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  • Asir (region, Saudi Arabia)

    Asir, (“Difficult Country”), region of southwestern Saudi Arabia immediately north of Yemen. Asir consists of about 40,000 square miles (100,000 square km) of Red Sea coastal plains, high mountains, and the upper valleys of the wadis (seasonal watercourses) Bīshah and Tathlīth. Asir was long a p

  • Asirgarh (fortress, India)

    Asirgarh, Indian fortress situated between the Tapti and Narmada rivers, just north of the city of Burhanpur, in the former Central Provinces and the present state of Maharashtra. The principal importance of the fortress was its strategic location on the only easily accessible route from northern

  • Asitawandas (king of the Danunians)

    Karatepe: …ruler of the city was Asitawandas, king of the Danunians, a vassal of Awarikus of Adana. Asitawandas claimed descent from the “house of Mopsus”; Mopsus is known in Greek legend as an emigrant from Ionia and founder of nearby Cilician Mopsuestia (modern Misis). The Assyrians probably destroyed the city in…

  • asity (bird)

    Asity, either of two species of short-tailed, 15-centimetre- (6-inch-) long birds of the family Philepittidae (order Passeriformes), inhabiting forests of Madagascar. The male of the velvet asity (Philepitta castanea) has yellow tips to its feathers when newly molted, but these wear off, leaving

  • Asiut (Egypt)

    Asyū?, capital of Asyū? mu?āfa?ah (governorate) and one of the largest settlements of Upper Egypt. It lies on the west bank of the Nile River, almost midway between Cairo and Aswān. The irrigated Nile River valley is about 12 miles (20 km) wide at that point. Known as Syut in ancient Egypt, the

  • Asiut (governorate, Egypt)

    Asyū?, mu?āfa?ah (governorate) of Upper Egypt. It lies along the Nile River, between Al-Minyā governorate to the north and Sawhāj governorate to the south. Its settled area, which is limited to the river valley, extends almost 100 miles (160 km) along the river and is about 12 miles (19 km) wide.

  • ASK (communications)

    telecommunication: Amplitude-shift keying: If amplitude is the only parameter of the carrier wave to be altered by the information signal, the modulating method is called amplitude-shift keying (ASK). ASK can be considered a digital version of analog amplitude modulation. In its simplest form, a burst of…

  • Ask the Dust (film by Towne [2006])

    Salma Hayek: Depp; After the Sunset (2004); Ask the Dust (2006), based on the novel by John Fante; and Cirque du Freak: The Vampire’s Assistant (2009).

  • Ask the Dust (novel by Fante)

    John Fante: …followed by his best-known book, Ask the Dust (1939), the first of his novels set in Depression-era California. Other books included the story collection Dago Red (1940) and the novels Full of Life (1952) and Brotherhood of the Grape (1977). He also wrote numerous screenplays, including Creature from the Black…

  • Askalon (Israel)

    Ashqelon, city on the coastal plain of Palestine, since 1948 in southwestern Israel. The modern city lies 12 miles (19 km) north of Gaza and 1.25 miles (2 km) east-northeast of the ancient city site. Because of its location on the Mediterranean coast, Ashqelon was traditionally the key to the

  • Askaniya-Nova Nature Reserve (nature reserve, Ukraine)

    Ukraine: Plant and animal life: The country’s first nature reserve, Askaniya-Nova, began as a private wildlife refuge in 1875; today it protects a portion of virgin steppe. Some 40 different mammals, including the onager and Przewalski’s horse, have been introduced there as part of a successful program of breeding endangered species; ostriches also have been…

  • ?Askarī, Abū Hilāl al- (Arab scholar)

    Arabic literature: Compilations and manuals: …the earliest such works was Abū Hilāl al-?Askarī’s 10th-century Kitāb al-?inā?atayn, al-kitābah wa al-shi?r (“The Book of the Two Skills, Scribal Arts and Poetry”), the title of which notes what was for al-?Askarī the relatively recent placement of textual analysis devoted to artistic prose alongside the traditionally prestigious genre of…

