You are using an outdated browser. Please upgrade your browser to improve your experience and security.
  • arylamine (chemical compound)

    bladder cancer: Causes and symptoms: …class of organic chemicals called arylamines. People who work in the leather, rubber, printing, and textiles industries or with large quantities of paint are often exposed to these chemicals and should exercise caution in their use.

  • arylsulfatase A (enzyme)

    metachromatic leukodystrophy: …called arylsulfatase A (ASA), or cerebroside sulfatase. Arylsulfatase A deficiency allows certain harmful sulfur-containing lipids, known as sulfosphingolipids (also called sulfatides), to accumulate in nerve tissues of the central nervous system instead of being broken down. Sulfatides can also accumulate in nerve tissue in organs, such as the kidneys and…

  • Arynchobatidae (fish)

    skate: …25 genera across three families—Rajidae, Arynchobatidae, and Anacanthobatidae—while others place all skates into family Rajidae.

  • arytenoid cartilage (anatomy)

    human respiratory system: The larynx: …pyramidal pieces of cartilage, the arytenoid cartilages. The vocal ligaments are part of a tube, resembling an organ pipe, made of elastic tissue. Just above the vocal cords, the epiglottis is also attached to the back of the thyroid plate by its stalk. The cricoid, another large cartilaginous piece of…

  • Arz ar-Rūm (Turkey)

    Erzurum, city, eastern Turkey. It lies 6,400 feet (1,950 metres) above sea level in a fertile plain surrounded by high mountains. On a caravan route from Anatolia to Iran, Erzurum has been a major commercial and military centre since antiquity and is now a major rail station on the route between

  • Arzamas (Russia)

    Arzamas, city, Nizhegorod oblast (province), southwestern Russia, on the Tesha River, a tributary of the Oka River. First mentioned in a manuscript in 1366 and again in 1552, Arzamas was chartered in 1578. Agricultural equipment and food processing are the main economic activities, and there are

  • Arzamas society (Russian literary society)

    Arzamas society, Russian literary circle that flourished in 1815–18 and was formed for the semiserious purpose of ridiculing the conservative “Lovers of the Russian Word,” a group dominated by the philologist Aleksandr S. Shishkov, who wished to keep the modern Russian language firmly tied to Old

  • Arzamas-16 (Russian organization)

    Yuly Borisovich Khariton: …KB-11, Arzamas-16, and currently the All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics, which was responsible for designing the first Soviet fission and thermonuclear bombs.

  • Arzan ar-Rūm (Turkey)

    Erzurum, city, eastern Turkey. It lies 6,400 feet (1,950 metres) above sea level in a fertile plain surrounded by high mountains. On a caravan route from Anatolia to Iran, Erzurum has been a major commercial and military centre since antiquity and is now a major rail station on the route between

  • Arzawa (ancient kingdom, Anatolia)

    Arzawa, ancient kingdom of western or southwestern Anatolia (its exact location is disputed). Although Arzawa was for long periods a rival of the Hittite kingdom, it was occasionally conquered and made a vassal by some of the more powerful Hittite kings, such as Labarnas I (c. 1680–c. 1650 bc).

  • Arzawa letters

    Bo?azk?y: Excavations: …with that of the so-called Arzawa letters found in Tell el-Amarna in Egypt was soon recognized. This led the Berlin Assyriologist Hugo Winckler to undertake excavations in 1906 together with Theodore Makridi (Bey) of the Istanbul Museum. This first season yielded 2,500 fragments of tablets from the west side of…

  • Arzeu (Algeria)

    Arzew, port town, northwestern Algeria. Arzew lies near the mouth of the Wadi Mehgoun. Its natural harbour on the Mediterranean Sea is sheltered by a mountainous promontory between the gulfs of Oran and Arzew. Arzew was an Almohad port in the 1100s. It was visited by Italian merchants in the 14th

  • Arzew (Algeria)

    Arzew, port town, northwestern Algeria. Arzew lies near the mouth of the Wadi Mehgoun. Its natural harbour on the Mediterranean Sea is sheltered by a mountainous promontory between the gulfs of Oran and Arzew. Arzew was an Almohad port in the 1100s. It was visited by Italian merchants in the 14th

  • Arzhak, Nikolay (Russian writer)

    Yuly Markovich Daniel, Soviet poet and short-story writer who was convicted with fellow writer Andrey D. Sinyavsky of anti-Soviet slander in a sensational 1966 trial that marked the beginning of literary repression under Leonid I. Brezhnev, general secretary of the Communist Party. After being

  • Arzīlah (Morocco)

    Asilah, city on the Atlantic coast of northwestern Morocco, south of Tangier. While some attribute its founding to the Phoenicians, others believe its origins date back to the Roman period; perhaps each account refers to a slightly different location on this busy coastal strip not far from Europe.

