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  • Atkins v. Virginia (law case)

    crime: Intention: …Court ruled in 2002, in Atkins v. Virginia, that a sentence of capital punishment for people with mental retardation was unconstitutional; however, such people can be sentenced to life in prison without parole. The practice of not acquitting those with mental impairments but mitigating their punishments is found in many…

  • Atkins, Anna (English photographer and botanist)

    Anna Atkins, English photographer and botanist noted for her early use of photography for scientific purposes. Anna Children, whose mother died soon after she was born, was involved from an early age in the scientific activities that occupied her father, John George Children. A respected scientist,

  • Atkins, Chester Burton (American musician)

    Chet Atkins, influential American country-and-western guitarist and record company executive who is often credited with developing the Nashville Sound. Born into a musical family, Atkins began playing the guitar as a child and during his teen years performed professionally as a fiddler. By the late

  • Atkins, Chet (American musician)

    Chet Atkins, influential American country-and-western guitarist and record company executive who is often credited with developing the Nashville Sound. Born into a musical family, Atkins began playing the guitar as a child and during his teen years performed professionally as a fiddler. By the late

  • Atkins, Cholly (American dancer and choreographer)

    Cholly Atkins, (Charles Sylvan Atkinson), American dancer and choreographer (born Sept. 30, 1913, Pratt City, Ala.—died April 19, 2003, Las Vegas, Nev.), created the synchronized moves that characterized many of the Motown acts of the 1950s and ’60s, including the Temptations, Gladys Knight and t

  • Atkins, Doug (American football player)

    Doug Atkins, (Douglas Leon Atkins), American football player (born May 8, 1930, Humboldt, Tenn.—died Dec. 30, 2015, Knoxville, Tenn.), was an intimidating and ferocious defensive end and pass rusher who played 17 seasons in the NFL and helped two teams win NFL championships. Atkins was admired for

  • Atkins, Douglas Leon (American football player)

    Doug Atkins, (Douglas Leon Atkins), American football player (born May 8, 1930, Humboldt, Tenn.—died Dec. 30, 2015, Knoxville, Tenn.), was an intimidating and ferocious defensive end and pass rusher who played 17 seasons in the NFL and helped two teams win NFL championships. Atkins was admired for

  • Atkins, Geoffrey (British athlete)

    rackets: History.: …the world championship (1862); and Geoffrey Atkins, world champion from 1954 to 1970, who excelled Latham’s record of reigning for 15 years. Atkins is rated by some as the greatest of all amateurs.

  • Atkins, Juan (American musician)

    electronic dance music: Chicago and Detroit: …one widely agreed-upon formative figure: Juan Atkins, who in 1981 partnered with Rik Davis as Cybotron and issued the single “Alleys of Your Mind.” Shortly after releasing an album, Enter (1983), the duo split up, at which point Atkins started his own label, Metroplex, and began releasing 12-inch vinyl singles…

  • Atkins, Robert Coleman (American cardiologist)

    Robert Coleman Atkins, American cardiologist and nutritionist (born Oct. 17, 1930, Columbus, Ohio—died April 17, 2003, New York, N.Y.), wrote seven best-selling diet books—beginning in 1972 with Dr. Atkins’ Diet Revolution—advocating that dieters adopt his controversial weight-loss plan that c

  • Atkinson, Anthony Barnes (British economist)

    Tony Atkinson, (Anthony Barnes Atkinson), British economist (born Sept. 4, 1944, Caerleon, Wales—died Jan. 1, 2017, Oxford, Oxfordshire, Eng.), focused on empirical methods of measuring income inequality and sought to place economics in the service of alleviating poverty. Atkinson wrote and

  • Atkinson, Bill (American computer programmer)

    graphic design: The digital revolution: …MacPaint? program by computer programmer Bill Atkinson and graphic designer Susan Kare, had a revolutionary human interface. Tool icons controlled by a mouse or graphics tablet enabled designers and artists to use computer graphics in an intuitive manner. The Postscript? page-description language from Adobe Systems, Inc., enabled pages of type…