  • ?Askarī, Ja?far al- (Iraqi statesman)

    Ja?far al-?Askarī, army officer and Iraqi political leader who played an important role in the Arab nationalist movements during and after World War I. ?Askarī was educated in Baghdad and in Istanbul and commissioned in the Ottoman Turkish army in 1909. He was sent in 1915 to join Turkish forces in

  • ?Askaria Mosque, Al- (shrine, Iraq)

    al-Qaeda in Iraq: …destroyed the golden dome of Al-?Askariyyah Mosque in Sāmarrā?, one of Shī?ism’s holiest mosques, amplifying the existing cycle of violent retribution and provoking some of the worst sectarian violence of the post-invasion period.

  • Aske, Robert (English insurgent)

    Pilgrimage of Grace: …begun in Yorkshire, led by Robert Aske, a country gentleman and lawyer. Aske took York and by October 24 was supported by about 30,000 armed men and by magnates such as Edward Lee, archbishop of York, and Thomas Darcy, Baron Darcy of Templehurst. The government had insufficient troops in the…

  • askeriye (Ottoman institution)

    Ottoman Empire: Classical Ottoman society and administration: …Ottoman system; the military (seyfiye or askeriye) institution, which was responsible for expanding and defending the empire and keeping order and security within the sultan’s dominions; the administrative, or scribal (kalemiye), institution, organized as the imperial treasury (hazine-i amire), which was in charge of collecting and spending the imperial…

  • Askew Codex (Coptic text)

    gnosticism: Apocryphon of John: …sets of Coptic texts, the Askew Codex and the Bruce Codex, which were discovered in Egypt in the 18th century but not published until the 19th century. A third important Coptic text, known as the Berlin Codex 8502, was announced in 1896 but not published until the mid-20th century. In…

  • Askew, Reubin (American politician)

    Bill Nelson: Reubin Askew in 1971, Nelson launched his own political career and was elected to the Florida House of Representatives in 1972. That year he also married Grace Cavert, and the couple later had two children. He served in the state legislature from 1973 to 1979.…

  • Askhabad (national capital, Turkmenistan)

    Ashgabat, city and capital of Turkmenistan. It lies in an oasis at the northern foot of the Kopet-Dag (Turkmen: K?petdag) Range and on the edge of the Karakum (Turkmen: Garagum) Desert, about 19 miles (30 km) from the Iranian frontier. It was founded in 1881 as a Russian military fort and took the

  • Askia Dāwūd (Songhai emperor)

    Guang: …by the Malinke cavalrymen of Askia Dawūd, emperor of Songhai from 1549 to 1582. In the 17th century a Mande chief called Jakpa established a ruling dynasty and expanded the state’s territory. Gonja was incorporated into the Asante empire during the 18th century.

  • Askia dynasty

    Askia dynasty, Muslim family that ruled the extensive Songhai empire of West Africa, centred on Gao, in present Mali, from 1493 to 1591. Its members included the dynasty’s founder, Mu?ammad I Askia, Askia Musa (reigned 1528–31), and Askia Ismail (reigned

  • Askia Isma?l (Songhai ruler)

    Mu?ammad I Askia: Fall from power and death: …his third successor, his son Askia Isma?l, recalled his father to Gao. To reward him, Mu?ammad bequeathed to him his green turban and his caliph’s sabre. In 1538, during a period of temporary calm, this founder of a dynasty died. He was buried in Gao, under a pyramid of earth…

  • Askia Mu?ammad (Songhai ruler)

    Mu?ammad I Askia, West African statesman and military leader who usurped the throne of the Songhai empire (1493) and, in a series of conquests, greatly expanded the empire and strengthened it. He was overthrown by his son, Askia Mūsā, in 1528. Both Mu?ammad’s place and date of birth are unknown.