  • Arzner, Dorothy (American filmmaker)

    Dorothy Arzner, American filmmaker who was the only woman directing feature-length studio films in Hollywood during the 1930s. From 1927 to 1943 she was credited with directing 17 films, including Christopher Strong (1933) and Dance, Girl, Dance (1940), both influential works of feminist cinema.

  • Arzú Irigoyen, álvaro Enrique (president of Guatemala)

    álvaro Arzú, Guatemalan businessman and politician who served as president of Guatemala (1996–2000). He helped the country take the first steps toward recovery from its decades-long civil war. Arzú also served as mayor of Guatemala City (1986–90, 2004–18). Descended from Basque immigrants, Arzú was

  • Arzú Yrigoyen, álvaro Enrique (president of Guatemala)

    álvaro Arzú, Guatemalan businessman and politician who served as president of Guatemala (1996–2000). He helped the country take the first steps toward recovery from its decades-long civil war. Arzú also served as mayor of Guatemala City (1986–90, 2004–18). Descended from Basque immigrants, Arzú was

  • Arzú, Alvaro (president of Guatemala)

    álvaro Arzú, Guatemalan businessman and politician who served as president of Guatemala (1996–2000). He helped the country take the first steps toward recovery from its decades-long civil war. Arzú also served as mayor of Guatemala City (1986–90, 2004–18). Descended from Basque immigrants, Arzú was

  • ?Ar?ar (Saudi Arabia)

    ?Ar?ar, city, northern Saudi Arabia, situated in the Northern region at an elevation of 1,854 feet (565 metres). ?Ar?ar was developed in the early 1950s by seminomadic people who were attracted by water made available around the Trans Arabian Pipeline (Tapline). Agriculture and livestock raising

  • ?Ar?ar, Wadi (river, Saudi Arabia-Iraq)

    Arabia: Northern Arabia: …the largest of these are Wadi ?Ar?ar and Wadi Al-Khurr.

  • ār?āyā (work by Hāwāryāt)

    African literature: Ethiopian: …Tekle Hawaryat wrote the novel Araya (1948–49), about the journeying of the peasant Araya to Europe to be educated and his struggle to decide whether to remain there or return to Africa. One of Ethiopia’s most popular novels, it explores generational conflict as well as the conflict between tradition and…

  • As (chemical element)

    Arsenic (As), a chemical element in the nitrogen group (Group 15 [Va] of the periodic table), existing in both gray and yellow crystalline forms. atomic number 33 atomic weight 74.9216 melting point (gray form) 814 °C (1,497 °F) at 36 atmospheres pressure density (gray form) 5.73 g/cm3 at 14 °C (57

  • as (Roman unit of weight and coin)

    coin: The beginnings: …marks of value, from the as (weighing one pound) down to its 12th, the uncia; the obverses showed the head of a deity, the reverses a ship’s prow. These were paralleled at mints elsewhere by similar cast coins; their types showed not, as at Rome, Latin deities but rather Greek…

  • As a Man Grows Older (novel by Svevo)

    Italo Svevo: …was its successor, Senilità (1898; As a Man Grows Older), featuring another bewildered hero. Svevo had been teaching at a commercial school, and, with Senilità’s failure, he formally gave up writing and became engrossed in his father-in-law’s business.

  • As for Me and My House (novel by Ross)

    Canadian literature: Modern period, 1900–60: …category fall the Prairie novels As for Me and My House (1941) by Sinclair Ross, Who Has Seen the Wind (1947) by W.O. Mitchell, and The Mountain and the Valley (1952) by Ernest Buckler, set in Nova Scotia’s Annapolis valley. These novels strain the bonds of conventional narrative structures as…

  • As Good As It Gets (film by Brooks [1997])

    James L. Brooks: …Brooks scored another hit with As Good As It Gets (1997), which presented a romance between an aging curmudgeon (played by Jack Nicholson) and a single mother (Helen Hunt) and garnered Oscars for both of its leads. His later films included Spanglish (2004), which explored class and cultural differences between…