  • Atkinson, Charles Sylvan (American dancer and choreographer)

    Cholly Atkins, (Charles Sylvan Atkinson), American dancer and choreographer (born Sept. 30, 1913, Pratt City, Ala.—died April 19, 2003, Las Vegas, Nev.), created the synchronized moves that characterized many of the Motown acts of the 1950s and ’60s, including the Temptations, Gladys Knight and t

  • Atkinson, Henry (United States military officer)

    Black Hawk War: The war begins: Henry Atkinson was already en route to Rock Island on a mission to prevent the Sauk and Fox from warring with the Menominee and Sioux. After arriving on April 12, Atkinson met with “friendly” Sauk and Fox chiefs whose refusal to help convinced him that…

  • Atkinson, Juliette (American tennis player)

    U.S. Open: …when the five-set match between Juliette Atkinson (the winner) and Marion Jones extended to 51 games. Arthur Ashe won the U.S. Open in 1968, but because of his amateur status (he was a lieutenant in the U.S. Army at the time) he was unable to accept the prize money. Another…

  • Atkinson, Kate (British author and playwright)

    Kate Atkinson, British short-story writer, playwright, and novelist whose works were known for their complicated plots, experimental form, and often eccentric characters. Atkinson received her early education at a private preparatory school and later the Queen Anne Grammar School for Girls in York.

  • Atkinson, Quentin D. (New Zealand biologist)

    language: Changes through time: …languages by New Zealand biologist Quentin D. Atkinson suggested that the number of phonemes a language contains may be an index of evolutionary diversity. In this sample, the languages of southwest Africa had the largest phoneme inventories, and the number of phonemes declined the farther away from this area humans…

  • Atkinson, Rowan (British actor)

    Rowan Atkinson, British actor and comedian who delighted television and film audiences with his comic creation Mr. Bean. Atkinson, the son of wealthy Durham farmers, attended Durham Cathedral Choristers’ School. At the University of Newcastle upon Tyne he studied electrical engineering; he

  • Atkinson, Rowan Sebastian (British actor)

    Rowan Atkinson, British actor and comedian who delighted television and film audiences with his comic creation Mr. Bean. Atkinson, the son of wealthy Durham farmers, attended Durham Cathedral Choristers’ School. At the University of Newcastle upon Tyne he studied electrical engineering; he

  • Atkinson, Sir Harry (prime minister of New Zealand)

    Sir Harry Atkinson, statesman who, as prime minister of New Zealand in the depression-ridden 1880s, implemented a policy of economic self-reliance and government austerity. Atkinson left England for Taranaki province, N.Z., in 1853 and attained distinction as a soldier in the wars of 1860 and 1863

  • Atkinson, Sir Harry Albert (prime minister of New Zealand)

    Sir Harry Atkinson, statesman who, as prime minister of New Zealand in the depression-ridden 1880s, implemented a policy of economic self-reliance and government austerity. Atkinson left England for Taranaki province, N.Z., in 1853 and attained distinction as a soldier in the wars of 1860 and 1863

  • Atkinson, Theodore Frederick (American jockey)

    Theodore Frederick Atkinson, American jockey (born June 17, 1916, Toronto, Ont.—died May 5, 2005, Beaver Dam, Va.), became the first jockey to win more than a million dollars in earnings in a single season (1946). Atkinson began riding professionally at age 21, and his career lasted from 1938 to 1

  • Atkinson, Tony (British economist)

    Tony Atkinson, (Anthony Barnes Atkinson), British economist (born Sept. 4, 1944, Caerleon, Wales—died Jan. 1, 2017, Oxford, Oxfordshire, Eng.), focused on empirical methods of measuring income inequality and sought to place economics in the service of alleviating poverty. Atkinson wrote and

  • Atl, Doctor (Mexican painter and writer)

