You are using an outdated browser. Please upgrade your browser to improve your experience and security.
  • Ashkenazic script

    calligraphy: Old Hebrew: The Ashkenazic style of Hebrew writing exhibits French and German Gothic overtones of the so-called black-letter styles (see below Latin-alphabet handwriting: The black-letter, or Gothic, style [9th to 15th century]) developed to write western European languages in the late Middle Ages. German black letter, with its…

  • Ashkenazim (people)

    Ashkenazi, member of the Jews who lived in the Rhineland valley and in neighbouring France before their migration eastward to Slavic lands (e.g., Poland, Lithuania, Russia) after the Crusades (11th–13th century) and their descendants. After the 17th-century persecutions in eastern Europe, large

  • Ashkenazy, Vladimir (Icelandic musician)

    Vladimir Ashkenazy, Russian-born Icelandic pianist and conductor whose extensive piano repertoire included works by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Ludwig van Beethoven, Frédéric Chopin, Franz Liszt, and Sergey Rachmaninoff. Both of Ashkenazy’s parents were professional pianists. Beginning piano lessons

  • Ashkenazy, Vladimir Davidovich (Icelandic musician)

    Vladimir Ashkenazy, Russian-born Icelandic pianist and conductor whose extensive piano repertoire included works by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Ludwig van Beethoven, Frédéric Chopin, Franz Liszt, and Sergey Rachmaninoff. Both of Ashkenazy’s parents were professional pianists. Beginning piano lessons

  • Ashkhabad (national capital, Turkmenistan)

    Ashgabat, city and capital of Turkmenistan. It lies in an oasis at the northern foot of the Kopet-Dag (Turkmen: K?petdag) Range and on the edge of the Karakum (Turkmen: Garagum) Desert, about 19 miles (30 km) from the Iranian frontier. It was founded in 1881 as a Russian military fort and took the

  • Ashkharhabar (language)

    Armenian language: …Modern Armenian, or A?xarhabar (Ashkharhabar). Modern Armenian embraces two written varieties—Western Armenian (Arewmtahayerên) and Eastern Armenian (Arewelahayerên)—and many dialects are spoken. About 50 dialects were known before 1915, when the Armenian population of Turkey was drastically reduced by means of massacre and forced exodus; some of these dialects were…

  • Ashkin, Arthur (American physicist)

    Arthur Ashkin, American physicist who was awarded the 2018 Nobel Prize for Physics for his invention of optical tweezers, which use laser beams to capture and manipulate very small objects. He shared the prize with Canadian physicist Donna Strickland and French physicist Gérard Mourou. At the time

  • Ashland (Kentucky, United States)

    Ashland, city, Boyd county, northeastern Kentucky, U.S. It lies along the Ohio River just below the mouth of the Big Sandy River. The city of Ashland forms a tristate industrial complex with Ironton, Ohio, and Huntington, West Virginia. Settled in 1815 as Poage’s Settlement, it was renamed (1854)

  • Ashland (Wisconsin, United States)

    Ashland, city, seat (1860) of Ashland county, extreme northern Wisconsin, U.S. It is a port on Chequamegon Bay of Lake Superior, about 60 miles (100 km) southeast of the city of Superior. Several different Native American tribes lived in the area, notably the Ojibwa. About 1659, French fur traders

  • Ashland (Oregon, United States)

    Ashland, city, Jackson county, southwestern Oregon, U.S. It lies along Bear Creek, in the southern reaches of the Rogue River valley, at the base of the Siskiyou Mountains, just southeast of Medford. Settled in 1852 (during a gold rush) and laid out in 1860, it was named for both Ashland county,

  • ashlar masonry (building material)

    architecture: Stone: …stonework for monumental architecture is ashlar masonry, which consists of regularly cut blocks (usually rectangular). Because of its weight and the precision with which it can be shaped, stone masonry (in contrast with brick) does not depend on strong bonding for stability where it supports only direct downward loads. The…

  • Ashley of Wimborne St. Giles, Anthony Ashley Cooper, Baron (British industrial reformer [1801–1885])

    Anthony Ashley Cooper, 7th earl of Shaftesbury, one of the most effective social and industrial reformers in 19th-century England. He was also the acknowledged leader of the evangelical movement within the Church of England. He was the eldest son of Cropley Cooper (a younger brother of the 5th earl

