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  • asana (Yoga)

    Asana, (Sanksrit: “sitting posture,” “seat”) in the Yoga system of Indian philosophy, an immobile bodily posture that a person assumes in an attempt to isolate the mind by freeing it from attention to bodily functions. It is the third of the eight prescribed stages intended to lead the aspirant to

  • asana (tree)

    Narra, (genus Pterocarpus), genus of timber trees of the pea family (Fabaceae), native to Asia and Africa. Narra wood is primarily used for cabinetwork; it is usually red or rose colour, often variegated with yellow. The wood is hard and heavy, and the pattern of the grain and the colouring are

  • Asande (people)

    Zande, a people of Central Africa who speak a language of the Adamawa-Ubangi branch of the Niger-Congo language family. Extending across the Nile-Congo drainage divide, they live partly in South Sudan, partly in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and partly in the Central African Republic. The

  • Asander (king of the Bosporus)

    ancient Rome: Foreign policy: …Bosporus, under its successive rulers Asander and Polemo, helped to contain southward and westward thrusts by the Scythians, an Iranian people related to the Parthians, and this provided protection in the north for Anatolia and its provinces (senatorial Asia and Bithynia-Pontus and imperial Cilicia and Galatia, the latter a large…

  • Asa?ga (Indian scholar)

    Asa?ga, influential Buddhist philosopher who established the Yogācāra (“Practice of Yogā”) school of idealism. Asa?ga was the eldest of three brothers who were the sons of a Brahman, a court priest at Puru?apura, and who all became monks in the Sarvāstivāda order (which held the doctrine that “all

  • Asano Collection (Japanese art)

    Sesshū: Mature years and works: …horizontal landscape scroll, in the Asano Collection, Odawara. Believed to be somewhat earlier in date, the inscription says that it was painted in 1474 at the request of Sesshū’s pupil Tōetsu. Its style is far freer and more subtle. A very different kind of landscape painting is the View of…

  • Asano Sōichirō (Japanese businessman)

    Asano Sōichirō, Japanese businessman who founded the giant Asano zaibatsu, or industrial combine. The son of a physician, Asano chose a career in business, but his first company failed. In 1871 he became a coal merchant in Tokyo. Five years later he developed methods for utilizing coke, until then

  • Asano zaibatsu (Japanese industry)

    Asano Sōichirō: …businessman who founded the giant Asano zaibatsu, or industrial combine.

  • Asansol (India)

    Asansol, city, northwestern West Bengal state, northeastern India. It lies just north of the Damodar River, about 30 miles (48 km) northwest of Durgapur. Asansol is situated in the heart of the Raniganj coalfield, at the centre of the Kulti-Burnpur industrial complex. The city is connected by the

  • Asante (people)

    Asante , people of south-central Ghana and adjacent areas of Togo and C?te d’Ivoire. Most of the Asante live in a region centred on the city of Kumasi, which was the capital of the former independent Asante state. They speak a Twi language of the Kwa branch of the Niger-Congo language family and

  • Asante empire (historical empire, Africa)

    Asante empire, West African state that occupied what is now southern Ghana in the 18th and 19th centuries. Extending from the Comoé River in the west to the Togo Mountains in the east, the Asante empire was active in the slave trade in the 18th century and unsuccessfully resisted British

  • Asante gold mine (mine, Obuasi, Ghana)

    Obuasi: The Asante gold mine at Obuasi remained the country’s major producer while others became depleted. It is one of the world’s richest gold mines in terms of yield per ton of ore. By the end of the 20th century, it was the 10th largest gold mine…

  • Asante language (African language)

    Akan languages: Its principal members are Asante (Ashanti), Fante (Fanti), Brong (Abron), and Akuapem. The Akan cluster is located primarily in southern Ghana, although many Brong speakers live in eastern C?te d’Ivoire. Altogether speakers of Akan dialects and languages number more than seven million. Written forms of Asante and Akuapem

  • Asante, Molefi (American scholar)

    Afrocentrism: …African American scholar and activist Molefi Asante.

