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  • aspect ratio (measurement)

    ratio: …a rectangle is called an aspect ratio, an example of which is the golden ratio of classical architecture. When two ratios are set equal to each other, the resulting equation is called a proportion.

  • aspect ratio (aviation)

    Aspect ratio, in aviation, the ratio of the span to the chord of an airplane wing, the latter being the length of the straight line drawn from the leading to the trailing edge, at right angles to the length of the

  • aspect ratio (imagery)

    Aspect ratio, when describing the visible field of an image, such as a motion picture screen, a computer display, or a television, the aspect ratio is the ratio of image width to image

  • Aspect, Alain (French physicist)

    quantum mechanics: Paradox of Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen: Alain Aspect and his coworkers in Paris demonstrated this result in 1982 with an ingenious experiment in which the correlation between the two angular momenta was measured, within a very short time interval, by a high-frequency switching device. The interval was less than the time…

  • Aspects of Love (musical by Lloyd Webber, Black, and Hart)

    Andrew Lloyd Webber: …focus on romantic melodrama with Aspects of Love (1989; lyrics by Don Black and Charles Hart), which was based on a David Garnett novel. He followed it with Sunset Boulevard (1993; lyrics by Don Black and Christopher Hampton), a musical adaptation of the classic Hollywood film. Commercially, both shows fared…

  • Aspects of Love in Western Society (work by Lilar)

    Suzanne Lilar: Le Couple (1963; Aspects of Love in Western Society), perhaps her best work, is a neoplatonic idealization of love filtered through personal experience; in the same vein she later wrote highly critical essays on Jean-Paul Sartre (à propos de Sartre et de l’amour, 1967; “About Sartre and About…

  • Aspects of Negro Life (work by Douglas)

    Aaron Douglas: Collectively titled Aspects of Negro Life, these murals represent the pinnacle of his artistic achievement, depicting a social narrative that places progressive African American experience squarely within the scope of the American dream.

  • Aspects of the Novel (work by Forster)

    Aspects of the Novel, collection of literary lectures by E.M. Forster, published in 1927. For the purposes of his study, Forster defines the novel as “any fictitious prose work over 50,000 words.” He employs the term aspects because its vague, unscientific nature suits what he calls the “spongy”

  • Aspects of the Theory of Syntax (work by Chomsky)

    Noam Chomsky: Principles and parameters: …in the “standard theory” of Aspects of the Theory of Syntax and the subsequent “extended standard theory,” which was developed and revised through the late 1970s. These theories proposed that the mind of the human infant is endowed with a “format” of a possible grammar (a theory of linguistic data),…

  • Aspegren, Chuck (American actor and steel worker)

    The Deer Hunter: …(John Cazale) and Axel (Chuck Aspegren) and go to the bar owned by John (George Dzundza). Steven is about to marry his pregnant girlfriend, Angela (Rutanya Alda), and Michael, Nick, and Steven are then going to ship out to Vietnam. Nick’s girlfriend, Linda (Meryl Streep), one of the bridesmaids,…

  • aspen (plant)

    Aspen, any of three trees of the genus Populus, belonging to the willow family (Salicaceae), native to the Northern Hemisphere and known for the fluttering of leaves in the slightest breeze. Aspens grow farther north and higher up the mountains than other Populus species. All aspens display a

  • Aspen (Colorado, United States)

    Aspen, city, seat (1881) of Pitkin county, west-central Colorado, U.S., on the Roaring Fork River at the eastern edge of the White River National Forest (elevation 7,907 feet [2,410 metres]). Founded by prospectors c. 1878 and named for the local stands of aspen trees, it became a booming

  • Aspen Institute for Humanistic Studies (institution, Aspen, Colorado, United States)

    Herbert Bayer: …architectural projects, such as the Aspen Institute for Humanistic Studies (1962) and the Music Tent (1965) used during the annual festival. He also experimented in environmental sculpture (e.g., “Marble Garden” [1955] and “Beyond the Wall” [1976]) while continuing his work in painting (“White Moon and Structure” [1959]) and the graphic…

  • Aspen Music Festival and School (festival, Apsen, Colorado, United States)

    Aspen: …which in turn established the Aspen Music Festival and School (1950); both are summer attractions. The summer residency program of Utah’s Ballet West and the Aspen Theatre in the Park provide other popular programs in the city. Inc. 1881. Pop. (2000) 5,914; (2010) 6,658.