  • Ashley of Wimborne St. Giles, Anthony Ashley Cooper, Baron (English politician and philosopher [1671-1713])

    Anthony Ashley Cooper, 3rd Earl of Shaftesbury, English politician and philosopher, grandson of the famous 1st earl and one of the principal English Deists. His early education was directed by John Locke, and he attended Winchester College. He entered Parliament in 1695 and, succeeding as 3rd Earl

  • Ashley of Wimborne St. Giles, Anthony Ashley Cooper, Baron (English politician [1621–1683])

    Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st earl of Shaftesbury, English politician, a member of the Council of State (1653–54; 1659) during the Commonwealth, and a member of Charles II’s “Cabinet Council” and lord chancellor (1672–73). Seeking to exclude the Roman Catholic duke of York (the future James II) from

  • Ashley, Lady Brett (fictional character)

    Lady Brett Ashley, fictional character, one of the principal characters of Ernest Hemingway’s novel The Sun Also Rises (1926). An expatriate Englishwoman in Paris during the 1920s, she is typical of the Lost Generation of men and women whose lives have no focus or meaning and who therefore wander

  • Ashley, Laura (British designer)

    Laura Ashley, British designer known for her traditional, Victorian-style prints on natural fabrics, which she used to create household furnishings, linens, and women’s clothing. By the time of her death there were more than 220 Laura Ashley shops worldwide. She served in the royal naval services

  • Ashley, Maurice (Jamaican-American chessplayer)

    Maurice Ashley, first African American to earn an International Grandmaster chess title. Ashley moved to Brooklyn, New York, with his family when he was 12 years old. He soon took up chess and excelled at the game, becoming a national master in 1986 and an International Master in 1993. From 1991 to

  • Ashley, Merrill (American ballerina)

    Merrill Ashley, American ballerina who served as principal dancer for the New York City Ballet (NYCB) in the last quarter of the 20th century. Ashley was raised in Rutland, Vt., and began studying ballet at age seven. In 1964, when she was 13, she received a Ford Foundation scholarship and began to

  • Ashley, Ted (American executive)

    Ted Ashley, (Theodore Assofsky), American business executive (born Aug. 3, 1922, New York, N.Y.—died Aug. 24, 2002, New York City), revived Warner Brothers studios during his tenure as chairman and CEO (1969–80) with such films as A Clockwork Orange (1971), The Exorcist (1973), Blazing Saddles (

  • Ashley, William Henry (United States politician and fur trader)

    William Henry Ashley, U.S. congressman and fur trader who revolutionized the fur trade and hastened exploration of the American West when he introduced the rendezvous system as a substitute for traditional trading posts. Having arrived in Missouri sometime after 1802, Ashley prospered in mining,

  • Ashman, Howard (American songwriter and playwright)

    Alan Menken: …came when playwright and lyricist Howard Ashman picked Menken to collaborate with him on the 1979 play God Bless You, Mr. Rosewater, based on a novel by Kurt Vonnegut. Although they attained mild success with that production, it was not until 1982 that they achieved significant critical and commercial acclaim…

  • Ashmarthya (Indian philosopher)

    Indian philosophy: Variations in views: To Ashmarthya, an early Vedanta interpreter, is ascribed the view that the finite individual and the Absolute are both identical and different (as causes and their effects are different—a view that seems to have been the ancestor of the later theory of Bhedabheda). Audulomi, another pre-Badarayana…

  • Ashmat Shomron (work by Mapu)

    Abraham Mapu: …religious injustice in the ghetto; Ashmat Shomron (1865; “Guilt of Samaria”), a biblical epic about the hostility between Jerusalem and Samaria in the time of King Ahaz; and ?oze ?ezyonot, (1869; “The Visionary”), an exposé of ?asidism, which was confiscated by religious authorities.