  • Asantehene (Asante title)

    Kumasi: …remains the seat of the Asantehene (Asante king) and the site of the Golden Stool, symbol of royal authority and unity of the people. Billed as the “Garden City of West Africa,” Kumasi is zoned into commercial, industrial, and residential areas. Population is dense in the oldest part of town…

  • Asantehene, palace of the (building, Kumasi, Ghana)

    African architecture: Palaces and shrines: …the 19th century the earth-and-stone palace of the Asantehene (king) of the Asante empire at the capital city of Kumasi covered some five acres (two hectares). It had many courtyards with verandas and open screens and more than 60 rooms with steep thatched roofs. The exterior walls of the palace…

  • Asaph (biblical figure)

    biblical literature: Psalms: Psalms are attributed to David, Asaph, and the sons of Korah, among others. It is generally held that Asaph and the sons of Korah indicate collections belonging to guilds of temple singers. Other possible collections include the Songs of Ascents, probably pilgrim songs in origin, the Hallelujah Psalms, and a…

  • ?Asara be-?evet (Judaism)

    Jewish religious year: Months and notable days: (Feast of Dedication) begins ?evet (December–January) 2–3 ?anukka ends 10 ?Asara be-Tevet (Fast of Tevet 10) Sheva? (January–February) 15 Tu bi-Sheva? (15th of Sheva?: New Year for Trees) Adar (February–March) 13 Ta?anit Esther (Fast

  • asarabacca (herb)

    wild ginger: European wild ginger, or asarabacca (A. europaeum), a creeping plant with glossy leaves and bell-shaped brown flowers, is native to Europe and Asia. It was formerly used in various medicines, particularly purgatives, and in snuff.

  • Asarco process (metallurgy)

    Betterton-Kroll process, method widely used for removing bismuth from lead by adding calcium and magnesium to a molten lead-bismuth bath. Compounds are formed with bismuth that have higher melting points and lower densities than lead and thus can be separated as a solid dross. Bismuth may then be

  • Asarum (herb)

    Wild ginger, any of about 75 species of the genus Asarum, perennial herbs of the birthwort family (Aristolochiaceae), distributed throughout North Temperate areas of the world. The leaves and underground stems (rhizomes) of some Asarum species give off a pleasant odour when bruised, and dried

  • Asarum canadense (herb)

    wild ginger: Canadian wild ginger, or snakeroot (A. canadense), grows about 15 to 30 cm (6 to 12 inches) tall in shady woods in eastern North America. It usually bears two heart-shaped, downy leaves and a single inconspicuous cup-shaped flower. The flower develops in the angle between…

  • Asarum europaeum (herb)

    wild ginger: European wild ginger, or asarabacca (A. europaeum), a creeping plant with glossy leaves and bell-shaped brown flowers, is native to Europe and Asia. It was formerly used in various medicines, particularly purgatives, and in snuff.

  • Asase Yaa (religion)

    Asase Yaa, in the indigenous religion of the Akan people of the Guinea Coast, the great female spirit of the earth, second only to Nyame (the Creator) in power and reverence. The Akan regard the earth as a female spirit because of its fertility and its power to bring forth life, and they further

  • āsava (Buddhism)

    āsrāva, (Sanskrit: “what leaks out”) in Buddhist philosophy, the illusion that ceaselessly flows out from internal organs (i.e., five sense organs and the mind). To the unenlightened, every existence becomes the object of illusion or is inevitably accompanied by illusion. Such an existence is

  • Asawa, Brian (American singer)

    Brian Asawa, (Brian Laurence Asawa), American countertenor (born Oct. 1, 1966, Fullerton, Calif.—died April 18, 2016, Los Angeles, Calif.), was admired for the richness and silvery beauty of his voice and for his expressive theatricality as a performer. He was particularly associated with the San

  • Asawa, Brian Laurence (American singer)

    Brian Asawa, (Brian Laurence Asawa), American countertenor (born Oct. 1, 1966, Fullerton, Calif.—died April 18, 2016, Los Angeles, Calif.), was admired for the richness and silvery beauty of his voice and for his expressive theatricality as a performer. He was particularly associated with the San

  • Asawa, Ruth (American sculptor)

    Ruth Asawa, American artist known for her abstract wire sculptures, many of which were displayed suspended as mobiles. She later turned to large public projects and community activism. Asawa frequently cited her memories of growing up on a farm in California as an inspiration for her work. She was

  • Asawa, Ruth Aiko (American sculptor)

    Ruth Asawa, American artist known for her abstract wire sculptures, many of which were displayed suspended as mobiles. She later turned to large public projects and community activism. Asawa frequently cited her memories of growing up on a farm in California as an inspiration for her work. She was

  • asbab-e sittah-zarooriah (medicine)