  • Askia Mūsā (Songhai ruler)

    Mu?ammad I Askia: Fall from power and death: …his father, taking the name Askia Mūsā. He kept this title for three years before being assassinated himself by one of his brothers. Now deposed, the old Askia Mu?ammad was banished to an island in the river, a place “infested with mosquitoes and toads.” There, from 1528 to 1537, he…

  • Askival (mountain, Scotland, United Kingdom)

    Rum: …(600 metres), the highest being Askival (2,659 feet [810 metres]). Rum was acquired in 1957 by the National Conservancy, a British conservation group, and became a nature reserve set aside for botanical and geological research and for studying the local red deer.

  • Askja (caldera, Iceland)

    Askja, (Icelandic: Box) largest caldera (volcanic crater) in the Dyngjufj?ll volcanic massif, in east-central Iceland. It lies 20 miles (32 km) north of Vatnaj?kull (Vatna Glacier), the island’s largest ice field. Its rugged peaks, up to 4,973 feet (1,516 metres) above sea level, encircle a

  • Asklepios (Greco-Roman god)

    Asclepius, Greco-Roman god of medicine, son of Apollo (god of healing, truth, and prophecy) and the mortal princess Coronis. The Centaur Chiron taught him the art of healing. At length Zeus (the king of the gods), afraid that Asclepius might render all men immortal, slew him with a thunderbolt.

  • Askr and Embla (Norse mythology)

    Askr and Embla, in Norse mythology, the first man and first woman, respectively, parents of the human race. They were created from tree trunks found on the seashore by three gods—Odin and his two brothers, Vili and Ve (some sources name the gods Odin, Hoenir, and Lodur). From each creator Askr and

  • ASL (communications)

    American Sign Language (ASL), visual-gestural language used by most of the deaf community in the United States and Canada. ASL is a natural language with a structure quite different from spoken English. It is not a manual-gestural representation of spoken English, nor is it pantomime. Instead, ASL

  • Asmar, Tall al- (ancient city, Iraq)

    Eshnunna, ancient city in the Diyālā River valley lying about 20 miles (32 km) northeast of Baghdad in east-central Iraq. The excavations carried out by the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago revealed that the site was occupied sometime before 3000 bc. The city expanded throughout the

  • Asmara (national capital, Eritrea)

    Asmara, city, capital of Eritrea. It is located on the northern tip of the Ethiopian Plateau at an elevation of 7,628 feet (2,325 metres). Asmara lies on the Eritrean Railway and is a major road junction; its international airport, built in 1962, is 2.5 miles (4 km) southeast, and its port on the

  • Asmat (people)

    bisj pole: In the Asmat area, for example, the mangrove tree, representing the enemy, is ceremonially stalked and cut down. As the bark is stripped from the trunk and red sap seeps from the white wood, the Asmat is reminded of the conquered warrior’s blood.

  • asmatika (music)

    kontakion: Choral parts are preserved in asmatika (from asma, “song”). The musical settings tend to be melismatic—i.e., elaborate melodies with many notes per syllable. Kontakia that have retained a special place in liturgical services are the Christmas kontakion by Romanos and the “Akathistos” hymn, a long hymn to the Virgin, sung…

  • A?ma?ī, al- (Arab scholar)

    Al-A?ma?ī, noted scholar and anthologist, one of the three leading members of the Basra school of Arabic philology. A gifted student of Abū ?Amr ibn al-?Alā?, the founder of the Basra school, al-A?ma?ī joined the court of the ?Abbāsid caliph Hārūn al-Rashīd in Baghdad. Renowned for his piety and

  • Asmera (national capital, Eritrea)

    Asmara, city, capital of Eritrea. It is located on the northern tip of the Ethiopian Plateau at an elevation of 7,628 feet (2,325 metres). Asmara lies on the Eritrean Railway and is a major road junction; its international airport, built in 1962, is 2.5 miles (4 km) southeast, and its port on the

  • Asmodeus (Jewish legend)

    Asmodeus, in Jewish legend, the king of demons. According to the apocryphal book of Tobit, Asmodeus, smitten with love for Sarah, the daughter of Raguel, killed her seven successive husbands on their wedding nights. Following instructions given to him by the angel Raphael, Tobias overcame A

  • ásmundar saga kappabana (Icelandic literature)

    saga: Legendary sagas: …og Hálfsrekka; Gautreks saga; and ásmundar saga kappabana, which tells the same story as the Old High German Hildebrandslied, that of a duel of honour between a father and a son.