  • Ashmedai (Jewish legend)

    Asmodeus, in Jewish legend, the king of demons. According to the apocryphal book of Tobit, Asmodeus, smitten with love for Sarah, the daughter of Raguel, killed her seven successive husbands on their wedding nights. Following instructions given to him by the angel Raphael, Tobias overcame A

  • Ashmolean Museum of Art and Archaeology (museum, Oxford, England, United Kingdom)

    Ashmolean Museum of Art and Archaeology, one of the four museums of the University of Oxford and the oldest public museum of art, archaeology, and natural history in Great Britain. It was established to house collections donated to the university in 1677 by Elias Ashmole (1617–92), an antiquarian

  • Ashmore and Cartier Islands (islands, Indian Ocean)

    Ashmore and Cartier Islands, external territory of Australia, in the Indian Ocean. The islands lie 200 miles (320 km) northwest of Western Australia state and some 105 miles (170 km) southwest of the island of Roti, Indonesia. The Ashmore Islands, comprising Middle, East, and West islands, are

  • Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Territory of (islands, Indian Ocean)

    Ashmore and Cartier Islands, external territory of Australia, in the Indian Ocean. The islands lie 200 miles (320 km) northwest of Western Australia state and some 105 miles (170 km) southwest of the island of Roti, Indonesia. The Ashmore Islands, comprising Middle, East, and West islands, are

  • Ashmore, Harry (American editor)

    Harry Scott Ashmore, American editor who, as executive editor of the Arkansas Gazette, won a Pulitzer Prize for editorials he wrote in support of integration of a Little Rock high school in 1957; he later served as editor in chief of the Encyclop?dia Britannica and as president of the Center for

  • Ashmore, Harry Scott (American editor)

    Harry Scott Ashmore, American editor who, as executive editor of the Arkansas Gazette, won a Pulitzer Prize for editorials he wrote in support of integration of a Little Rock high school in 1957; he later served as editor in chief of the Encyclop?dia Britannica and as president of the Center for

  • Ashmun, Jehudi (American settler)

    Liberia: History: They were followed shortly by Jehudi Ashmun, a white American, who became the real founder of Liberia. By the time Ashmun left in 1828 the territory had a government, a digest of laws for the settlers, and the beginnings of profitable foreign commerce. Other settlements were started along the St.…

  • Ashmūnayn, Al- (ancient city, Egypt)

    Hermopolis Magna, ancient town of Upper Egypt, located on the Nile River south of Al-Minyā in Al-Minyā mu?āfa?ah (governorate). It was known as Khmunu (“City of the Eight”) and was the capital of the Hare nome (province), the 15th nome of Upper Egypt. The great deity worshiped there was Thoth, god

  • Ashmyanskae Upland (region, Belarus)

    Belarus: Relief: …the main Belarusian Ridge, the Ashmyany Upland, consisting of terminal moraines from the same glacial period, lies between Minsk and Vilnius, in neighbouring Lithuania. The surfaces of its ridges tend to be flat or gently rolling and covered by light sandy podzolic soils; they are largely cleared of their original…

  • Ashmyany Upland (region, Belarus)

    Belarus: Relief: …the main Belarusian Ridge, the Ashmyany Upland, consisting of terminal moraines from the same glacial period, lies between Minsk and Vilnius, in neighbouring Lithuania. The surfaces of its ridges tend to be flat or gently rolling and covered by light sandy podzolic soils; they are largely cleared of their original…

  • Ashoka (emperor of India)

    Ashoka, last major emperor in the Mauryan dynasty of India. His vigorous patronage of Buddhism during his reign (c. 265–238 bce; also given as c. 273–232 bce) furthered the expansion of that religion throughout India. Following his successful but bloody conquest of the Kalinga country on the east

  • Ashoka inscriptions (Buddhism)

    Rock edicts, narrative histories and announcements carved into cliff rock, onto pillars, and in caves throughout India by King Ashoka (reigned c. 265–238 bce), the most powerful emperor of the Mauryan dynasty and a highly influential promulgator of Indian Buddhism. Ashoka’s first years as king were

  • Ashokavadana (Buddhist work)

    India: Ashoka’s edicts: …Buddhist tradition—the Divyavadana and the Ashokavadana—where he is extolled as a Buddhist emperor par excellence whose sole ambition was the expansion of Buddhism. Most of these traditions were preserved outside India in Sri Lanka, Central Asia, and China. Even after the edicts were deciphered, it was believed that they corroborated…

  • ashoog (poet-musician)