  • Aspendos (ancient city, Turkey)

    Aspendus, ancient city of Pamphylia (modern K?prü), near the mouth of the Eurymedon (modern K?prü) River in southern Turkey, some 3 miles (5 km) from modern Belkis. It is noted for its Roman ruins. A wide range of coinage from the 5th century bc onward attests to the city’s wealth. In the 5th

  • Aspendus (ancient city, Turkey)

    Aspendus, ancient city of Pamphylia (modern K?prü), near the mouth of the Eurymedon (modern K?prü) River in southern Turkey, some 3 miles (5 km) from modern Belkis. It is noted for its Roman ruins. A wide range of coinage from the 5th century bc onward attests to the city’s wealth. In the 5th

  • Aspenstr?m, Karl Werner (Swedish poet and essayist)

    Werner Aspenstr?m, Swedish lyrical poet and essayist. Aspenstr?m’s images are characterized by intensity and a rare lyrical quality. In the cycle Sn?legend (1949; “Snow Legend”), Litania (1952; “Litany”), and Hundarna (1954; “The Dogs”), the poet treats his metaphysical and social concerns in a

  • Aspenstr?m, Werner (Swedish poet and essayist)

    Werner Aspenstr?m, Swedish lyrical poet and essayist. Aspenstr?m’s images are characterized by intensity and a rare lyrical quality. In the cycle Sn?legend (1949; “Snow Legend”), Litania (1952; “Litany”), and Hundarna (1954; “The Dogs”), the poet treats his metaphysical and social concerns in a

  • asper (coin)

    coin: Ottoman Empire: …of small silver coins (akche, called asper by Europeans). Gold coins were not struck before the end of the 15th century; before and after that century, foreign gold, mainly the Venetian ducat, was used. A notable Ottoman innovation was the tughra, an elaborate monogram formed of the sultan’s name…

  • Asper, Israel Harold (Canadian businessman)

    Israel Harold Asper, (“Izzy”), Canadian businessman and lawyer (born Aug. 11, 1932, Minnedosa, Man.—died Oct. 7, 2003, Winnipeg, Man.), transformed a bankrupt American television station (purchased in 1974 and subsequently moved to Winnipeg) into CanWest Global Communications Corp., Canada’s l

  • Asper, Izzy (Canadian businessman)

    Israel Harold Asper, (“Izzy”), Canadian businessman and lawyer (born Aug. 11, 1932, Minnedosa, Man.—died Oct. 7, 2003, Winnipeg, Man.), transformed a bankrupt American television station (purchased in 1974 and subsequently moved to Winnipeg) into CanWest Global Communications Corp., Canada’s l

  • Asperger syndrome (neurobiological disorder)

    Asperger syndrome, a neurobiological disorder characterized by autism-like abnormalities in social interactions but with normal intelligence and language acquisition. The disorder is named for Austrian physician Hans Asperger, who first described the symptoms in 1944 as belonging to a condition he

  • Asperger, Hans (Austrian physician)

    Asperger syndrome: …is named for Austrian physician Hans Asperger, who first described the symptoms in 1944 as belonging to a condition he called autistic psychopathy. Today, Asperger syndrome is considered an autism spectrum disorder, a category that includes autism (sometimes called classic autism) and mild autism-like conditions, in which affected persons exhibit…