    Unani medicine: Relationship between tabiyat and asbab-e-sittah-zarooriah: …physical, or external, factors, called asbab-e-sittah-zarooriah, which are essential in establishing a synchronized biological rhythm and thus living a balanced existence. The six asbab-e-sittah-zarooriah are:

  • Asbaje, Juana Ramírez de (Mexican poet and scholar)

    Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, poet, dramatist, scholar, and nun, an outstanding writer of the Latin American colonial period and of the Hispanic Baroque. Juana Ramírez thirsted for knowledge from her earliest years and throughout her life. As a female, she had little access to formal education and

  • Asben (people)

    Niger: Ethnic groups: …region in the west, the Asben (Kel A?r) in the A?r region, and the Itesen (Kel Geres) to the south and east of A?r. The Tuareg people are also found in Algeria and in Mali. The Kanuri, who live to the east of Zinder, are divided into a number of…

  • Asbest (Russia)

    Asbest, city, Sverdlovsk oblast (province), west-central Russia. It lies in the eastern foothills of the middle Ural Mountains. Developed from the settlement of Kudelka, founded in 1720 around the first Russian discovery of asbestos—from which it takes its name—it became a city in 1933. Asbestos

  • asbestiform habit (crystallography)

    amphibole: Physical properties: …known to crystallize in the asbestiform habit. The asbestiform variety of riebeckite is called crocidolite or blue asbestos. Amosite is a rare asbestiform variety of grunerite, named from the company Amos (Asbestos Mines of South Africa). The most important commercial asbestos material is chrysotile, the asbestiform variety of serpentine.

  • asbestos (mineral)

    Asbestos, any of several minerals that readily separate into long, flexible fibres. Chrysotile, the fibrous form of the mineral serpentine, is the best-known type and accounts for about 95 percent of all asbestos in commercial use. It is a hydrous magnesium silicate with the chemical composition of

  • Asbestos (Quebec, Canada)

    Asbestos, town, Estrie region, southern Quebec province, Canada. Asbestos lies near the Southwest Nicolet River, 95 miles (153 km) southwest of Quebec city. Its economy traditionally depended almost entirely on asbestos mining and the manufacture of asbestos products. One of the mines—the Jeffrey

  • asbestos cement (construction)

    water supply system: Materials: …not as strong as iron, asbestos cement, because of its corrosion resistance and ease of installation, is a desirable material for secondary feeders up to 41 cm (16 inches) in diameter. Pipe sections are easily joined with a coupling sleeve and rubber-ring gasket. Cast iron has an excellent record of…

  • asbestos-cement drywall (construction)

    drywall: …include plywood and wood pulp, asbestos-cement board, and gypsum. Wood fibre and pulp boards are made by compressing together layers or particles of wood with adhesives and are manufactured with wood grain and a variety of other surface effects. They are also available with high acoustic (sound-suppressing ) and thermal…

  • asbestosis (pathology)

    Asbestosis, lung disease that is caused by the prolonged inhalation of asbestos fibres. A type of pneumoconiosis, it is found primarily among workers whose occupations involved asbestos, principally mining, construction, and the manufacture of insulation, fireproofing, cement products, and

  • Asbj?rnsen and Moe (Norwegian authors)

    Asbj?rnsen and Moe, collectors of Norwegian folklore. Peter Christen Asbj?rnsen (b. January 15, 1812, Christiania [now Oslo, Norway]—d. January 5, 1885, Kristiania [now Oslo], Norway) and J?rgen Engebretsen Moe (b. April 22, 1813, Hole [now in Norway]—d. March 27, 1882, Kristiansand, Norway)

  • Asbj?rnsen, Peter Christen (Norwegian author)

    Asbj?rnsen and Moe: ” Asbj?rnsen, the son of a glazier, became a private tutor in eastern Norway at age 20. There he began to collect folktales. Moe, the son of a rich and highly educated farmer, graduated with a degree in theology from the Royal Frederick University (now the…

  • ASBO (British law)

    United Kingdom: Family and gender: The ill-fated ASBO (Anti-Social Behaviour Order), restricting the movement of offenders, was celebrated by some as an appropriately strong response to troublemaking neighbours and gangs but was condemned by others as an attack on civil liberties.