    Turkish literature: Epic and the emergence of the a?ik: …Turkish poet-musician known as the a?ik, who emerged in the 16th century in Anatolia, Iran, and the southern Caucasus and eventually supplanted the ozan. The a?ik (ashoog in Azerbaijani; from the Arabic ?ashiq, “lover” or “novice Sufi”) was a professional or semiprofessional performer, singing a variety of epic, didactic, mystical,…

  • Ashot Bagratuni the Carnivorous (prince of Armenia)

    Armenia: The Mamikonians and Bagratids: …Arabs’ choice in 806 of Ashot Bagratuni the Carnivorous to be prince of Armenia marked the establishment of his family as the chief power in the land. The governor Smbat Ablabas Bagratuni remained loyal to the caliph al-Mutawakkil when al-Mutawakkil sent his general Bughā al-Kabīr to bring the rebellious nakharars…

  • Ashot I the Great (king of Armenia)

    Bagratid Dynasty: The election of Smbat’s son Ashot I the Great, who had been accepted as “prince of princes” by the Arabs in 862, to be king of Armenia in 885 was recognized by both the caliph and the Byzantine emperor, and it was he who by his successful defense of his…

  • Ashot III the Merciful (king of Armenia)

    Armenia: The Mamikonians and Bagratids: Ashot III (the Merciful; 952–977) transferred his capital to Ani and began to make it into one of the architectural gems of the Middle Ages.

  • Ashqelon (Israel)

    Ashqelon, city on the coastal plain of Palestine, since 1948 in southwestern Israel. The modern city lies 12 miles (19 km) north of Gaza and 1.25 miles (2 km) east-northeast of the ancient city site. Because of its location on the Mediterranean coast, Ashqelon was traditionally the key to the

  • ashrāf (Islamic caste group)

    Islamic caste: …distinction is made between the ashrāf (Arabic, plural of shārīf, “nobleman”), who are supposedly descendants of Muslim Arab immigrants, and the non-ashrāf, who are Hindu converts. The ashrāf group is further divided into four subgroups: (1) Sayyids, originally a designation of descendants of Muhammad through his daughter Fā?imah and son-in-law…

  • Ashraf (Afghani ruler)

    Afghan interlude: …death of the Afghan ruler Ashraf.

  • Ashraf dynasty (Turkmen dynasty)

    E?ref Dynasty, Turkmen dynasty (c. 1290–c. 1326) that ruled in Bey?ehir, west of Konya in central Anatolia. The dynasty traced its origins to a Turkmen tribe that was settled by the Seljuqs of Anatolia on the western frontier. The family’s founder, E?ref o?lu Sayfeddin Süleyman I, was a Seljuq e

  • ashram (Hindu retreat)

    ashrama: Ashrama, familiarly spelled ashram in English, has also come to denote a place removed from urban life, where spiritual and yogic disciplines are pursued. Ashrams are often associated with a central teaching figure, a guru, who is the object of adulation by the residents of the ashram. The…

  • ashrama (Hinduism)

    Ashrama, in Hinduism, any of the four stages of life through which a Hindu ideally will pass. The stages are those of (1) the student (brahmacari), marked by chastity, devotion, and obedience to one’s teacher, (2) the householder (grihastha), requiring marriage, the begetting of children,

  • ?Ashrāwī, ?anān (Palestinian educator and diplomat)

    Hanan Ashrawi, Palestinian educator and spokeswoman for the Palestinian delegation to Middle East peace talks in the early 1990s. Ashrawi was the youngest daughter of a prominent physician who was a founder of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), and she grew up in an Anglican family. In

  • Ashrawi, Hanan (Palestinian educator and diplomat)

    Hanan Ashrawi, Palestinian educator and spokeswoman for the Palestinian delegation to Middle East peace talks in the early 1990s. Ashrawi was the youngest daughter of a prominent physician who was a founder of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), and she grew up in an Anglican family. In

  • Ashta Pradhan (Marathi council)

    Ashta Pradhan, (Marathi: “Council of Eight”) administrative and advisory council set up by the Indian Hindu Maratha leader Shivaji (died 1680), which contributed to his successful military attacks on the Muslim Mughal Empire and to the good government of the territory over which he established his

  • Ashtabula (Ohio, United States)