  • As I Am (album by Keys)

    Alicia Keys: …2007 Keys released the soul-infused As I Am, which featured the Grammy-winning single “No One.” The following year she teamed with Jack White of the White Stripes on “Another Way to Die,” the lead single on the soundtrack to the James Bond film Quantum of Solace. As I Am continued…

  • As I Crossed a Bridge of Dreams (Japanese literature)

    Sarashina nikki, (Japanese: “Sarashina Diary”) a classic of Japanese literature of the Heian period (794–1185), written about 1059 by a woman known as Sugawara Takasue no Musume (“Daughter of Sugawara Takasue”), also called Lady Sarashina. The work was translated into English as As I Crossed a

  • As I Lay Dying (novel by Faulkner)

    As I Lay Dying, novel by William Faulkner, published in 1930. It is one of the many novels that Faulkner set in the fictional Yoknapatawpha county, Miss., U.S. The story unfolds by means of fragmented and intercut narration by each of the characters. These include Addie Bundren, to whom the title

  • As I Walked Out One Midsummer Morning (work by Lee)

    Laurie Lee: …what became an autobiographical trilogy, As I Walked Out One Midsummer Morning (1969), a description of his walk to London and then across Spain just prior to that country’s civil war; and A Moment of War (1991), an account of his experiences in Spain during that war. Lee’s other works…

  • as if, philosophy of (philosophy)

    Philosophy of as if, the system espoused by Hans Vaihinger in his major philosophical work Die Philosophie des Als Ob (1911; The Philosophy of “As If”), which proposed that man willingly accept falsehoods or fictions in order to live peacefully in an irrational world. Vaihinger, who saw life as a

  • As It Happened (work by Attlee)

    Clement Attlee: Prime ministership and later years: His memoirs, As It Happened (1954), are distinguished more for their laconic discretion than their revelatory interest.

  • As Lagrimas e o Vento (work by Lima)

    Manuel dos Santos Lima: …de Janeiro, and his second, As Lagrimas e o Vento (1975; “Tears and Wind”), in Lisbon. The latter work is a fictional account of the war of liberation that resulted in independence. Lima also published a volume of poems, Kissange (1961), and a play, A Pele do Diabo (1977; “The…

  • AS Monaco (football team)

    Jürgen Klinsmann: …left the team to join AS Monaco of the French Ligue 1 in 1992. He led Monaco to an appearance in the 1994 Champions League semifinals, a feat that—combined with the five goals he scored in that summer’s World Cup—contributed to his earning German Player of the Year honours. In…

  • AS Roma (Italian football club)

    AS Roma, Italian professional football (soccer) team based in Rome. AS Roma has been an almost constant presence in Italy’s top league, Serie A, throughout its history. It is one of the best-supported teams in the country. AS Roma was founded in 1927 and joined Serie A upon the league’s formation

  • As She Was Discovering Tigony (novel by Bhêly-Quénum)

    Olympe Bhêly-Quénum: …novel C’était à Tigony (2000; As She Was Discovering Tigony), in which a geophysicist begins to question her life and views, especially those concerning global capitalism.

  • As Tears Go By (film by Wong Kar-Wai [1988])

    Wong Kar-Wai: Wonggok ka moon (1988; As Tears Go By) was Wong’s first film as a director. A young man is torn between his love for his cousin and his friendship with his impetuous Triad “brother.” The film is Wong’s most conventional in terms of style and narrative but presents some…

  • As Ten as Twenty (work by Page)

    Canadian literature: Modern period, 1900–60: …she published her first collection, As Ten as Twenty (1946), which includes the evocative renowned poem “Stories of Snow.” Page’s later work increasingly reflected her interest in esoteric places, forms, and religions, from Sufism (Evening Dance of the Grey Flies, 1981) to the glosa, a Spanish poetic form (Hologram: A…

  • As the World Turns (American television program)

    Julianne Moore: Early life and career: …arc on the soap opera As the World Turns in 1985. Her portrayals of a psychologist and, eventually, her half sister, earned her a Daytime Emmy Award in 1988. Meanwhile, she had appeared in Caryl Churchill’s Serious Money at the New York Shakespeare Festival Public Theater (1987) and trod the…

  • AS W-12 (glider)

    Hans Werner Grosse: Grosse’s record-breaking glider, an AS W-12, weighed 324 kg (716 pounds) and had a wingspan of 18.95 metres (62.2 feet) and a top speed of 220 km/hr (137 miles per hour). On January 4, 1981, he set a world record of 1,306.856 km (811.56 miles) for distance around a…