    Doctor Atl, painter and writer who was one of the pioneers of the Mexican movement for artistic nationalism. Educated in Mexico City, Rome, and Peru, he founded the journal Action d’Art in Paris in 1913 and edited it for three years. The paintings he created during that period generally imitated

  • Atlakvida (medieval poem)

    Lay of Atli, heroic poem in the Norse Poetic Edda (see Edda), an older variant of the tale of slaughter and revenge that is the subject of the German epic Nibelungenlied, from which it differs in several respects. In the Norse poem, Atli (the Hunnish king Attila) is the villain, who is slain by his

  • A?lāl Bābil (ancient city, Mesopotamia, Asia)

    Babylon, one of the most famous cities of antiquity. It was the capital of southern Mesopotamia (Babylonia) from the early 2nd millennium to the early 1st millennium bce and capital of the Neo-Babylonian (Chaldean) empire in the 7th and 6th centuries bce, when it was at the height of its splendour.

  • Atland eller Manheim (work by Rudbeck)

    Swedish literature: The 17th century: He proposed this idea in Atland eller Manheim (1679–1702), which, translated into Latin as Atlantica, attained European fame.

  • Atlanta (Georgia, United States)

    Atlanta, city, capital (1868) of Georgia, U.S., and seat (1853) of Fulton county (but also partly in DeKalb county). It lies in the foothills of the Blue Ridge Mountains in the northwestern part of the state, just southeast of the Chattahoochee River. Atlanta is Georgia’s largest city and the

  • Atlanta 1996 Olympic Games

    Atlanta 1996 Olympic Games, athletic festival held in Atlanta that took place July 19–August 4, 1996. The Atlanta Games were the 23rd occurrence of the modern Olympic Games. Selected over Athens to host the Centennial Summer Games, Atlanta staged one of the most extravagant Games in Olympic

  • Atlanta Ballet (American dance company)

    Dorothy Alexander: …and choreographer, founder of the Atlanta Ballet, and pioneer of the regional ballet movement.

  • Atlanta Baptist Female Seminary (college, Atlanta, Georgia, United States)

    Spelman College, private, historically black institution of higher learning for women in Atlanta, Georgia, U.S. A liberal arts college, Spelman offers bachelor’s degrees in more than 20 fields, including arts, sciences, psychology, computer science, economics, languages, philosophy, political

  • Atlanta Braves (American baseball team [1966–present])

    Atlanta Braves, American professional baseball team based in Atlanta. The team is the only existing major league franchise to have played every season since professional baseball came into existence. They have won three World Series titles (1914, 1957, and 1995) and 17 National League (NL)

  • Atlanta Campaign (American Civil War)

    Atlanta Campaign, in the American Civil War, an important series of battles in Georgia (May–September 1864) that eventually cut off a main Confederate supply centre and influenced the Federal presidential election of 1864. By the end of 1863, with Chattanooga, Tennessee, and Vicksburg, Mississippi,

  • Atlanta Civic Ballet (American dance company)

    Dorothy Alexander: …and choreographer, founder of the Atlanta Ballet, and pioneer of the regional ballet movement.

  • Atlanta Compromise (United States history)

    Atlanta Compromise, classic statement on race relations, articulated by Booker T. Washington, a leading black educator in the United States in the late 19th century. In a speech at the Cotton States and International Exposition in Atlanta, Georgia, on September 18, 1895, Washington asserted that

  • Atlanta Division of the University of Georgia (university, Georgia, United States)

    Georgia State University, public, coeducational institution of higher learning in Atlanta, Georgia, U.S. It is part of the University System of Georgia. The university consists of six colleges, including colleges of arts and sciences, business, education, health and human services, and law and the

  • Atlanta Falcons (American football team)

    Atlanta Falcons, American professional gridiron football team based in Atlanta that plays in the National Football Conference (NFC) of the National Football League (NFL). The Falcons have won two NFC championships (1999 and 2017). The Falcons began play in 1966 as an expansion team, and they lost