    Ashtabula, city, Ashtabula county, northeastern Ohio, U.S. It lies along Lake Erie, at the mouth of the Ashtabula River, about 54 miles (87 km) northeast of Cleveland. The site was settled in 1801; its name, of Algonquian origin, possibly means “river of many fish” and was applied to the township

  • Ashtadhyayi (work by Panini)

    Ashtadhyayi, Sanskrit treatise on grammar written in the 6th to 5th century bce by the Indian grammarian Panini. This work set the linguistic standards for Classical Sanskrit. It sums up in 4,000 sutras the science of phonetics and grammar that had evolved in the Vedic religion. Panini divided his

  • Ashtarkhanid dynasty (Asian history)

    history of Central Asia: The Uzbeks: …and even more under the Ashtarkhanids (also known as Astrakhanids, Tuquy-Timurids, or Janids) who succeeded them during the 1600s, Central Asia experienced a decline in prosperity compared with the preceding Timurid period, in part because of a marked reduction in the transcontinental caravan trade following the opening of new oceanic…

  • Ashtart (ancient deity)

    Astarte, great goddess of the ancient Middle East and chief deity of Tyre, Sidon, and Elat, important Mediterranean seaports. Hebrew scholars now feel that the goddess Ashtoreth mentioned so often in the Bible is a deliberate conflation of the Greek name Astarte and the Hebrew word boshet, “shame,”

  • Ashton, Catherine (British politician)

    Catherine Ashton, British politician who served as leader of the House of Lords (2007–08), European Union (EU) trade commissioner (2008–09), and high representative for foreign affairs and security policy for the EU (2009–14). Ashton studied economics at Bedford College (now part of Royal Holloway,

  • Ashton, Catherine, Baroness Ashton of Upholland (British politician)

    Catherine Ashton, British politician who served as leader of the House of Lords (2007–08), European Union (EU) trade commissioner (2008–09), and high representative for foreign affairs and security policy for the EU (2009–14). Ashton studied economics at Bedford College (now part of Royal Holloway,

  • Ashton, Sir Frederick (British choreographer)

    Sir Frederick Ashton, principal choreographer and director of England’s Royal Ballet, the repertoire of which includes about 30 of his ballets. Ashton studied dancing in London under Léonide Massine, Nicholas Legat, and Marie Rambert, who encouraged his first choreographic efforts, The Tragedy of

  • Ashton, Sir Frederick William Mallandaine (British choreographer)

    Sir Frederick Ashton, principal choreographer and director of England’s Royal Ballet, the repertoire of which includes about 30 of his ballets. Ashton studied dancing in London under Léonide Massine, Nicholas Legat, and Marie Rambert, who encouraged his first choreographic efforts, The Tragedy of

  • Ashton, Winifred (British author)
  • Ashton-under-Lyne (England, United Kingdom)

    Tameside: …the River Tame, such as Ashton-under-Lyne (the metropolitan borough’s administrative centre), Audenshaw, and Denton, are in the historic county of Lancashire, while those to the east, including Stalybridge, Dukinfield, and Hyde, belong to the historic county of Cheshire. The borough includes a section of the Pennines uplands, and immediately to…

  • Ashton-Warner, Sylvia (New Zealand writer)

    Sylvia Ashton-Warner, New Zealand educator and writer of fiction, nonfiction, and poetry. In the field of education, she became known for her innovative work in adapting traditional British teaching methods to the special needs of Maori children. Her aim was peace and communication between two

  • Ashton-Warner, Sylvia Constance (New Zealand writer)

    Sylvia Ashton-Warner, New Zealand educator and writer of fiction, nonfiction, and poetry. In the field of education, she became known for her innovative work in adapting traditional British teaching methods to the special needs of Maori children. Her aim was peace and communication between two

  • Ashtoreth (ancient deity)

    Astarte, great goddess of the ancient Middle East and chief deity of Tyre, Sidon, and Elat, important Mediterranean seaports. Hebrew scholars now feel that the goddess Ashtoreth mentioned so often in the Bible is a deliberate conflation of the Greek name Astarte and the Hebrew word boshet, “shame,”

  • Ashtori ha-Par?i (Jewish topographer)

    Bet She?an: …the Middle Ages the topographer Ashtori ha-Par?i settled there and completed his work Kaftor wa-fera?, the first Hebrew book on the geography of Palestine (1322).