  • As You Like It (work by Shakespeare)

    As You Like It, five-act comedy by William Shakespeare, written and performed about 1598–1600 and first published in the First Folio of 1623. Shakespeare based the play on Rosalynde (1590), a prose romance by Thomas Lodge. The play has two principal settings: the court that Frederick has usurped

  • AS-1 Kennel (missile)

    rocket and missile system: Antiship: …antiship missiles, beginning with the AS-1 Kennel. The destruction of an Israeli destroyer by two SS-N-2 Styx missiles fired by Soviet-supplied Egyptian missile boats in October 1967 demonstrated the effectiveness of the Soviet systems, and the Western powers developed their own guided missiles. The resultant systems began entering service in…

  • AS-10 Karen (missile)

    rocket and missile system: Air-to-surface: … and AS-9, and the television-guided AS-10 Karen and AS-14 Kedge (the last with a range of about 25 miles). These missiles were fired from tactical fighters such as the MiG-27 Flogger and attack helicopters such as the Mi-24 Hind and Mi-28 Havoc.

  • AS-14 Kedge (missile)

    rocket and missile system: Air-to-surface: …the television-guided AS-10 Karen and AS-14 Kedge (the last with a range of about 25 miles). These missiles were fired from tactical fighters such as the MiG-27 Flogger and attack helicopters such as the Mi-24 Hind and Mi-28 Havoc.

  • AS-3 Kangaroo (missile)

    rocket and missile system: Antiship: …aircraft included the 50-foot, swept-wing AS-3 Kangaroo, introduced in 1961 with a range exceeding 400 miles. The AS-4 Kitchen, a Mach-2 (twice the speed of sound) rocket-powered missile with a range of about 250 miles, also was introduced in 1961, and the liquid-fuel, rocket-powered Mach-1.5 AS-5 Kelt was first deployed…

  • AS-4 Kitchen (Soviet missile)

    tactical weapons system: Air-to-surface systems: The Soviet AS-4 missile is more than 36 feet (11 m) long and is launched by a Tupolev bomber. It is presumed to be inertially guided until it approaches its selected target, when it homes in on the target. The French Belouga system is a cluster of…

  • AS-5 Kelt (missile)

    rocket and missile system: Antiship: 5 AS-5 Kelt was first deployed in 1966. The Mach-3 AS-6 Kingfish, introduced in 1970, could travel 250 miles.

  • AS-6 Kingfish (missile)

    rocket and missile system: Antiship: The Mach-3 AS-6 Kingfish, introduced in 1970, could travel 250 miles.

  • AS-7 Kerry (missile)

    rocket and missile system: Air-to-surface: …among these was the radio-command-guided AS-7 Kerry, the antiradar AS-8 and AS-9, and the television-guided AS-10 Karen and AS-14 Kedge (the last with a range of about 25 miles). These missiles were fired from tactical fighters such as the MiG-27 Flogger and attack helicopters such as the Mi-24 Hind and…

  • AS-8 (missile)

    rocket and missile system: Air-to-surface: …radio-command-guided AS-7 Kerry, the antiradar AS-8 and AS-9, and the television-guided AS-10 Karen and AS-14 Kedge (the last with a range of about 25 miles). These missiles were fired from tactical fighters such as the MiG-27 Flogger and attack helicopters such as the Mi-24 Hind and Mi-28 Havoc.

  • AS-9 (missile)

    rocket and missile system: Air-to-surface: …Kerry, the antiradar AS-8 and AS-9, and the television-guided AS-10 Karen and AS-14 Kedge (the last with a range of about 25 miles). These missiles were fired from tactical fighters such as the MiG-27 Flogger and attack helicopters such as the Mi-24 Hind and Mi-28 Havoc.

  • As-Sūdān

    Sudan, country located in northeastern Africa. The name Sudan derives from the Arabic expression bilād al-sūdān (“land of the blacks”), by which medieval Arab geographers referred to the settled African countries that began at the southern edge of the Sahara. For more than a century, Sudan—first as

  • ASA (enzyme)

    metachromatic leukodystrophy: …called arylsulfatase A (ASA), or cerebroside sulfatase. Arylsulfatase A deficiency allows certain harmful sulfur-containing lipids, known as sulfosphingolipids (also called sulfatides), to accumulate in nerve tissues of the central nervous system instead of being broken down. Sulfatides can also accumulate in nerve tissue in organs, such as the kidneys and…

  • Asa (king of Judah)

    Judaism: The period of the divided kingdom: King Asa (reigned c. 908–867 bce) is credited with a general purge, including the destruction of an image made for the goddess Asherah by the queen mother, granddaughter of an Aramaean princess. He also purged the qedeshim (“consecrated men”—conventionally rendered as “sodomites,” or “male sacred prostitutes”).