  • Asperges (Christianity)

    religious dress: Roman Catholic religious dress: …non-eucharistic character, such as the Asperges, a rite of sprinkling water on the faithful preceding the mass. The origins of the cope are not known for certain by liturgical scholars. According to one theory, it derives from the open-fronted paenula, just as the chasuble derives from the closed version of…

  • aspergillic acid (chemical compound)

    heterocyclic compound: Five- and six-membered rings with two or more heteroatoms: …some pyrazines occur naturally—the antibiotic aspergillic acid, for example. The structures of the aforementioned compounds are:

  • aspergilloma (medical condition)

    aspergillosis: Severe cases involving an aspergilloma (fungal mass) and bleeding in the lungs may require surgery or embolization (a procedure to block blood flow to the affected area). Invasive disease can be rapidly fatal.

  • aspergillosis (disease)

    Aspergillosis, a number of different disease states in humans that are caused by fungi of the genus Aspergillus, especially A. fumigatus, A. flavus, and A. niger, and that produce a variety of effects on humans, ranging from no illness to allergic reactions to mild pneumonia to overwhelming

  • Aspergillus (genus of fungi)

    Aspergillus, genus of fungi in the order Eurotiales (phylum Ascomycota, kingdom Fungi) that exists as asexual forms (or anamorphs) and is pathogenic (disease-causing) in humans. Aspergillus niger causes black mold of foodstuffs; A. flavus, A. niger, and A. fumigatus cause aspergillosis in humans.

  • Aspergillus flavus (fungus)

    aspergillosis: fumigatus, A. flavus, and A. niger, and that produce a variety of effects on humans, ranging from no illness to allergic reactions to mild pneumonia to overwhelming generalized infection. The ubiquitous fungus Aspergillus is especially prevalent in the air. Inhalation of Aspergillus is common, but the…

  • Aspergillus fumigatus (fungus)

    aspergillosis: genus Aspergillus, especially A. fumigatus, A. flavus, and A. niger, and that produce a variety of effects on humans, ranging from no illness to allergic reactions to mild pneumonia to overwhelming generalized infection. The ubiquitous fungus Aspergillus is especially prevalent in the air. Inhalation of Aspergillus is common,…

  • Aspergillus nidulans (fungus)

    Guido Pontecorvo: >Aspergillus.

  • Aspergillus niger (fungus)

    aspergillosis: flavus, and A. niger, and that produce a variety of effects on humans, ranging from no illness to allergic reactions to mild pneumonia to overwhelming generalized infection. The ubiquitous fungus Aspergillus is especially prevalent in the air. Inhalation of Aspergillus is common, but the fungus can also…

  • Aspergillus oryzae (biology)

    Aspergillus: A. oryzae is used to ferment sake, and A. wentii to process soybeans. Three other genera have Aspergillus-type conidia (asexually produced spores): Emericella, Eurotium, and Sartorya.

  • Aspergillus parasiticus (fungus)

    cancer: Initiators: …the fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, which grow on improperly stored grains and peanuts. Aflatoxin B is one of the most-potent liver carcinogens known. Many cases of liver cancer in Africa and East Asia have been linked to dietary exposure to that chemical.

  • Aspergillus wentii (biology)

    Aspergillus: …used to ferment sake, and A. wentii to process soybeans. Three other genera have Aspergillus-type conidia (asexually produced spores): Emericella, Eurotium, and Sartorya.

  • Aspern Papers, The (novelette by James)

    The Aspern Papers, novelette by Henry James, published in 1888, first in The Atlantic Monthly (March–May) and then in the collection The Aspern Papers, Louisa Pallant, The Modern Warning. In “The Aspern Papers,” an unnamed American editor rents a room in Venice in the home of Juliana Bordereau, the

  • Aspern Papers, The (film by Landais [2018])

    Vanessa Redgrave: Movies from the 21st century: …in a Venetian palazzo in The Aspern Papers (2018), a drama based on Henry James’s novelette (1888). Redgrave had previously portrayed Tina, Juliana’s skittish niece, in the 1984 revival of her father’s stage adaptation of the work (1959). In the 2018 film Redgrave’s daughter Joely assumed the role of Tina.