  • ashug (folk music)

    Armenia: Cultural life: …popular bards, or troubadours, called ashugh, arose; outstanding among them were Nahapet Kuchak and, especially, Aruthin Sayadian, called Sayat-Nova (d. 1795), whose love songs are still popular. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, Hakob Paronian and Ervand Otian were notable satirical novelists, and Grigor Zohrab wrote realist short stories.…

  • ashugh (folk music)

    Armenia: Cultural life: …popular bards, or troubadours, called ashugh, arose; outstanding among them were Nahapet Kuchak and, especially, Aruthin Sayadian, called Sayat-Nova (d. 1795), whose love songs are still popular. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, Hakob Paronian and Ervand Otian were notable satirical novelists, and Grigor Zohrab wrote realist short stories.…

  • Ashur (ancient city, Iraq)

    Ashur, ancient religious capital of Assyria, located on the west bank of the Tigris River in northern Iraq. The first scientific excavations there were conducted by a German expedition (1903–13) led by Walter Andrae. Ashur was a name applied to the city, to the country, and to the principal god of

  • Ashur (Mesopotamian deity)

    Ashur, in Mesopotamian religion, city god of Ashur and national god of Assyria. In the beginning he was perhaps only a local deity of the city that shared his name. From about 1800 bc onward, however, there appear to have been strong tendencies to identify him with the Sumerian Enlil (Akkadian:

  • ?Ashur ?Ali Zahiriy (Muslim educator)

    Uzbekistan: Education: …Sadriddin Ayniy in Bukhara, and ?Ashur ?Ali Zahiriy in Kokand (Q?qon). They exerted a strong influence on education during the initial decades of the Soviet period, and their methods and aims have reemerged since independence.

  • ?āshūr, Nu?mān (Egyptian dramatist)

    Arabic literature: Modern Arabic drama: …the 1950s and ’60s with Nu?mān ?āshūr, who used a series of plays to present the Egyptian public with insightful analyses of its own class structure and values, a series of dramatists, among them Sa?d al-Dīn Wahbah, Ma?mūd Diyāb, and ?Alī Sālim, penned in the colloquial dialect of Cairo dramatic…

  • Ashur-aha-iddina (king of Assyria)

    Esarhaddon, king of Assyria 680–669 bc, a descendant of Sargon II. Esarhaddon is best known for his conquest of Egypt in 671. Although he was a younger son, Esarhaddon had already been proclaimed successor to the throne by his father, Sennacherib, who had appointed him governor of Babylon some time

  • Ashur-bel-kala (king of Assyria)

    history of Mesopotamia: Assyria between 1200 and 1000 bce: …sons reigned after Tiglath-pileser, including Ashur-bel-kala (c. 1074–c. 1057). Like his father, he fought in southern Armenia and against the Aramaeans with Babylonia as his ally. Disintegration of the empire could not be delayed, however. The grandson of Tiglath-pileser, Ashurnasirpal I (c. 1050–c. 1032), was sickly and unable to do…

  • Ashur-bel-nisheshu (king of Assyria)

    history of Mesopotamia: The rise of Assyria: …Babylonia about 1480, as did Ashur-bel-nisheshu about 1405. Ashur-nadin-ahhe II (c. 1392–c. 1383) was even able to obtain support from Egypt, which sent him a consignment of gold.

  • Ashur-da’in-apla (prince of Assyria)

    history of Mesopotamia: Shalmaneser III and Shamshi-Adad V of Assyria: …of Shalmaneser, the crown prince Ashur-da’in-apla led a rebellion. The old king appointed his younger son Shamshi-Adad as the new crown prince. Forced to flee to Babylonia, Shamshi-Adad V (823–811) finally managed to regain the kingship with the help of Marduk-zakir-shumi I under humiliating conditions. As king he campaigned with…

  • Ashur-dan I (king of Assyria)

    history of Mesopotamia: Assyria between 1200 and 1000 bce: …was consolidated and stabilized under Ashur-dan I (c. 1179–c. 1134) and Ashur-resh-ishi I (c. 1133–c. 1116). Several times forced to fight against Babylonia, the latter was even able to defend himself against an attack by Nebuchadrezzar I. According to the inscriptions, most of his building efforts were in Nineveh, rather…

  • Ashur-dan II (king of Assyria)

    history of Mesopotamia: Assyria and Babylonia until Ashurnasirpal II: Ashur-dan II (934–912) succeeded in suppressing the Aramaeans and the mountain people, in this way stabilizing the Assyrian boundaries. He reintroduced the use of the Assyrian dialect in his written records.