  • ASA (British organization)

    consumer advocacy: Controls on advertising: …Internet is regulated by the Advertising Standards Authority (ASA), an independent body. The ASA enforces an industry-written code on behalf of a statutory regulator, the Office of Communications (OFCOM). The ASA bans the use, for instance, of subliminal advertising (methods by which the listener or viewer might be influenced without…

  • ASA

    ASEAN: ASEAN replaced the Association of South East Asia (ASA), which had been formed by the Philippines, Thailand, and the Federation of Malaya (now part of Malaysia) in 1961. Under the banner of cooperative peace and shared prosperity, ASEAN’s chief projects centre on economic cooperation, the promotion of trade…

  • ASA number (photography)

    motion-picture technology: Film: The ASA (American Standards Association) scale is an arbitrary rating of film speed; that is, the sensitivity of the film to light. If everything else is kept constant, the required exposure time is inversely proportional to the ASA rating. Negative films designed for original picture exposure are…

  • ASA theorem (geometry)

    Euclidean geometry: Congruence of triangles: Following this, there are corresponding angle-side-angle (ASA) and side-side-side (SSS) theorems.

  • Asaad, Khaled al- (Syrian archaeologist)

    World Heritage site: Growth of the World Heritage List and challenges to preservation: Syrian scholar Khaled al-Asaad, who had served as Palmyra’s chief archaeologist for 40 years, was publicly beheaded by ISIL for refusing to divulge the location of relics associated with the site. UNESCO Director General Irina Bokova characterized ISIL’s actions as a war crime, and she called upon…

  • Asaak (ancient city, Iran)

    ancient Iran: Invasion of the Parni: …crowned in the city of Asaak, and the tribe took the name of the Parthians, their close relatives, which was derived from a word meaning “exiled.” Their language was closely related to Scythian and Median. The dynasty these people produced never broke its links with the people, and rare was…

  • Asaba (Nigeria)

    Asaba, town and capital of Delta state, southern Nigeria. It lies on the west bank of the Niger River (opposite Onitsha) and on the road to Benin City. A traditional market centre (cassava, yams, palm oil and kernels, kola nuts) for the Igbo (Ibo) people, it was the place where Richard and John

  • ?a?abah (Islamic relatives)
  • ?a?abīyyah (sociology)

    Ibn Khaldūn: The Muqaddimah: Ibn Khaldūn’s philosophy of history: …by his central concept of ?a?abiyyah, or “social cohesion.” It is this cohesion, which arises spontaneously in tribes and other small kinship groups, but which can be intensified and enlarged by a religious ideology, that provides the motive force that carries ruling groups to power. Its inevitable weakening, due to…

  • Asachi, Gheorghe (Romanian author)

    Romanian literature: The national renaissance: …taken up in Moldavia by Gheorghe Asachi, who introduced the historical short story, wrote verses in Romanian and Italian, and founded a periodical, Albina Romaneasc?. The outstanding literary personality among a galaxy of minor poets and translators who enriched the Romantic heritage was Grigore Alexandrescu. Alexandrescu wrote Poezii (1832, 1838,…

  • Asad (people)

    Kindah: …kingdom split up into four tribes—Asad, Taghlib, Qays, and Kinānah—each led by a Kindah prince. The tribes feuded constantly, and, after about the middle of the 6th century, the Kindah princes were forced by the local tribesmen to withdraw once more to southern Arabia.

  • Asad Allāh Khan (Abdālī leader)

    Afghanistan: The Hotakis: …Persians and under their leader, Asad Allāh Khan, succeeded in liberating their province. Ma?mūd, Mīr Vays’s young son and successor, was not content with holding Kandahār, and in 1722 he led some 20,000 men against E?fahān; the ?afavid government surrendered after a six-month siege.

  • Asad ibn al-Furat (Aghlabid military and religious leader)

    North Africa: The Aghlabids: …the army to the qā?ī Asad ibn al-Furāt.