  • Aspern, Battle of (European history)

    Austria: Conflicts with Napoleonic France: However, on May 21–22, at Aspern, across the Danube from Vienna, Archduke Charles and the regular Austrian army inflicted the first defeat Napoleon was to suffer on the field of battle. They did not take advantage of it, however; Napoleon regrouped and defeated Archduke Charles in July in the Battle…

  • Asperula (herb)

    Woodruff, any of various species of plants of a genus (Asperula) belonging to the madder family, Rubiaceae. The woodruff is found growing wild in woods and shady places in many countries of Europe, and its leaves are used as herbs. The genus Asperula includes annuals and perennials, usually with

  • Asperula odorata (plant)

    bedstraw: Sweet woodruff, or sweet scented bedstraw (G. odoratum, formerly Asperula odorata), has an odour similar to that of freshly mown hay; its dried shoots are used in perfumes and sachets and for flavouring beverages. Lady’s bedstraw, or yellow bedstraw (G. verum), is used in Europe…

  • asphalt (material)

    Asphalt, black or brown petroleum-like material that has a consistency varying from viscous liquid to glassy solid. It is obtained either as a residue from the distillation of petroleum or from natural deposits. Asphalt consists of compounds of hydrogen and carbon with minor proportions of

  • Asphalt Jungle, The (film by Huston [1950])

    Asphalt Jungle, The, American film noir caper, released in 1950, that was adapted from W.R. Burnett’s novel about an ambitious jewel robbery orchestrated by a gang of eccentric criminals. Immediately after being released from prison, “Doc” Riedenschneider (played by Sam Jaffe) teams with corrupt

  • asphalt macadam (road construction)
  • asphalt tile

    Asphalt tile, smooth-surfaced floor covering made from a mixture of asphalts or synthetic resins, asbestos fibres, pigments, and mineral fillers. It is usually about 18 or 316 inch (about 3 mm or 4.8 mm) thick, and is nonporous, nonflammable, fairly low in cost, and easily maintained. Asphalt tile

  • asphaltite (mineral)

    Asphaltite, any of several naturally occurring, hard, solid bitumens whose chief constituents, asphaltenes, have very large molecules. Asphaltites are dark brown to black in colour. They are insoluble in petroleum naphthas and thus require heating to release their petroleum content. Though related

  • aspheric surface (optics)

    optics: Nonclassical imaging systems: …familiar of these is the aspheric (nonspherical) surface. Because plane and spherical surfaces are the easiest to generate accurately on glass, most lenses contain only such surfaces. It is occasionally necessary, however, to use some other axially symmetric surface on a lens or mirror, generally to correct a particular aberration.…

  • asphodel (plant)

    Asphodel, any of several flowering plants belonging to the family Asphodelaceae. It is a variously applied and thus much misunderstood common name. The asphodel of the poets is often a narcissus; that of the ancients is either of two genera, Asphodeline or Asphodelus, containing numerous species in

  • Asphodelaceae (plant family)

    Asparagales: Leaves: …is a characteristic of most Asphodelaceae, a predominantly African family, many members of which are popular garden ornamentals, especially in warm dry regions of the world. In addition, these fleshy leaves often have spines (confined to the margins or on the blades) and other types of ornamentation. In Old World…

  • Asphodelus albus (plant)

    asphodel: Asphodelus albus and A. fistulosus have white-to-pink flowers and grow from 45 to 60 cm (1 12 to 2 feet) high.

  • Asphodelus fistulosus (plant)

    asphodel: Asphodelus albus and A. fistulosus have white-to-pink flowers and grow from 45 to 60 cm (1 12 to 2 feet) high.