  • Atlanta Flames (Canadian hockey team)

    Calgary Flames, Canadian professional ice hockey team based in Calgary, Alberta, that plays in the Western Conference of the National Hockey League (NHL). The Flames have won three conference titles (1986, 1989, and 2004) and one Stanley Cup championship (1989). The franchise was originally located

  • Atlanta Hawks (American basketball team)

    Atlanta Hawks, American professional basketball team based in Atlanta. The Hawks were one of the original franchises of the National Basketball Association (NBA) when the league was established in 1949. The team won its only championship in 1958. Originally founded in Moline and Rock Island,

  • Atlanta Journal (American periodical)

    Hoke Smith: He published the Atlanta Journal (1887–1900), which he used as a forum to champion virtually all progressive measures of the period, with the notable exception of civil rights for blacks.

  • Atlanta Journal-Constitution, The (American newspaper)

    The Atlanta Journal-Constitution, morning daily newspaper published in Atlanta, Ga., and based largely on the former Atlanta Constitution following its merger with the Atlanta Journal in 2001. The Constitution had been counted among the great newspapers of the United States, and it came to be

  • Atlanta Olympic Games bombing of 1996 (bombing, Georgia, United States)

    Atlanta Olympic Games bombing of 1996, bombing that occurred at the 1996 Olympic Games in Atlanta, Georgia, resulting in two deaths and more than 100 injuries. On July 27, 1996, a single homemade pipe bomb left in a knapsack exploded amid a crowd of spectators in Centennial Olympic Park, near the

  • Atlanta Pop Festival (American music festival [1969–1970])

    rock festival: Monterey, Woodstock, and beyond: …post-Woodstock festivals, the Atlanta (Georgia) Pop Festival in 1969–70 was perhaps the most important to rock history; it packed the lower end of the bill with local groups and thereby invigorated the Southern rock movement of the 1970s. Rock festivals in the United States tapered off after about 1975, only…

  • Atlanta Riot of 1906 (United States history)

    Atlanta Riot of 1906, major outbreak of violence in Atlanta, Georgia, that killed at least 12 and possibly as many as 25 African Americans in late September 1906. White mobs, inflamed by newspaper reports of black men attacking white women, burned more than 1,000 homes and businesses in the city’s

  • Atlanta Symphony Orchestra (American orchestra)

    Robert Shaw: … (1956–67) and conductor of the Atlanta Symphony Orchestra (1967–88), where he also served as music director, expanding the orchestra’s program to include ballet, oratorios, chamber music, educational concerts, and special telecasts. In 1990 Shaw began leading an annual series of workshops at Carnegie Hall for singers and choral directors and…

  • Atlanta Thrashers (Canadian hockey team)

    Winnipeg Jets, Canadian professional ice hockey team based in Winnipeg, Manitoba, that plays in the Western Conference of the National Hockey League (NHL). The franchise was founded in 1999 in Atlanta as the Thrashers and had losing seasons in each of its first five years of existence. Improvement

  • Atlanta United FC (American soccer club)

    Atlanta: The contemporary city: …Women’s National Basketball Association, and Atlanta United FC of Major League Soccer.

  • Atlanta University School of Social Work (American school)

    E. Franklin Frazier: …Georgia, where he organized the Atlanta University School of Social Work, later becoming its director. With the controversy surrounding the publication (1927) of Frazier’s “The Pathology of Race Prejudice” in Forum, he was forced to leave Morehouse. He received a fellowship from the University of Chicago (1927), where he took…

  • Atlanta, Battle of (American Civil War [1864])

    Battle of Atlanta, (July 22, 1864), American Civil War engagement that was part of the Union’s summer Atlanta Campaign. Union Major Generals William Tecumseh Sherman and James B. McPherson successfully defended against a Confederate offensive from Lieut. Gen. John Bell Hood on the eastern outskirts

  • atlantes (architecture)