  • Asadābādi, Jamāl al-Dīn, al- (Muslim journalist and politician)

    Jamāl al-Dīn al-Afghānī, Muslim politician, political agitator, and journalist whose belief in the potency of a revived Islamic civilization in the face of European domination significantly influenced the development of Muslim thought in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Very little is known about

  • Asader se?udata (hymn by Luria)

    Isaac ben Solomon Luria: …Will Sing on the Praises”), “Asader se?udata” (“I Will Order the Festive Meal”), and “Bene hekh-ala de-khesifin” (“Sons of the Temple of Silver”). They are mystical, erotic songs about “the adornment (or fitting) of the bride”—i.e., the sabbath, who was identified with the community of Israel—and on the other partzufim:…

  • Asadī (Persian poet)

    Persian literature: The proliferation of court patronage: …(today in northwestern Iran) by Asadī, who had migrated to Azerbaijan from his native town of ?ūs (now Mashhad) in Khorāsān. As a poet, he had become the most important successor to Ferdowsī through his Garshāsp-nāmeh, a heroic epic in masnawi form telling about the adventures in India and Sri…

  • Asaf Ali, Aruna Ganguli (Indian political activist)

    Aruna Ganguli Asaf Ali, Indian political activist who became prominent during Mohandas Gandhi’s Quit India movement against British rule when she managed to sneak past police, hoist the Indian flag publicly in Bombay, and then evade arrest; she went on to become important in the underground and

  • ā?af Jāh (Mughal ruler)

    Nizam al-Mulk: …1713 it was conferred on Chīn Qilich Khan (ā?af Jāh) by the Mughal emperor Mu?ammad Shah and was held by his descendants, the rulers of the princely state of Hyderabad, until the mid-20th century. The head of a ruling family was commonly known as the nizam.

  • ā?af-ud-Daulah (Indian ruler)

    India: The government of Lord Wellesley: …listless though cultured rule of ā?af al-Dawlah; on his death in 1797 a succession dispute and an Afghan invasion of the Punjab gave Wellesley a welcome opportunity for interference. He pressed the nawab to disband his troops and increase his payment to the company for his subsidiary force. When the…

  • asafetida (spice and resin)

    Asafoetida, gum resin prized as a spice in India and Iran, where it is used to flavour curries, meatballs, and pickles. Acrid in taste, it emits a strong onionlike odour because of its organic sulfur compounds. It is commonly sold in powdered form and is said to enhance umami flavours in savory

  • asafo (African military organization)

    Fante: …also determines membership in the asafo, a military organization. Allegiance to the asafo takes precedence over that to the matrilineage. The functions of the asafo are political (as the medium through which commoners express political sentiment and criticism of the chief), social (formerly as a cooperative labour unit and as…

  • asafoetida (spice and resin)

    Asafoetida, gum resin prized as a spice in India and Iran, where it is used to flavour curries, meatballs, and pickles. Acrid in taste, it emits a strong onionlike odour because of its organic sulfur compounds. It is commonly sold in powdered form and is said to enhance umami flavours in savory

  • Asahara Shoko (Japanese religious leader)

    Asahara Shoko, founder of AUM Shinrikyo (“Supreme Truth”; renamed Aleph in 2000), a millenarian new religious movement in Japan. Asahara was born partially blind and was sent to a school for the blind. After graduating in 1975 and failing to gain admission to medical school, he studied acupuncture

  • Asahi Beer Hall (building, Tokyo, Japan)

    Philippe Starck: His best-known works are the Asahi Beer Hall (1990) in Tokyo, an austere, blocklike granite building topped with a bulbous orange shape resembling a flame, and the Unhex Nani-Nani office building (1989), also in Tokyo, which has been described as a biomorphic shed. In 1997 he received the Excellence in…

  • Asahi National Broadcasting Co., Ltd. (Japanese television station)

    Son Masayoshi: …a 21 percent share of Asahi National Broadcasting Co., Ltd., a major Japanese commercial television station. A segment of the media called the announcement an unexpected foreign capital invasion of the Japanese broadcasting world. Softbank and News Corporation sold their share in 1997.