  • asphyxia (pathology)

    Asphyxia, the failure or disturbance of the respiratory process brought about by the lack or insufficiency of oxygen in the brain. The unconsciousness that results sometimes leads to death. Asphyxia can be caused by injury to or obstruction of breathing passageways, as in strangulation or the

  • aspic (food)

    Aspic, savoury clear jelly prepared from a liquid stock made by simmering the bones of beef, veal, chicken, or fish. The aspic congeals when refrigerated by virtue of the natural gelatin that dissolves into the stock from the tendons; commercial sheet or powdered gelatin is sometimes added to

  • Aspidistra (plant genus)

    Aspidistra, genus of ornamental foliage plants in the family Ruscaceae, native to eastern Asia. The only cultivated species is a houseplant commonly known as cast-iron plant (A. elatior, or A. lurida). The cast-iron plant has long, stiff, pointed evergreen leaves that are capable of withstanding

  • Aspidogastrea (flatworm subclass)

    flatworm: Annotated classification: Subclass Aspidogastrea Oral sucker absent; main adhesive organ occupying almost the entire ventral surface, consists of suckerlets arranged in rows; excretory pore single and posterior; endoparasites of vertebrates, mollusks, and crustaceans; about 35 species. Subclass Digenea Oral and ventral suckers generally well-developed; development involves at least…

  • Aspidontus taeniatus (fish)

    perciform: Interspecific relationships: …in the case of the sabre-toothed blenny (Aspidontus taeniatus), which mimics the cleaner fish Labroides. By resembling a cleaner fish, the blenny is able to approach other fishes and surprise them by rushing in to bite off a piece of fin (see mimicry). Similar mimicry also occurs in an East…

  • Aspilogia (work by Spelman)

    heraldry: Early writers: …with Upton’s work and the Aspilogia of Sir Henry Spelman by Sir Edward Bysshe, Garter King of Arms, who edited and annotated all three works. The whole was in Latin; no complete English version of Upton’s book has been published.

  • Aspin, Leslie, Jr. (American politician)

    Les Aspin, Jr., U.S. politician (born July 21, 1938, Milwaukee, Wis.—died May 21, 1995, Washington, D.C.), was a Democrat from Wisconsin who won election in 1970 to the U.S. House of Representatives as an opponent of the Vietnam War. Later, while serving (1985-92) as chairman of the House Armed S

  • Aspinall, John Victor (British businessman)

    John Victor Aspinall, British gambling tycoon and zoo owner (born June 11, 1926, Delhi, India—died June 29, 2000, London, Eng.), established two wild-animal parks in the English countryside and financed them with profits he made from running private London gambling clubs, some of which he e

  • Aspinall, Neil (British accountant and music company executive)

    Neil Stanley Aspinall, British accountant and music company executive (born Oct. 13, 1941, Prestatyn, Wales—died March 24, 2008, New York, N.Y.), was often called “the Fifth Beatle” because of his distinctive clout as the road manager, trusted personal assistant, and, ultimately, corporate chief

  • Aspinall, Neil Stanley (British accountant and music company executive)

    Neil Stanley Aspinall, British accountant and music company executive (born Oct. 13, 1941, Prestatyn, Wales—died March 24, 2008, New York, N.Y.), was often called “the Fifth Beatle” because of his distinctive clout as the road manager, trusted personal assistant, and, ultimately, corporate chief

  • Aspinwall (Panama)

    Colón, city and port, north-central Panama. Founded in 1850 at the Atlantic (northern) terminus of the original Panama Railroad (now the Panama Canal Railway), the settlement was first called Aspinwall, named for one of the builders of the railway. Colón is the Spanish form of Columbus; the name of

  • aspiny striatal neuron (cerebral nerve cells)

    human nervous system: Basal ganglia: Aspiny striatal neurons have smooth dendrites and short axons confined to the caudate nucleus or putamen. Small aspiny striatal neurons secrete GABA, neuropeptide Y, somatostatin, or some combination of these. The largest aspiny neurons are evenly distributed neurons that also secrete neurotransmitters and are important…

  • aspirate (linguistics)