  • Ashur-dan III (king of Assyria)

    history of Mesopotamia: Adad-nirari III and his successors: The reign of Ashur-dan III (772–755) was shadowed by rebellions and by epidemics of plague. Of Ashur-nirari V (754–746) little is known.

  • Ashur-etel-ilani (king of Assyria)

    history of Mesopotamia: Decline of the Assyrian empire: Ashur-etel-ilani was appointed successor to the throne, but his twin brother Sin-shar-ishkun did not recognize him. The fight between them and their supporters forced the old king to withdraw to Harran, in 632 at the latest, perhaps ruling from there over the western part of…

  • Ashur-nadin-ahhe II (king of Assyria)

    history of Mesopotamia: The rise of Assyria: Ashur-nadin-ahhe II (c. 1392–c. 1383) was even able to obtain support from Egypt, which sent him a consignment of gold.

  • Ashur-nadin-shumi (prince of Assyria)

    history of Mesopotamia: Sennacherib: …him with Sennacherib’s oldest son, Ashur-nadin-shumi. The next few years were relatively peaceful. Sennacherib used this time to prepare a decisive attack against Elam, which time and again had supported Babylonian rebellions. The overland route to Elam had been cut off and fortified by the Elamites. Sennacherib had ships built…

  • Ashur-nirari V (king of Assyria)

    Tiglath-pileser III: Rise to power.: …rebellion against the weak king Ashur-nirari V, a son of Adad-nirari III, brought a new ruler, who was then governor of Calah, to power. This new ruler assumed the throne name of Tiglath-pileser in what may have been a deliberate reference to an illustrious forebear, Tiglath-pileser I (reigned c. 1115–c.…

  • Ashur-resh-ishi I (king of Assyria)

    history of Mesopotamia: Assyria between 1200 and 1000 bce: 1134) and Ashur-resh-ishi I (c. 1133–c. 1116). Several times forced to fight against Babylonia, the latter was even able to defend himself against an attack by Nebuchadrezzar I. According to the inscriptions, most of his building efforts were in Nineveh, rather than in the old capital of…

  • Ashur-uballit I (king of Assyria)

    Ashur-uballit I, (reigned c. 1365–30 bc), king of Assyria during Mesopotamia’s feudal age, who created the first Assyrian empire and initiated the Middle Assyrian period (14th to 12th century bc). With the help of the Hittites he destroyed the dominion of the Aryan Mitanni (a non-Semitic people

  • Ashur-uballit II (king of Assyria)

    history of Mesopotamia: Decline of the Assyrian empire: …the founder of the empire, Ashur-uballi? II (611–609 bce). Ashur-uballi? had to face both the Babylonians and the Medes. They conquered Harran in 610, without, however, destroying the city completely. In 609 the remaining Assyrian troops had to capitulate. With this event Assyria disappeared from history. The great empires that…

  • ?āshūrā? (Islamic holy day)

    ?āshūrā?, Muslim holy day observed on the 10th of Mu?arram, the first month of the Muslim calendar (Gregorian date variable). The term is derived from the Arabic word for the number ten. The word Mu?arram itself derives from the Arabic root ?-r-m, one of whose meanings is “forbidden” (?arām).

  • Ashurbanipal (king of Assyria)

    Ashurbanipal, last of the great kings of Assyria (reigned 668 to 627 bc), who assembled in Nineveh the first systematically organized library in the ancient Middle East. The life of this vigorous ruler of an empire ranging initially from the Persian Gulf to Cilicia, Syria, and Egypt can be largely

  • Ashurnasirpal I (king of Assyria)

    Ashurnasirpal I, king of Assyria 1050–32 bc, when it was at a low ebb in power and prosperity caused by widespread famine and the pressure of western desert nomads, against whom Ashurnasirpal warred constantly. His father, Shamshi-Adad IV, a son of Tiglath-pileser I, was placed on the throne of

  • Ashurnasirpal II (king of Assyria)

    Ashurnasirpal II, king of Assyria 883–859 bce, whose major accomplishment was the consolidation of the conquests of his father, Tukulti-Ninurta II, leading to the establishment of the New Assyrian empire. Although, by his own testimony, he was a brilliant general and administrator, he is perhaps

  • Ashurnasirpal II, palace of (ancient palace, Calah, Iraq)

    Ashurnasirpal II: …in the ruins of his palace at Calah (now Nimrūd, Iraq).