  • Asnam, El- (Algeria)

    Ech-Cheliff, town, northern Algeria. It lies along the Chelif River, south of the Mediterranean Sea port of Ténès. It was founded by the French in 1843 on the site of the ancient Roman settlement of Castellum Tingitanum and is now an important rail junction midway between Algiers and Oran, as well

  • Asner, Ed (American actor)

    Ed Asner, American actor known for his trademark husky voice and his role as Lou Grant, a gruff news producer on The Mary Tyler Moore Show (1970–77). The son of immigrants, Asner was raised as one of five children in an Orthodox Jewish family. He got his start as a performer on a high-school radio

  • Asner, Edward (American actor)

    Ed Asner, American actor known for his trademark husky voice and his role as Lou Grant, a gruff news producer on The Mary Tyler Moore Show (1970–77). The son of immigrants, Asner was raised as one of five children in an Orthodox Jewish family. He got his start as a performer on a high-school radio

  • Asner, Yitzhak Edward (American actor)

    Ed Asner, American actor known for his trademark husky voice and his role as Lou Grant, a gruff news producer on The Mary Tyler Moore Show (1970–77). The son of immigrants, Asner was raised as one of five children in an Orthodox Jewish family. He got his start as a performer on a high-school radio

  • asno erudito, El (work by Forner)

    Juan Pablo Forner: …sarcasm on his contemporaries; in El asno erudito (1782; “The Erudite Ass”) the dramatist Tomás de Iriarte and his work came under vicious attack. A ban prevented his writing more satires after 1785. His two most important works are Exequias de la lengua castellana (1795; “Exequies of the Castilian Language”),…

  • Asnyk, Adam (Polish author)

    Adam Asnyk, Polish poet and playwright renowned for the simplicity of his poetic style. Asnyk’s family belonged to the minor gentry. His father, a soldier, spent two years as an exile in Siberia before returning to Poland to become a successful merchant. For a while Asnyk studied medicine in

  • Asō Tarō (prime minister of Japan)

    Asō Tarō, Japanese Liberal-Democratic Party (LDP) politician who served as prime minister of Japan from September 24, 2008, to September 16, 2009. He succeeded Fukuda Yasuo. In 2012 Asō became deputy prime minister and finance minister. Asō, the son of a business tycoon, was closely linked to the

  • Aso, Mount (volcano, Japan)

    Mount Aso, volcano, Kumamoto ken (prefecture), Kyushu, Japan, rising to an elevation of 5,223 feet (1,592 m). It has the largest active crater in the world, measuring 71 miles (114 km) in circumference, 17 miles (27 km) from north to south, and 10 miles (16 km) from east to west. Its caldera

  • Aso-san (volcano, Japan)

    Mount Aso, volcano, Kumamoto ken (prefecture), Kyushu, Japan, rising to an elevation of 5,223 feet (1,592 m). It has the largest active crater in the world, measuring 71 miles (114 km) in circumference, 17 miles (27 km) from north to south, and 10 miles (16 km) from east to west. Its caldera

  • Asociación Internacional de Radiodifusión (international organization)

    broadcasting: International organizations: The Asociación Internacional de Radiodifusión primarily covers North, Central, and South America but includes some European countries. Its central office is in Montevideo, Uru. The Commonwealth Broadcasting Association, established in 1945 as a standing association of national public-service broadcasting organizations in the independent countries of the…