    Aspirate, the sound h as in English “hat.” Consonant sounds such as the English voiceless stops p, t, and k at the beginning of words (e.g., “pat,” “top,” “keel”) are also aspirated because they are pronounced with an accompanying forceful expulsion of air. Such sounds are not aspirated at the end

  • aspirin (drug)

    Aspirin, derivative of salicylic acid that is a mild nonnarcotic analgesic (pain reliever) useful in the relief of headache and muscle and joint aches. Aspirin is effective in reducing fever, inflammation, and swelling and thus has been used for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, rheumatic fever,

  • Aspiring, Mount (mountain, New Zealand)

    Mount Aspiring, mountain in the Southern Alps of west-central South Island, New Zealand. It is a pyramid-shaped peak that rises from the small Bonar, Volta, Therma, and Iso glaciers. Its four ridges reach 9,932 feet (3,027 m), with thick rain forests clothing the western slopes. Sighted and named

  • aspis (snake)

    cobra: The Egyptian cobra (N. haje)—probably the asp of antiquity—is a dark, narrow-hooded species, about two metres long, that ranges over much of Africa and eastward to Arabia. Its usual prey consists of toads and birds. In equatorial Africa there are tree cobras (genus Pseudohaje), which, along…

  • Aspleniaceae (plant family)

    Aspleniaceae, the spleenwort family of ferns, with 1–10 genera and some 800 species, in the division Pteridophyta (the lower vascular plants). Some botanists treat Aspleniaceae as comprising a single genus, Asplenium (spleenwort), but up to nine small segregate genera are recognized by other

  • Asplenium (fern genus)

    fern: Hybridization: …certain fern genera, such as spleenworts (Asplenium), wood ferns (Dryopteris), and holly ferns (Polystichum), hybridization between species (interspecific crossing) may be so frequent as to cause serious taxonomic problems. Hybridization between genera is rare but has been reported between closely related groups. Fern hybrids are conspicuously intermediate in characteristics between…

  • Asplenium rhizophyllum (plant)

    walking fern: …member either of the species Asplenium rhizophyllum, of eastern North America, or of A. sibiricum, of eastern Asia, in the family Aspleniaceae. The common name derives from the fact that new plantlets sprout wherever the tips of parent plant’s arching leaves touch the ground. The plant’s leaves are evergreen, undivided,…

  • Asplenium sibiricum (plant)

    walking fern: …eastern North America, or of A. sibiricum, of eastern Asia, in the family Aspleniaceae. The common name derives from the fact that new plantlets sprout wherever the tips of parent plant’s arching leaves touch the ground. The plant’s leaves are evergreen, undivided, and slightly leathery; they are triangular in shape,…

  • Asplund, Erik Gunnar (Swedish architect)

    Gunnar Asplund, Swedish architect whose work shows the historically important transition from Neoclassical to modern design. Asplund was educated at the Academy of Fine Arts in Stockholm. His exposure to classical architecture on a trip to Greece and Italy (1913–14) made a profound impression.

  • Asplund, Gunnar (Swedish architect)

    Gunnar Asplund, Swedish architect whose work shows the historically important transition from Neoclassical to modern design. Asplund was educated at the Academy of Fine Arts in Stockholm. His exposure to classical architecture on a trip to Greece and Italy (1913–14) made a profound impression.

  • Aspredinidae (fish)

    ostariophysan: Annotated classification: Family Aspredinidae (banjo catfishes) Adipose lacking; broad, flat head; large tubercles on naked body. Aquarium fishes. Size to 30 cm (12 inches). A few enter brackish waters and salt waters. South America. 12 genera, 36 species. Family Pimelodidae (long-whiskered catfishes) Similar to Bagridae but lack nasal barbels.…

  • Aspromonte (mountains, Italy)

    Calabria: …the extreme south in the Aspromonte massif (Montalto, 6,417 feet [1,956 m]).