    Atlas, in architecture, male figure used as a column to support an entablature, balcony, or other projection, originating in the Classical architecture of antiquity. Such figures are posed as if supporting great weights (e.g., Atlas bearing the world). The related telamon of Roman architecture,

  • Atlanthropus mauritanicus (hominid fossil)

    Ternifine: …new genus and species (Atlanthropus mauritanicus). However, later it was recognized that the fossils from Algeria and China, along with similar specimens from Java, could all be classified together in one species, which is now called Homo erectus. The hominins at Ternifine were found with stone tools of the…

  • Atlantic (county, New Jersey, United States)

    Atlantic, county, southeastern New Jersey, U.S., bounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Mullica River and Great Bay to the northeast, and the Tuckahoe River and Great Egg Harbor to the south. It constitutes a coastal lowland bisected by the Great Egg Harbor River, which runs through swampy

  • Atlantic & Pacific Tea Company (American company)

    Great Atlantic & Pacific Tea Company, Inc. (A&P), former German-owned food distribution company that operated supermarket chains in the United States and Canada. The company’s history traces to 1859, when George F. Gilman and George Huntington Hartford founded the Great American Tea Co. in New York

  • Atlantic and St. Lawrence Railroad (Canadian railroad)

    railroad: Canadian railroads: …it was known as the Atlantic and St. Lawrence Railroad in the three northern New England states and the St. Lawrence and Atlantic in Quebec. At the behest of the Maine promoters of this line, a gauge of 5 feet 6 inches (1,676 mm) was adopted to exclude Boston and…

  • Atlantic argentine (fish)

    argentine: Argentines of the species Argentina silus are silvery fishes about 45 cm (18 inches) long; they live about 145–545 m (480–1,800 feet) below the surface and are sometimes caught by fishermen.

  • Atlantic bonito (fish)

    bonito: sarda of the Atlantic and Mediterranean, S. orientalis of the Indo-Pacific, S. chilensis of the eastern Pacific, and S. australis of Australia and New Zealand.

  • Atlantic Charter (agreement, United Kingdom-United States)

    Atlantic Charter, joint declaration issued on August 14, 1941, during World War II, by the British prime minister, Winston Churchill, and Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt of the still nonbelligerent United States, after four days of conferences aboard warships anchored at Placentia Bay, off the coast of

  • Atlantic City (New Jersey, United States)

    Atlantic City, resort city, Atlantic county, southeastern New Jersey, U.S., on the Atlantic Ocean. It lies on low, narrow, sandy, 10-mile- (16-km-) long Absecon Island, which is separated from the mainland by a narrow strait and several miles of meadows partly covered with water at high tide. The

  • Atlantic City (film by Malle [1980])

    Louis Malle: …films included the critically acclaimed Atlantic City (1980), a comedy-drama about the emotional renewal of a small-time criminal; My Dinner with André (1981), an unusual film consisting almost entirely of a dinner-table conversation between two characters; and Au revoir les enfants (1987), an autobiographical reminiscence of life in a Roman…

  • Atlantic Climatic Interval (geochronology)

    Europe: Climatic change: …the succeeding climatic optimum (the Atlantic phase), which was probably wetter and certainly somewhat warmer, mixed forests of oak, elm, common lime (linden), and elder spread northward. Only in the late Atlantic period did the beech and hornbeam spread into western and central Europe from the southeast.

  • Atlantic Coast Conference (American athletic organization)

    Atlantic Coast Conference (ACC), American collegiate athletic organization formed in 1953 as an offshoot of the Southern Conference. Member schools are Boston College (joined 2005), Clemson University, Duke University, Florida State University (joined 1990), the Georgia Institute of Technology

  • Atlantic Coastal Plain (region, North America)

    Tertiary Period: Sedimentary sequences: …Tertiary sediments occur on the Atlantic and Gulf coastal plains and extend around the margin of the Gulf of Mexico to the Yucatán Peninsula, a distance of more than 5,000 km (about 3,100 miles). Seaward these deposits can be traced from the Atlantic Coastal Plain to the continental margin and…