  • Asociación LatinoAmericana de Integración (international organization)

    Latin American Integration Association, organization that was established by the Treaty of Montevideo (August 1980) and became operational in March 1981. It seeks economic cooperation among its members. Original members were Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Paraguay,

  • Asociación Latinoamericana de Libre Comercio (international economic organization)

    Mercosur: …of Latin America through the Latin American Free Trade Association (1960) and its successor, the Latin American Integration Association (1980). In 1985 Argentina and Brazil signed the Declaration of Igua?u, which created a bilateral commission to promote the integration of their economies; by the following year the two countries had…

  • Asociación Nacional Republicana (political party, Paraguay)

    Horacio Cartes: …to enter politics, joining the Colorado Party in 2009 and mounting his own movement within it, though theretofore he had never even voted. When the party, impressed by Cartes’s business acumen, dropped its requirement that an individual must be a member of the party for 10 years before becoming a…

  • asocial personality disorder (psychology)

    Antisocial personality disorder, personality disorder characterized by a pervasive pattern of disregard for the feelings of others and often accompanied by violation of the rights of others through negligence or overt action. The disorder occurs in about 2 to 3 percent of adults; prevalence is

  • A?oka (language)

    Indo-Aryan languages: Texts: …Indo-Aryan is that of the A?okan inscriptions (3rd century bce). These are more or less full translations from original edicts issued in the language of the east (from the capital Pā?aliputra in Magadha, near modern Patna in Bihār) into the languages of the areas of A?oka’s kingdom. There are other…

  • A?oka (emperor of India)

    Ashoka, last major emperor in the Mauryan dynasty of India. His vigorous patronage of Buddhism during his reign (c. 265–238 bce; also given as c. 273–232 bce) furthered the expansion of that religion throughout India. Following his successful but bloody conquest of the Kalinga country on the east

  • A?oka inscriptions (Buddhism)

    Rock edicts, narrative histories and announcements carved into cliff rock, onto pillars, and in caves throughout India by King Ashoka (reigned c. 265–238 bce), the most powerful emperor of the Mauryan dynasty and a highly influential promulgator of Indian Buddhism. Ashoka’s first years as king were

  • A?okan Southern Brāhmī script

    Indo-Aryan languages: Writing systems: …right and appears earliest on A?okan inscriptions in areas other than the northwest. Most scripts of New Indo-Aryan are developments of the Brāhmī. The Devanāgarī (or simply Nāgarī), used for writing Sanskrit documents in North India, is the script of Hindī and Marā?hī as well as Nepālī. Gujarātī uses a…

  • Asolani, Gli (work by Bembo)

    Pietro Bembo: His other vernacular works include Gli Asolani (1505), dialogues on platonic love, the systemization of which influenced Ludovico Ariosto, Baldassare Castiglione, and Torquato Tasso; and Prose della volgar lingua (1525; “Discussions of the Vernacular Language”). In the Prose, Bembo codified Italian orthography and grammar, essential for the establishment of a…

  • Asolo (Italy)

    Caterina Cornaro: …the castle and town of Asolo, which she governed beneficently. She died after having fled Asolo when her castle was occupied by imperial troops.

  • Asom Gana Parishad (political party, India)

    Assam People’s Council, regional political party in Assam state, northeastern India, founded in 1985. The AGP’s initial purported and yet limited objective was to “protect the interests of the genuine residents of Assam” by seeking to deport a large number of illegal immigrants who had been coming

  • Asomtavruli alphabet (script)

    Georgian language: Asomtavruli evolved into Khutsuri, an ecclesiastical script of 38 letters, including 6 vowels. Neither script is currently in use. Mkhedruli, a lay alphabet originally of 40 letters (7 are now obsolete), 6 of them vowels, is the script commonly used at present in printing and…

  • Asososca, Lake (lake, Nicaragua)

    Nicaragua: Drainage: …square miles (1,035 square km), Lake Asososca, which acts as the city’s reservoir of drinking water, and Lake Jiloá, which is slightly alkaline and is a favourite bathing resort. Lake Masaya is prized for its swimming and fishing facilities; the sulfurous waters of Lake Nejapa have medicinal properties ascribed to…

  • ASP (computing)

    cloud computing: Early development: …a number of companies, called application service providers (ASPs), were founded to supply computer applications to companies over the Internet. Most of the early ASPs failed, but their model of supplying applications remotely became popular a decade later, when it was renamed cloud computing.