  • Aspromonte, Battle of (Italian history)

    Giuseppe Garibaldi: Last campaigns: At the ensuing Battle of Aspromonte, he was badly wounded and taken prisoner. When he was freed, however, the king’s complicity could no longer be denied. Garibaldi’s wound left him lame, but this did not prevent the government from using him more openly when war broke out with…

  • Aspropótamos (river, Greece)

    Achelous River, one of the longest rivers in Greece, rising in the Pindus (Modern Greek: Píndos) Mountains of central Epirus (ípeiros) and dividing Aetolia from Acarnania. It empties into the Ionian Sea (Ióvio Pélagos) after a course of 140 miles (220 km), mostly through gorges. Well above Agrínion

  • Asprucci, Mario (Italian architect)

    Western architecture: Italy: …Villa Borghese, Rome, designed by Mario Asprucci, 20 years after Stuart’s temple at Hagley. Also Greek was the Gymnasium, in the Botanic Garden, Palermo (1789–92), built by Léon Dufourny, who had been a pupil of LeRoy and Peyre.

  • Asquith, H. H., 1st earl of Oxford and Asquith (prime minister of United Kingdom)

    H.H. Asquith, 1st earl of Oxford and Asquith, Liberal prime minister of Great Britain (1908–16), who was responsible for the Parliament Act of 1911, limiting the power of the House of Lords, and who led Britain during the first two years of World War I. Asquith was the second son of Joseph Asquith,

  • Asquith, Herbert Henry, 1st Earl of Oxford and Asquith, Viscount Asquith of Morley (prime minister of United Kingdom)

    H.H. Asquith, 1st earl of Oxford and Asquith, Liberal prime minister of Great Britain (1908–16), who was responsible for the Parliament Act of 1911, limiting the power of the House of Lords, and who led Britain during the first two years of World War I. Asquith was the second son of Joseph Asquith,

  • ASR (radar technology)

    radar: Airport surveillance radar: Airport surveillance radar systems are capable of reliably detecting and tracking aircraft at altitudes below 25,000 feet (7,620 metres) and within 40 to 60 nautical miles (75 to 110 km) of their airport. Systems of this type have been installed at more…

  • ASR-9 (radar technology)

    radar: Airport surveillance radar: One such system, the ASR-9, is designed to be operable at least 99.9 percent of the time, which means that the system is down less than 10 hours per year. This high availability is attributable to reliable electronic components, a “built-in test” to search for failures, remote monitoring, and…

  • Asraltkhairkhan (mountain, Mongolia)

    Mongolia: The mountains: The highest peak is Asraltkhairkhan, which reaches about 9,200 feet (2,800 metres), but, in general, maximum elevations are about 7,000 feet (2,130 metres). Ulaanbaatar lies at the southwestern edge of the range. The Da Hinggan (Greater Khingan) Range rises along and beyond the eastern frontier with China.

  • asrama (Hinduism)

    Ashrama, in Hinduism, any of the four stages of life through which a Hindu ideally will pass. The stages are those of (1) the student (brahmacari), marked by chastity, devotion, and obedience to one’s teacher, (2) the householder (grihastha), requiring marriage, the begetting of children,

  • ā?rama (Hindu retreat)

    ashrama: Ashrama, familiarly spelled ashram in English, has also come to denote a place removed from urban life, where spiritual and yogic disciplines are pursued. Ashrams are often associated with a central teaching figure, a guru, who is the object of adulation by the residents of the ashram. The…

  • ā?rama (Hinduism)

    Ashrama, in Hinduism, any of the four stages of life through which a Hindu ideally will pass. The stages are those of (1) the student (brahmacari), marked by chastity, devotion, and obedience to one’s teacher, (2) the householder (grihastha), requiring marriage, the begetting of children,

  • Asrār al-?ikmah (work by Sabzevārī)

    Hājjī Hādī Sabzevārī: …the Shāh, he wrote the Asrār al-?ikmah (“The Secrets of Wisdom”), which, together with his Arabic treatise Shar? manzumah (“A Treatise on Logic in Verse”), remains a basic text for the study of ?ikmat doctrines in Iran. Not limited to philosophy, he also wrote poetry under the name of Asrār…

