior German force and the

  • attack, angle of (aerodynamics)

    airplane: Aerodynamics: , its angle relative to the wind. Both lift and angle of attack can be immediately, if crudely, demonstrated, by holding one’s hand out the window of a moving automobile. When the hand is turned flat to the wind, much resistance is felt and little “lift” is…

  • Attacus atlas (insect)

    saturniid moth: …silk-producing species is the large atlas moth (Attacus atlas), whose wingspread often exceeds 25 cm (10 inches). The caterpillar of the cynthia moth (Samia cynthia or walkeri), also known as the ailanthus silk moth, native to Asia and introduced into North America, feeds chiefly on leaves of the ailanthus tree…

  • Attaignant, Pierre (French music printer)

    Pierre Attaingnant, prominent French music printer and publisher in the Renaissance who was one of the earliest to use single-impression printing. (Earlier printers printed the staff and the notes in separate impressions.) Before 1527 Attaingnant began using a newly invented movable music type, in

  • attainder (law)

    Attainder, in English law, the extinction of civil and political rights resulting from a sentence of death or outlawry after a conviction of treason or a felony. The most important consequences of attainder were forfeiture and corruption of blood. For treason, an offender’s lands were forfeited to

  • attainder, bill of (law)

    Attainder, in English law, the extinction of civil and political rights resulting from a sentence of death or outlawry after a conviction of treason or a felony. The most important consequences of attainder were forfeiture and corruption of blood. For treason, an offender’s lands were forfeited to

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