  • ASP (Tanzanian political organization)

    Tanzania: Political process: …colony to independence, and the Afro-Shirazi Party (ASP) of Zanzibar, which had taken power after a coup in 1964, merged to form the Revolutionary Party (Chama cha Mapinduzi; CCM), and a new constitution was adopted the same year. Prior to the 1992 amendment, the CCM dominated all aspects of political…

  • asp (snake)

    Asp, anglicized form of aspis, name used in classical antiquity for a venomous snake, probably the Egyptian cobra, Naja haje. It was the symbol of royalty in Egypt, and its bite was used for the execution of favoured criminals in Greco-Roman times. Cleopatra is said to have killed herself with an

  • ASP (political party, Albania)

    Enver Hoxha: …communists helped Hoxha found the Albanian Communist Party (afterward called the Party of Labour). Hoxha became first secretary of the party’s Central Committee and political commissar of the communist-dominated Army of National Liberation. He was prime minister of Albania from its liberation in 1944 until 1954, simultaneously holding the ministry…

  • Asp, Anna (Swedish production designer and art director)
  • Aspalathus (plant genus)

    scrubland: Biota: …diverse plant genera are Erica, Aspalathus, and Senecio, shrubs respectively in the heather, bean, and daisy families. Other richly represented families include the sedges, irises, grasses, lilies, and orchids, all of which consist of small, herbaceous plants that grow beneath the shrub canopy. The most colourful and conspicuous shrubs are…

  • Aspar, Flavius Ardaburius (Roman general)

    Flavius Ardaburius Aspar, Roman general of Alani descent, influential in the Eastern Roman Empire under the emperors Marcian (ruled 450–457) and Leo I (ruled 457–474). Aspar led an East Roman fleet in 431 to expel the Vandals from Africa, but he was defeated and was forced to withdraw in 434, in

  • Asparagaceae (plant family)
  • Asparagales (plant order)

    Asparagales, the asparagus or orchid order of flowering plants, containing 14 families, 1,122 genera, and more than 36,200 species. Asparagales contains many garden plants and several types of bulbs and cut flowers that are commercially important. The most notable plants in temperate gardens

  • asparaginase (drug)

    drug: Anticancer drugs: Asparaginase breaks down the amino acid asparagine to aspartic acid and ammonia. Some cancer cells, particularly in certain forms of leukemia, require this amino acid for growth and development. Other agents, such as dacarbazine and procarbazine, act through various methods, although they can act as…

  • asparagine (chemical compound)

    Asparagine, an amino acid closely related to aspartic acid, and an important component of proteins. First isolated in 1932 from asparagus, from which its name is derived, asparagine is widely distributed in plant proteins. It is one of several so-called nonessential amino acids in warm-blooded

  • asparagus (plant)

    asparagus: Garden asparagus: Garden asparagus, the most economically important species of the genus, is cultivated in most temperate and subtropical parts of the world. As a vegetable, it has been prized by epicures since Roman times. It is most commonly served cooked, either hot or in…

  • asparagus (plant genus)

    Asparagus, (genus Asparagus), genus of the family Asparagaceae with up to 300 species native from Siberia to southern Africa. Best known is the garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis), cultivated as a vegetable for its succulent spring stalks. Several African species are grown as ornamental

  • Asparagus (plant genus)

    Asparagus, (genus Asparagus), genus of the family Asparagaceae with up to 300 species native from Siberia to southern Africa. Best known is the garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis), cultivated as a vegetable for its succulent spring stalks. Several African species are grown as ornamental

  • Asparagus aethiopicus (plant)

    asparagus: Other species: Sprenger’s fern (A. aethiopicus), African asparagus fern (or bridal creeper, A. asparagoides), and asparagus fern (A. densiflorus) are grown for their attractive lacy foliage and are common ornamentals.