  • Ashvaghosha (Indian philosopher and poet)

    Ashvaghosha, philosopher and poet who is considered India’s greatest poet before Kalidasa (5th century) and the father of Sanskrit drama; he popularized the style of Sanskrit poetry known as kavya. Ashvaghosha was born a Brahman. Legend obscures the man, but it is known that he was an outspoken

  • Ashvaka (historical state, India)

    India: Location: …Vindhyas, on the Godavari River, Ashvaka continued to thrive.

  • Ashvalayana (Vedic teacher)

    Ashvalayana, author of the Ashvalayana-shrauta-sutra, a Vedic manual of sacrificial ceremonies composed for the use of the class of priests called hotar, or hotri, whose main function was to invoke the gods. Belonging to the “forest tradition” of hermits and wandering holy men yet still a member of

  • Ashvalayana-shrauta-sutra (work by Ashvalayana)

    Ashvalayana: …400 bce?), author of the Ashvalayana-shrauta-sutra, a Vedic manual of sacrificial ceremonies composed for the use of the class of priests called hotar, or hotri, whose main function was to invoke the gods. Belonging to the “forest tradition” of hermits and wandering holy men yet still a member of the…

  • ashvamedha (Hinduism)

    Ashvamedha, (Sanskrit: “horse sacrifice”) grandest of the Vedic religious rites of ancient India, performed by a king to celebrate his paramountcy. The ceremony is described in detail in various Vedic writings, particularly the Shatapatha Brahmana. An especially fine stallion was selected and was

  • Ashvin (Hindu deities)

    Hinduism: Theology: …perpetually beneficent gods are the Ashvins (horsemen), helpers and healers who often visit the needy. Almost otiose is the personified heaven, Dyaus, who most often appears as the sky or as day. As a person, he is coupled with Earth (as Dyava-Prithivi) as a father; Earth by herself is more…

  • ashwamedha (Hinduism)

    Ashvamedha, (Sanskrit: “horse sacrifice”) grandest of the Vedic religious rites of ancient India, performed by a king to celebrate his paramountcy. The ceremony is described in detail in various Vedic writings, particularly the Shatapatha Brahmana. An especially fine stallion was selected and was

  • Ashwander v. Tennessee Valley Authority (law case)

    Tennessee Valley Authority: …Court in the case of Ashwander v. Tennessee Valley Authority (1936) and in later decisions.

  • Ashwell, Lena (British actress)

    Lena Ashwell, British actress and theatrical manager well known for her work in organizing entertainment for the troops at the front during World War I. In 1917 she was awarded the Order of the British Empire. Reared and educated in Canada, Ashwell studied music at Lausanne, Switz., and at the

  • ashy chinchilla rat (rodent)

    chinchilla rat: The ashy chinchilla rat (A. cinerea) lives only in the Altiplano, between 3,700 and 5,000 metres, from southeastern Peru to northern Chile and Argentina. A. vaccarum is known from rocky cliff faces at 1,880 metres above sea level in west-central Argentina.

  • Ash?arī, Abū al-?asan al- (Muslim theologian)

    Abū al-?asan al-Ash?arī, Muslim Arab theologian noted for having integrated the rationalist methodology of the speculative theologians into the framework of orthodox Islām. In his Maqālāt al-Islāmīyīn (“Theological Opinions of the Muslims”), compiled during his early period, al-Ash?ari brought

  • Ash?arīyah (Islam)

    Ash?ariyyah, in Islam, school of theology supporting the use of reason and speculative theology (kalām) to defend the faith. Followers of the school, which was founded by Abū al-?asan al-Ash?arī in the 10th century, attempted to demonstrate the existence and nature of God (Allāh) through rational

Your preference has been recorded
Get a Premium membership for 30% off!
Save 30% with our Memorial Day Sale!
港台一级毛片免费观看