  • Asbury Park (New Jersey, United States)

    Asbury Park, city, Monmouth county, eastern New Jersey, U.S. The city lies along the Atlantic Ocean coast in the midst of a string of seaside communities. It was founded in 1871 by James A. Bradley, a New York manufacturer, who named it for the Reverend Francis Asbury, founder of Methodism in the

  • Asbury, Francis (American clergyman)

    Francis Asbury, first bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church consecrated in the United States. His efforts did much to assure the continuance of the church in the New World. After limited schooling Asbury was licensed as a local preacher, and at the age of 21 he was admitted to the Wesleyan

  • Ascalaphidae (insect)

    Owlfly, (family Ascalaphidae), any of a group of insects (order Neuroptera) that are frequently mistaken for dragonflies because of their slender bodies and long membranous wings. The adults are found mainly in the tropics but are quite common in the southwestern and southern United States.

  • Ascalon (Israel)

    Ashqelon, city on the coastal plain of Palestine, since 1948 in southwestern Israel. The modern city lies 12 miles (19 km) north of Gaza and 1.25 miles (2 km) east-northeast of the ancient city site. Because of its location on the Mediterranean coast, Ashqelon was traditionally the key to the

  • Ascanian dynasties (German history)

    Ascanian Dynasties, branches of a German family influential from the 12th century to 1918. The name, adopted during the first quarter of the 12th century, was derived from Aschersleben, where the counts of Ballenstedt had a castle in the midst of possessions northeast of the Harz mountains. Albert

  • Ascanio in Alba (play by Parini)

    Giuseppe Parini: …operatic score for his play Ascanio in Alba (opera performed 1771). When the French took Milan in 1796, Parini, rather uncomfortably, held a government post for three years.

  • Ascanius (Roman mythology)

    Ascanius, in Roman legend, son of the hero Aeneas and the traditional founder of Alba Longa, probably the site of the modern Castel Gandolfo, near Rome. In different versions, Ascanius is placed variously in time. The usual account, found in Virgil’s Aeneid, makes the Trojan Creusa his mother.

  • ASCAP (music organization)

    ASCAP, American organization, established in 1914, that was the first such body formed to protect the rights of composers and collect fees for the public performances of their music. In accordance with intellectual-property and copyright laws, it collects royalties and licensing fees from music

  • Ascaphus (amphibian genus)

    Anura: Annotated classification: …North America; 1 genus (Ascaphus), 2 species; adult length about 5 cm (2 inches). Family Leiopelmatidae 9 presacral vertebrae (i.e., anterior to the pelvic girdle); parahyoid and caudaliopuboischiotibialis (“tail-wagging”) muscles present; direct development; New Zealand; 1 genus (Leiopelma), 4 species; adult length about 5

  • Ascaphus truei (amphibian)

    Tailed frog, (Ascaphus truei), the single species of the frog family Ascaphidae (order Anura). It is restricted to cold, clear forest streams of the Pacific Northwest region of the United States and Canada. It is one of many species that disappears when old-growth forests are cut. The “tail” found

  • Ascari, Alberto (Italian automobile racer)

    Alberto Ascari, Italian automobile racing driver who was world champion driver in 1952 and 1953. Ascari started racing on motorcycles, turning to cars in 1940, when he entered the Mille Miglia. He raced in Maseratis after World War II and in Ferraris from 1949 to 1954, when he joined the Lancia

  • ascariasis (pathology)

    Ascariasis, infection of humans and other mammals caused by intestinal roundworms of the genus Ascaris. In humans, ascariasis typically is caused by A. lumbricoides; the large roundworm of pigs, A. suum, can also cause illness in humans. Although persons infected with Ascaris worms often are

  • Ascaris (nematode genus)

    Ascaris, any of a genus of worms (order Ascaridida, class Secernentea) that are parasitic in the intestines of various terrestrial mammals, chiefly herbivores. They are typically large worms (up to about 40 cm long) characterized by a mouth surrounded by three lips. The species Ascaris lumbricoides

  • Ascaris lumbricoides (nematode species, Ascaris lumbricoides)

    ascariasis: …intestinal roundworms of the genus Ascaris. In humans, ascariasis typically is caused by A. lumbricoides; the large roundworm of pigs, A. suum, can also cause illness in humans. Although persons infected with Ascaris worms often are asymptomatic, heavy infestation can cause severe complications, particularly in children, who may experience malnutrition,…

  • Ascaris megalocephala (nematode)

    Edouard van Beneden: …papers on the egg of Ascaris megalocephala, an intestinal worm found in horses. In these studies he showed that fertilization consisted essentially in the union of two half-nuclei—one male (from the sperm cell) and one female (from the egg cell)—each containing only half the number of chromosomes found in the…

  • Ascaris megalocephala univalens (nematode)

    Edouard van Beneden: …study of a subspecies of Ascaris (A. megalocephala univalens) having only two chromosomes in its body cells. He further demonstrated that the chromosome number is constant for every body cell of a species. He also developed a theory of embryo formation in mammals that later became a standard scientific principle.