  • Atlantic cod (fish, Gadus species)

    Cod, (genus Gadus), large and economically important marine fish of the family Gadidae. The species Gadus morhua is found on both sides of the North Atlantic. A cold-water fish, it generally remains near the bottom, ranging from inshore regions to deep waters. It is valued for its edible flesh, the

  • Atlantic Conveyor (British ship)

    naval warfare: The age of the guided missile: …fleet defenses, the supply ship Atlantic Conveyor (May 25). Also, a land-to-sea missile struck and damaged the destroyer HMS Glamorgan (June 12), presaging more strikes from land in future maritime wars. Third, the British relearned lessons of damage control and ship survivability, while the Argentines found that aircraft armed only…

  • Atlantic Equatorial Countercurrent (ocean current)

    equatorial countercurrent: The Atlantic Equatorial Countercurrent is strongest off the coast of Ghana (Africa), where it is known as the Guinea Current. The countercurrent of the Indian Ocean flows only during the northern winter and only south of the equator.

  • Atlantic Ferry, the (steamship operations)

    ship: The Atlantic Ferry: At this point the contributions of Isambard Kingdom Brunel to sea transportation began. Brunel was the chief engineer of the Great Western Railway between Bristol and London, which was nearing completion in the late 1830s. A man who thrived on challenges, Brunel…

  • Atlantic Fleet (United States Navy)

    The United States Navy: Theories of force projection and World War I: …ordered 16 battleships of the Atlantic Fleet on a cruise around the world in 1907–09. The hulls of the battleships had been painted white, earning them the nickname “the Great White Fleet,” and the global tour improved crew efficiency and had valuable diplomatic effects. Naval aviation was inaugurated in 1910…

  • Atlantic geoduck (mollusk)

    clam: The Atlantic geoduck (P. bitruncata), similar to the Pacific species, occurs from the coast of North Carolina to the Gulf of Mexico.

  • Atlantic goliath grouper (fish, Epinephelus itajara)

    Goliath grouper, (Epinephelus itajara), large sea bass (family Serranidae) found on the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of tropical America and in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. The species sometimes attains a length of 2.5 metres (8.2 feet) and a weight of about 455 kg (1,000 pounds). The adult is dull

  • Atlantic halibut (fish)

    halibut: The Atlantic halibut (H. hippoglossus) is found on both sides of the North Atlantic. The largest flatfish, it may reach a length of about 2 metres (7 feet) and a weight of 325 kilograms (720 pounds). It is brown, blackish, or deep green on the eyed…

  • Atlantic herring (fish)

    herring: …herring refers to either the Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus harengus) or the Pacific herring (C. harengus pallasii); although once considered separate species, they are now believed to be only subspecifically distinct. Herrings are small-headed, streamlined, beautifully coloured fish with silvery iridescent sides and deep blue, metallic-hued backs. Adults range from…

  • Atlantic humpbacked dolphin (mammal)

    dolphin: Conservation status: as endangered species, and the Atlantic humpbacked dolphin (Sousa teuszii), which is classified as critically endangered.

  • Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (shipping route, United States)

    Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, shipping route paralleling the eastern coast of the United States, serving ports from Boston to Key West, Fla. It is part of the Intracoastal Waterway

  • Atlantic languages (African language)

    Atlantic languages, branch of the Niger-Congo language family spoken primarily in Senegal, The Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Sierra Leone, and Liberia. The approximately 45 Atlantic languages are spoken by about 30 million people. One language cluster, Fula (also called Fulani, Peul, Fulfulde, and

  • Atlantic languages (American Indian language)

    South American Indian languages: Phonological characteristics: …languages into three types: (1) Atlantic, with few oral consonants but complex systems of nasal consonants, and oral and nasal vowels, of which the Ge languages would be typical; (2) Pacific, with complex systems of oral consonants (many contrasting points and modes of articulation) but with few nasal consonants and…