  • Asparagus asparagoides (plant)

    asparagus: Other species: aethiopicus), African asparagus fern (or bridal creeper, A. asparagoides), and asparagus fern (A. densiflorus) are grown for their attractive lacy foliage and are common ornamentals.

  • asparagus beetle (insect)

    Asparagus beetle, (genus Crioceris or Lema), any member of two genera that are important pests of the leaf beetle family, Chrysomelidae (order Coleoptera). The adult beetles are red, yellow, and black in colour and about 7 mm (almost 0.3 inch) long. They feed on and deposit oval black eggs on young

  • Asparagus densiflorus (plant)

    asparagus: Other species: asparagoides), and asparagus fern (A. densiflorus) are grown for their attractive lacy foliage and are common ornamentals.

  • asparagus fern (plant)

    asparagus: Other species: asparagoides), and asparagus fern (A. densiflorus) are grown for their attractive lacy foliage and are common ornamentals.

  • asparagus lettuce (vegetable)

    lettuce: …are cultivated: (1) celtuce, or asparagus lettuce (variety augustana), with narrow leaves and a thick, succulent, edible stem; (2) head, or cabbage, lettuce (variety capitata), with the leaves folded into a compact head; (3) leaf, or curled, lettuce (variety crispa), with a rosette of leaves that are curled, finely cut,…

  • Asparagus officinalis (plant)

    asparagus: Garden asparagus: Garden asparagus, the most economically important species of the genus, is cultivated in most temperate and subtropical parts of the world. As a vegetable, it has been prized by epicures since Roman times. It is most commonly served cooked, either hot or in…

  • asparagus order (plant order)

    Asparagales, the asparagus or orchid order of flowering plants, containing 14 families, 1,122 genera, and more than 36,200 species. Asparagales contains many garden plants and several types of bulbs and cut flowers that are commercially important. The most notable plants in temperate gardens

  • Asparagus plumosis (plant)

    asparagus: Other species: Florist’s fern (A. setaceus) is not a true fern and has feathery sprays of branchlets often used in corsages and in other plant arrangements. Sprenger’s fern (A. aethiopicus), African asparagus fern (or bridal creeper, A. asparagoides), and asparagus fern (A. densiflorus) are grown for their…

  • Asparagus setaceus (plant)

    asparagus: Other species: Florist’s fern (A. setaceus) is not a true fern and has feathery sprays of branchlets often used in corsages and in other plant arrangements. Sprenger’s fern (A. aethiopicus), African asparagus fern (or bridal creeper, A. asparagoides), and asparagus fern (A. densiflorus) are grown for their…

  • asparagus stone (gem)

    Asparagus stone, gem-quality, asparagus-green apatite. See

  • asparagusic acid (chemical compound)

    organosulfur compound: Disulfides and polysulfides and their oxidized products: Asparagusic acid (4-carboxy-1,2-dithiolane), found in asparagus roots, is considered to be a major factor in the natural resistance (i.e., survival in the soil) of this plant; 4-methylthio-1,2-dithiolane is a photosynthesis inhibitor from the stonewort. The characteristic flavour of the shiitake mushroom is due to the…

  • aspartame (chemical compound)

    Aspartame, synthetic organic compound (a dipeptide) of phenylalanine and aspartic acid. It is 150–200 times as sweet as cane sugar and is used as a nonnutritive tabletop sweetener and in low-calorie prepared foods (brand names NutraSweet, Equal) but is not suitable for baking. Because of its

  • aspartase (enzyme)

    metabolism: Removal of nitrogen: … via a reaction catalyzed by aspartase [27]; the other product, fumarate, is an intermediate of the TCA cycle.