  • Ascaris suum (nematode)
  • ASCE (American organization)

    map: Government and other mapping agencies: …American Society of Photogrammetry, the American Society of Civil Engineers, and others, lend their support to mapping programs and activities. They issue technical papers and hold frequent meetings where new processes and instrumentation are discussed and displayed. The Manual of Photogrammetry and Journal, produced by the American Society of Photogrammetry,…

  • Ascended Masters of the Great White Brotherhood (order of spiritual beings)

    Church Universal and Triumphant: …upon avowed contact with the Ascended Masters of the Great White Brotherhood, the order of spiritual beings, “the saints robed in white” that adherents believe guide the overall destiny of humankind. The church was founded by Mark L. Prophet (1918–73) and, after his death, was led by his wife, Elizabeth…

  • ascending aorta (anatomy)

    aorta: …from the heart as the ascending aorta, turns to the left and arches over the heart (the aortic arch), and passes downward as the descending aorta. The left and right coronary arteries branch from the ascending aorta to supply the heart muscle. The three main arteries branch from the aortic…

  • ascending colon (anatomy)

    human digestive system: Anatomy: The ascending colon extends up from the cecum at the level of the ileocecal valve to the bend in the colon called the hepatic flexure, which is located beneath and behind the right lobe of the liver; behind, it is in contact with the rear abdominal…

  • ascending midbrain reticular activating system (physiology)

    hallucination: The nature of hallucinations: …to be mediated by the ascending midbrain reticular activating system (a network of nerve cells in the brainstem). Analyses of hallucinations reported by sufferers of neurological disorders and by neurosurgical patients in whom the brain is stimulated electrically have shown the importance of the temporal lobes (at the sides of…

  • ascending node (astronomy)

    celestial mechanics: Perturbations of elliptical motion: …the reference plane, and the ascending node is that point where the planet travels from below the reference plane (south) to above the reference plane (north). The ascending node is described by its angular position measured from a reference point on the ecliptic plane, such as the vernal equinox; the…

  • ascending tract (biology)

    human nervous system: The spinal cord: The white matter forming the ascending and descending spinal tracts is grouped in three paired funiculi, or sectors: the dorsal or posterior funiculi, lying between the dorsal horns; the lateral funiculi, lying on each side of the spinal cord between the dorsal-root entry zones and the emergence of the ventral…

  • Ascenseur pour l’échafaud (film by Malle [1958])

    Louis Malle: …film, Ascenseur pour l’échafaud (1958; Elevator to the Gallows), was a psychological thriller. His second, Les Amants (1958; The Lovers), was a commercial success and established Malle and its star, Jeanne Moreau, in the film industry. The film’s lyrical love scenes, tracked with exquisite timing, exhibit Malle’s typically bold and…

  • Ascension (Christianity)

    Ascension, in Christian belief, the ascent of Jesus Christ into heaven on the 40th day after his Resurrection (Easter being reckoned as the first day). The Feast of the Ascension ranks with Christmas, Easter, and Pentecost in the universality of its observance among Christians. The feast has been

  • Ascension (island, Atlantic Ocean)

    Ascension, island in the South Atlantic Ocean, part of the British overseas territory of St. Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha. St. Helena is 700 miles (1,100 km) to the southeast of Ascension, and the island group of Tristan da Cunha is some 1,300 miles (2,100 km) south of St. Helena. The

  • Ascension Cathedral (cathedral, Almaty, Kazakhstan)

    Almaty: Ascension Cathedral (the Zenkov Cathedral), built in 1907, is the second tallest wooden building in the world. Kazakhs and Russians constitute the largest proportions of the population, and the remainder is made up chiefly of Ukrainian, Uighur, Tatar, and German minorities. Pop. (2009) 1,365,632; (2018…

  • Ascension Day (Christianity)