  • Asrār-e khūdī (poem by Iqbal)

    Sir Muhammad Iqbal: Early life and career: …Persian poem Asrār-e khūdī (The Secrets of the Self). He wrote in Persian because he sought to address his appeal to the entire Muslim world. In this work he presents a theory of the self that is a strong condemnation of the self-negating quietism (i.e., the belief that perfection…

  • āsrāva (Buddhism)

    āsrāva, (Sanskrit: “what leaks out”) in Buddhist philosophy, the illusion that ceaselessly flows out from internal organs (i.e., five sense organs and the mind). To the unenlightened, every existence becomes the object of illusion or is inevitably accompanied by illusion. Such an existence is

  • ass (mammal)

    Ass, either of two species belonging to the horse family, Equidae, especially the African wild ass (Equus africanus) sometimes referred to as the true ass. The related Asiatic wild ass, sometimes called the Asian wild ass or the half-ass (E. hemionus), is usually known by the local names of its

  • áss (Scandinavian mythology)

    Aesir, in Scandinavian mythology, either of two main groups of deities, four of whom were common to the Germanic nations: Odin (q.v.), chief of the Aesir; Frigg (q.v.), Odin’s wife; Tyr (q.v.), god of war; and Thor (q.v.), whose name was the Teutonic word for thunder. Some of the other important

  • Assab (Eritrea)

    Asseb, Red Sea port, southeastern Eritrea. It lies at the entrance of Asseb Bay and is Eritrea’s second most important port (after Massawa). Formerly a terminus of caravan routes across the arid Denakil Plain, the Asseb coastal strip was acquired by Italian shipping interests in 1869 and in 1882

  • Assad National Library, Al- (library, Damascus, Syria)

    Damascus: Cultural life: Al-Assad National Library was inaugurated in 1984. Among other important materials, it contains the precious collection of manuscripts and rare books of Damascus’s venerable public library, al-?āhiriyyah. The library associated with the University of Damascus is also significant.

  • Assad, Bashar al- (president of Syria)

    Bashar al-Assad, Syrian president from 2000. He succeeded his father, ?afiz al-Assad, who had ruled Syria since 1971. In spite of early hopes that his presidency would usher in an era of democratic reform and economic revival, Bashar al-Assad largely continued his father’s authoritarian methods.

  • Assad, Hafez al- (president of Syria)

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  • Assad, Hafiz al- (president of Syria)

    ?afiz al-Assad, president of Syria (1971–2000) who brought stability to the country and established it as a powerful presence in the Middle East. Born into a poor family of ?Alawites, a minority Islamic sect, Assad joined the Syrian wing of the Ba?th Party in 1946 as a student activist. In 1952 he

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    Acai, (Euterpe oleracea), species of palm (family Arecaceae) cultivated for both its fruit and edible hearts of palm. Native to tropical South and Central America, acai palms are common along the Amazon River estuary and are cultivated on floodplains, especially in the state of Pará in Brazil. The

  • assaí (plant and fruit)

    Acai, (Euterpe oleracea), species of palm (family Arecaceae) cultivated for both its fruit and edible hearts of palm. Native to tropical South and Central America, acai palms are common along the Amazon River estuary and are cultivated on floodplains, especially in the state of Pará in Brazil. The

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    Lake Assal, Saline lake, central Djibouti. Situated at 515 ft (157 m) below sea level, it is the lowest point in Africa. It has been used for quarrying

  • Assam (state, India)

    Assam, state of India. It is located in the northeastern part of the country and is bounded to the north by the kingdom of Bhutan and the state of Arunachal Pradesh, to the east by the states of Nagaland and Manipur, to the south by the states of Mizoram and Tripura, and to the west by Bangladesh

  • Assam Himalayas (mountains, Asia)

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