  • Atlantic leatherback (reptile)

    sea turtle: Physical features and feeding habits: The leatherback sea turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) inhabits pelagic (open ocean) environments. Apparently following the blooms of its jellyfish prey, it moves widely throughout the oceans. The shell lengths of few individuals exceed 1.6 metres (5 feet), although some reportedly reach 2.4 metres (8 feet). Adult and…

  • Atlantic lobster (crustacean)

    crustacean: Size range and diversity of structure: …10,000 species) that includes the American lobster, which can reach a weight of 20 kilograms (44 pounds), and the giant Japanese spider crab, which has legs that can span up to 3.7 metres (12 feet). At the other end of the scale, some of the water fleas (class Branchiopoda), such…

  • Atlantic lowland (plain, Colombia)

    Colombia: Relief: …width, generally known as the Atlantic lowlands (also called the Caribbean coastal lowlands). Dotted with hills and with extensive tracts of seasonally flooded land along the lower Magdalena and the Sinú rivers, it surrounds the inland portion of the Santa Marta Mountains. A much narrower lowland apron extends along the…

  • Atlantic lowlands (region, Brazil)

    Brazil: Coastal lowlands: The Atlantic lowlands, which comprise only a tiny part of Brazil’s territory, range up to 125 miles (200 km) wide in the North but become narrower in the Northeast and disappear in parts of the Southeast. Nevertheless, their features are widely varied, including level floodplains, swamps,…

  • Atlantic mackerel (fish)

    mackerel: The common mackerel (Scomber scombrus) of the Atlantic Ocean is an abundant and economically important species that is sometimes found in huge schools. It averages about 30 cm (12 inches) in length and is blue-green above and silver-white below, with a series of wavy, dark, vertical…

  • Atlantic manta (fish)

    manta ray: …(2 feet) across, but the Atlantic manta, or giant devil ray (Manta birostris), the largest of the family, may grow to more than 7 metres (23 feet) wide. The Atlantic manta is a well-known species, brown or black in colour and very powerful but inoffensive. It does not, old tales…

  • Atlantic menhaden (fish)

    clupeiform: Growth and mortality: In the Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus), a species that spawns in riverine environments, the newly hatched pelagic larvae first drift downriver between fresh and brackish water and shoreward from spawning areas and into estuarine nursery areas. Later, pelagic juveniles tend to move upstream as far as 50…

  • Atlantic Monthly, The (American journal)

    The Atlantic, American journal of news, literature, and opinion that was founded in 1857 and is one of the oldest and most-respected magazines in the United States. Formerly a monthly publication, it now releases 10 issues a year and maintains an online site. Its offices are in Washington, D.C. The

  • Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (climatology)

    climate change: Decadal variation: A similar oscillation, the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), occurs in the North Atlantic and strongly influences precipitation patterns in eastern and central North America. A warm-phase AMO (relatively warm North Atlantic SSTs) is associated with relatively high rainfall in Florida and low rainfall in much of the Ohio Valley.…

  • Atlantic North Equatorial Current (ocean current)

    equatorial current: The Atlantic North Equatorial Current is pushed westward by the Northeast Trade Winds between latitude 10° and 20° N. Fed in part by the South Atlantic Equatorial, it turns north as the Antilles, Caribbean, and Florida currents, which eventually become the Gulf Stream. Some of the…

  • Atlantic nurse shark (fish species)

    nurse shark: …common Atlantic nurse shark (G. cirratum), the family includes the tawny nurse shark (N. ferrugineus) and the shorttail nurse shark (P. brevicaudatum). They are not related to the sand tiger shark (Carcharias taurus)—a type of sand shark inhabiting the waters above the continental shelves in most warm and temperate…

  • Atlantic Ocean

    Atlantic Ocean, body of salt water covering approximately one-fifth of Earth’s surface and separating the continents of Europe and Africa to the east from those of North and South America to the west. The ocean’s name, derived from Greek mythology, means the “Sea of Atlas.” It is second in size