    Ascension: The Feast of the Ascension ranks with Christmas, Easter, and Pentecost in the universality of its observance among Christians. The feast has been celebrated 40 days after Easter in both Eastern and Western Christianity since the 4th century. Prior to that time, the Ascension was commemorated as a part…

  • Ascension of the Lord, Feast of the (Christianity)

    Ascension: The Feast of the Ascension ranks with Christmas, Easter, and Pentecost in the universality of its observance among Christians. The feast has been celebrated 40 days after Easter in both Eastern and Western Christianity since the 4th century. Prior to that time, the Ascension was commemorated as a part…

  • Ascension, Chapel of the (mosque and Christian chapel, Jerusalem)

    Mount of Olives: A joint mosque and Christian chapel exists over the spot where many Christians and Muslims believe Jesus ascended. According to ancient Jewish tradition, the messianic era will commence on the Mount of Olives, and for this reason its slopes have been the most sacred burial ground in…

  • Ascension, The (work by Cynewulf)

    Cynewulf: …in the Vercelli Book, and The Ascension (which forms the second part of a trilogy, Christ, and is also called Christ II) and Juliana are in the Exeter Book. An epilogue to each poem, asking for prayers for the author, contains runic characters representing the letters c, y, n, (e),…

  • Ascension, The (work by Melozzo da Forlì)

    Melozzo da Forlì: …of his most important works, The Ascension, a fresco for the church of the Holy Apostles. The athletic figures of apostles and angels and, here, too, Melozzo’s masterful depiction of space amply account for the reputation Melozzo enjoyed among Giovanni Santi (a painter and the father of Raphael) and other…

  • Ascension, with Christ Giving the Keys to St. Peter, The (work by Donatello)

    Donatello: Early career: …highly developed of these are The Ascension, with Christ Giving the Keys to St. Peter, which is so delicately carved that its full beauty can be seen only in a strongly raking light; and the Feast of Herod (1433–35), with its perspective background. The large stucco roundels with scenes from…

  • Ascent of Everest, The (work by Hunt)

    John Hunt, Baron Hunt: He described the venture in The Ascent of Everest (1953).

  • Ascent of F6, The (poetic drama by Auden and Isherwood)

    The Ascent of F6, poetic drama by W.H. Auden and Christopher Isherwood, published in 1936 and performed in 1937. F6 is an unconquered mountain in the Himalayan range. An experienced and renowned climber named Michael Ransom leads an expedition of fellow Britons up the slope of F6 in competition

  • Ascent of Mt. Fuji, The (work by Aytmatov)

    Kyrgyzstan: Cultural life: …play Voskhozhdenie na Fudziiamu (1973; The Ascent of Mt. Fuji), written with Kazakh playwright Kaltay Muhamedjanov, discusses rather openly the moral compromises made under the Soviet leader Joseph Stalin. This play created a sensation when it was first staged in Moscow in 1973 and later in English-language productions abroad.

  • Ascent of the Matterhorn (work by Whymper)

    Edward Whymper: …the Alps (1871; condensed as Ascent of the Matterhorn, 1879), which is illustrated with his own engravings. The book contains Whymper’s famous words of caution:

  • Ascents, Songs of (Old Testament)

    biblical literature: Psalms: Other possible collections include the Songs of Ascents, probably pilgrim songs in origin, the Hallelujah Psalms, and a group of 55 psalms with a title normally taken to mean “the choirmaster.”

  • ascetic poem (Arabic poetic genre)

    Arabic literature: Later genres: (wine poems), ?ardiyyāt (hunt poems), zuhdiyyāt (ascetic poems), and ghazal (love poems).

  • ascetic poetry (Arabic poetic genre)

    Arabic literature: Later genres: (wine poems), ?ardiyyāt (hunt poems), zuhdiyyāt (ascetic poems), and ghazal (love poems).

  • asceticism

    Asceticism, (from Greek askeō: “to exercise,” or “to train”), the practice of the denial of physical or psychological desires in order to attain a spiritual ideal or goal. Hardly any religion has been without at least traces or some features of asceticism. The origins of asceticism lie in man’s

  • Ascetospora (protist)
  • Asch, Shalom (American writer)

    Sholem Asch, Polish-born American novelist and playwright, the most controversial and one of the most widely known writers in modern Yiddish literature. One of the 10 surviving children of a poor family, Asch was educated at Kutno’s Hebrew school. In 1899 he went to Warsaw, and in 1900 he published

  • Asch, Sholem (American writer)