  • aspartate (chemical compound)

    metabolism: Removal of nitrogen: … (NH3) can be removed from aspartate via a reaction catalyzed by aspartase [27]; the other product, fumarate, is an intermediate of the TCA cycle.

  • aspartate carbamoyltransferase (enzyme)

    metabolism: End-product inhibition: Studies of aspartate carbamoyltransferase have revealed that the affinity of this enzyme for its substrate (aspartate) is markedly decreased by the presence of CTP. This effect can be overcome by the addition of ATP, a purine nucleotide. The enzyme can be dissociated into two subunits: one contains…

  • aspartate family (chemical compounds)

    metabolism: End-product inhibition: …formation from oxaloacetate of the aspartate family of amino acids. As mentioned previously in this article, only plants and microorganisms can synthesize many of these amino acids, most animals requiring such amino acids to be supplied preformed in their diets.

  • aspartic acid (chemical compound)

    Aspartic acid, an amino acid obtainable as a product of the hydrolysis of proteins. First isolated in 1868 from legumin in plant seeds, aspartic acid is one of several so-called nonessential amino acids for mammals; i.e., they can synthesize it from oxaloacetic acid (formed in the metabolism of

  • aspartokinase (enzyme)

    metabolism: End-product inhibition: …the existence of three different aspartokinase enzymes, all of which catalyze the first step common to the production of all the products derived from aspartate. Each has a different regulatory effector molecule. Thus, one type of aspartokinase is inhibited by lysine, a second by threonine. The third kinase is not…

  • aspartylphenylalanine (chemical compound)

    Aspartame, synthetic organic compound (a dipeptide) of phenylalanine and aspartic acid. It is 150–200 times as sweet as cane sugar and is used as a nonnutritive tabletop sweetener and in low-calorie prepared foods (brand names NutraSweet, Equal) but is not suitable for baking. Because of its

  • Asparukh (Bulgarian leader)

    Bulgar: …the horde that Kurt’s son Asparukh led westward across the Dniester River and then southward across the Danube. There, on the plain between the Danube and the Balkan Mountains, they established the kernel of the so-called first Bulgarian empire—the state from which the modern nation of Bulgaria derives its name.…

  • Aspasia (mistress of Pericles)

    Aspasia, mistress of the Athenian statesman Pericles and a vivid figure in Athenian society. Although Aspasia came from the Greek Anatolian city of Miletus and was not a citizen of Athens, she lived with Pericles from about 445 until his death in 429. Because a law sponsored by Pericles in 451

  • Aspasine (king of Mesene)

    Mesene: …129 bc, a local prince, Hyspaosines (also called Aspasine, or Spasines), founded the Mesene kingdom, which survived until the rise of the Sāsānian empire. Hyspaosines refortified a town originally founded by Alexander the Great near the junction of the Eulaeus (Kārūn) and Tigris rivers and called it Spasinou Charax (“Fort…

  • ASPCA (American organization)

    cruelty to animals: …in England in 1824; the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals was chartered in 1866. In varying degrees, cruelty to animals is illegal in most countries, and interest in endangered species gave further impetus to the anticruelty movement in the late 20th century. Reflecting such interest, many…

  • Aspdin, Joseph (British mason)

    construction: Reintroduction of concrete: Joseph Aspdin patented the first true artificial cement, which he called Portland Cement, in 1824; the name implied that it was of the same high quality as Portland stone. To make portland cement, Aspdin burned limestone and clay together in a kiln; the clay provided…

  • aspect (grammar)

    Indo-European languages: Verbal inflection: The Proto-Indo-European verb had three aspects: imperfective, perfective, and stative. Aspect refers to the nature of an action as described by the speaker—e.g., an event occurring once, an event recurring repeatedly, a continuing process, or a state. The difference between English simple and “progressive” verb forms is largely one of…

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