  • Atlantic Passage (slave trade)

    Middle Passage, the forced voyage of enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to the New World. It was one leg of the triangular trade route that took goods (such as knives, guns, ammunition, cotton cloth, tools, and brass dishes) from Europe to Africa, Africans to work as slaves in the Americas

  • Atlantic Plain (region, North America)

    Tertiary Period: Sedimentary sequences: …Tertiary sediments occur on the Atlantic and Gulf coastal plains and extend around the margin of the Gulf of Mexico to the Yucatán Peninsula, a distance of more than 5,000 km (about 3,100 miles). Seaward these deposits can be traced from the Atlantic Coastal Plain to the continental margin and…

  • Atlantic poison oak (plant)

    poison oak: Atlantic poison oak (T. pubescens) is native to the southeastern United States and is commonly confused with poison ivy (T. radicans). These species contain urushiol, and contact with the leaves and sap can cause a severe, itchy, and painful inflammation of the skin. Like many…

  • Atlantic puffin (bird)

    puffin: …common, or Atlantic, puffin (Fratercula arctica) occurs on Atlantic coasts from the Arctic south to Brittany and Maine. It is about 30 cm (12 inches) long, black above, white below, with gray face plumage, red-orange feet, a blue-gray, yellow, and red bill, and horny plates of skin around the…

  • Atlantic Rayon Company (American company)

    Textron Inc., American multi-industry company that pioneered the conglomerate concept. Its present-day core organization includes aircraft, automotive, and industrial manufacturing segments. The firm was established in 1923 as a textile maker and acquired its present name in 1956. Headquarters are

  • Atlantic Records

    Formed in 1947 by jazz fans Ahmet Ertegun, son of a Turkish diplomat, and Herb Abramson, formerly the artists-and-repertoire director for National Records, Atlantic became the most consistently successful New York City-based independent label of the 1950s, with an incomparable roster including Joe

  • Atlantic Records (American company)

    Atlantic Records: Formed in 1947 by jazz fans Ahmet Ertegun, son of a Turkish diplomat, and Herb Abramson, formerly the artists-and-repertoire director for National Records, Atlantic became the most consistently successful New York City-based independent label of the 1950s, with an incomparable roster including Joe Turner, Ruth…

  • Atlantic ribbed mussel (mollusk)

    mussel: The Atlantic ribbed mussel (Modiolus demissus), which has a thin, strong, yellowish brown shell, occurs from Nova Scotia to the Gulf of Mexico. The tulip mussel (Modiolus americanus), from North Carolina to the Caribbean Sea, attaches itself to broken shells and rocks; its smooth, thin shell…

  • Atlantic Richfield Company (American oil company)

    Atlantic Richfield Company (ARCO), former American petroleum corporation that was headquartered in Los Angeles and was bought in 2000 by the giant BP Amoco (later BP PLC). The Atlantic Richfield Company was created in 1966 by the merger of Richfield Oil Corporation and Atlantic Refining Company.

  • Atlantic sailfish (fish)

    sailfish: platypterus) and the Atlantic sailfish (I. albicans).

  • Atlantic salmon (fish)

    Atlantic salmon, (species Salmo salar), oceanic trout of the family Salmonidae, a highly prized game fish. It averages about 5.5 kg (12 pounds) and is marked with round or cross-shaped spots. Found on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean, it enters streams in the fall to spawn. After spawning, adults

  • Atlantic sandhopper (crustacean)

    sand flea: The long-horned sand flea (Americorchestia longicornis), which is found on the Atlantic coast of North America from New England to the Gulf of Mexico, is named for its antennae, which are as long as the body. The species, also known as the Atlantic sandhopper, grows to…

  • Atlantic saury (fish)

    saury: …saury (Cololabis saira) and the Atlantic saury (Scomberesox saurus), found in the Atlantic and the seas near Australia.

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