    Sholem Asch, Polish-born American novelist and playwright, the most controversial and one of the most widely known writers in modern Yiddish literature. One of the 10 surviving children of a poor family, Asch was educated at Kutno’s Hebrew school. In 1899 he went to Warsaw, and in 1900 he published

  • Asch, Sholom (American writer)

    Sholem Asch, Polish-born American novelist and playwright, the most controversial and one of the most widely known writers in modern Yiddish literature. One of the 10 surviving children of a poor family, Asch was educated at Kutno’s Hebrew school. In 1899 he went to Warsaw, and in 1900 he published

  • Asch, Solomon (American psychologist)

    Stanley Milgram: Education and national conformity studies: Solomon Asch, all of whom greatly influenced the direction of Milgram’s academic career. Of particular interest to Milgram were Asch’s conformity experiments, which showed that individual behaviour can be influenced by group behaviour, with individuals conforming to group perspectives, even when choices made by the…

  • A?chabad (national capital, Turkmenistan)

    Ashgabat, city and capital of Turkmenistan. It lies in an oasis at the northern foot of the Kopet-Dag (Turkmen: K?petdag) Range and on the edge of the Karakum (Turkmen: Garagum) Desert, about 19 miles (30 km) from the Iranian frontier. It was founded in 1881 as a Russian military fort and took the

  • Aschaffenburg (Germany)

    Aschaffenburg, city, Bavaria Land (state), south-central Germany. It lies on the right bank of the canalized Main River near the mouth of the Aschaff River and at the foot of the forested Spessart (mountains), 20 miles (30 km) southeast of Frankfurt. Originally a Roman settlement, it came under the

  • Ascham, Roger (English scholar)

    Roger Ascham, British humanist, scholar, and writer, famous for his prose style, his promotion of the vernacular, and his theories of education. As a boy of 14, Ascham entered the University of Cambridge, where he earned his M.A. (1537) and one year later was elected a fellow of St. John’s and

  • aschelminth (former invertebrate phylum)

    Aschelminth, a name referring to an obsolete phylum of wormlike invertebrates, mostly of microscopic size. Previously, phylum Aschelminthes included seven diverse classes of animals: Nematoda (or Nemata), Rotifera, Acanthocephala, Gastrotricha, Kinorhyncha (or Echinodera), Nematomorpha, and

  • Aschelminthes (former invertebrate phylum)

    Aschelminth, a name referring to an obsolete phylum of wormlike invertebrates, mostly of microscopic size. Previously, phylum Aschelminthes included seven diverse classes of animals: Nematoda (or Nemata), Rotifera, Acanthocephala, Gastrotricha, Kinorhyncha (or Echinodera), Nematomorpha, and

  • Aschenbach, Gustave von (fictional character)

    Gustave von Aschenbach, fictional character in Thomas Mann’s novel Death in Venice (1912). Aschenbach is a well-respected middle-aged German writer whose life is as disciplined and coldly intellectual as his writing. While on holiday in Venice he falls in love with Tadzio, a beautiful 14-year-old

  • Aschheim-Zondek test

    pregnancy: Symptoms and signs; biological tests: Aschheim-Zondek test) and immature rats have been found to be extremely accurate. Tests using rabbits (the Friedman test) have been largely replaced by the more rapid and less expensive frog and toad tests.

  • Aschisma (plant genus)

    bryophyte: Ecology and habitats: …of quartz pebbles (the moss Aschisma), and copper-rich substrata (the moss Scopelophila).

  • Aschoff, Karl Albert Ludwig (German pathologist)

    Karl Albert Ludwig Aschoff, German pathologist who recognized the phagocytic (capable of engulfing bacteria and other substances) activity of certain cells found in diverse tissues and named them the reticuloendothelial system (1924). He also described (1904) the inflammatory nodule (called

  • asci (fungal reproduction)

    Ascus, a saclike structure produced by fungi of the phylum Ascomycota (sac fungi) in which sexually produced spores (ascospores), usually four or eight in number, are formed. Asci may arise from the fungal mycelium (the filaments, or hyphae, constituting the organism) without a distinct fruiting

  • ASCI (government project, United States)

    supercomputer: Historical development: …of Energy to fund the Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI). The goal of the project was to achieve by 2004 a computer capable of simulating nuclear tests—a feat requiring a machine capable of executing 100 trillion FLOPS (100 TFLOPS; the fastest extant computer at the time was the Cray T3E,…

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