  • Asahi shimbun (Japanese newspaper)

    Asahi shimbun, (Japanese: “Morning Sun Newspaper”) nationwide Japanese daily newspaper, one of the “big three” in influence and circulation, printed in Tokyo, ōsaka, and several other regional centres and also as an English-language-edition daily in Tokyo. Asahi was founded in ōsaka in 1879 and has

  • Asahi, Mount (mountain, Japan)

    Kitami Mountains: …metres]) to the southwest and Mount Asahi (7,516 feet [2,291 metres]) to the northwest, the latter being the highest peak in Hokkaido. All in the group are within Daisetsu-zan National Park, which has an area of 873 square miles (2,260 square km) and is Japan’s largest national park.

  • Asahi-za (Japanese theatre)

    Bunraku: …(Bunraku Association), based at the Asahi-za (originally called the Bunraku-za), a traditional Bunraku theatre in ōsaka. Today performances are held in Kokuritsu Bunraku Gekijō (National Bunraku Theatre; opened 1984) in ōsaka. In 2003 UNESCO declared Bunraku a Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity.

  • Asahikawa (Japan)

    Asahikawa, city, northwest-central Hokkaido, northern Japan. It lies along the Ishikari River in the agriculturally important Kamikawa Basin. The area was settled in 1889 and organized as a village in 1893, after which Asahikawa became the railway, marketing, and industrial centre for northern

  • Asahina Takashi (Japanese conductor)

    Takashi Asahina, Japanese conductor (born July 9, 1908, Tokyo, Japan—died Dec. 29, 2001, Kobe, Japan), was credited with popularizing the Austro-German repertoire—especially Bruckner, Beethoven, and Mahler—in Japan and had one of the longest careers of any conductor, remaining professionally a

  • Asai Chū (Japanese painter)

    Japanese art: Western-style painting: …seen in the works of Asai Chū, who later studied in Europe. Asai’s contemporary Kuroda Seiki studied in France under Raphael Collin and was among the most prominent exponents of a style that was strongly influenced by Impressionism in its informality and its use of lighter, brighter colours.

  • Asai Ryōi (Japanese author)

    Japanese literature: Early Tokugawa period (1603–c. 1770): …is associated with the kana-zōshi—Asai Ryōi, a samurai who became the first popular and professional writer in Japanese history. Thanks to the development of relatively cheap methods of printing and a marked increase in the reading public, Ryōi was able to make a living as a writer. Although some…

  • Asaimara (social class, Africa)

    Afar: Two distinct classes, the Asaimara (“Red Men”) and the Adoimara (“White Men”), constitute the landowning, titled nobles and the lower-class tenants, respectively.

  • Asaka (Japan)

    Asaka, city, southeastern Saitama ken (prefecture), east-central Honshu, Japan. It lies along the Kurume River just northwest of Tokyo. It was a post town known as Hizaori during the Edo (Tokugawa) period (1603–1867). Its name was changed to Asaka in 1932. The city has been a centre of the

  • Asakusa Kannon (temple, Tokyo, Japan)

    Tokyo-Yokohama Metropolitan Area: The premodern period: The ancient Sensō Temple (popularly called the Asakusa Kannon), east of Ueno station and near the Sumida, dates from perhaps the late 7th century (although nearly all its structures are postwar). The name Edo means something like “estuary” or “inlet.” The clan in possession of the area…

  • ASALA (Marxist-Leninist group)

    Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia (ASALA), terrorist group formed in 1975 to force Turkey to admit its guilt for the Armenian Genocide of 1915–16. At its founding, the group’s stated goals were to force the Turkish government to acknowledge the genocide, pay reparations, and

  • Asala (Ethiopia)

    Asela, town, south-central Ethiopia. It lies west of Mount Chilalo on a high plateau overlooking Lake Ziway in the Great Rift Valley. The town is an important trading centre for the surrounding livestock and lumbering region. An all-weather road connects it with Nazret to the north. Pop. (2007

  • Asalluhe (Sumerian deity)

    Asalluhe, in Mesopotamian religion, Sumerian deity, city god of Ku’ara, near Eridu in the southern marshland region. Asalluhe was active with the god Enki (Akkadian: Ea) in rituals of lustration (purification) magic and was considered his son. He may have originally been a god of thundershowers and

  • Asam, Cosmas Damian (German painter)

    Cosmas Damian Asam, German fresco painter and principal late Baroque exponent of illusionist decoration. He, along with his brother Egid Quirin Asam, produced works notable for their profound and dramatic intensity of religious feeling. Asam was a son of Hans Georg Asam, the leading Bavarian fresco

  • Asam, Egid Quirin (German architect)

    Egid Quirin Asam, late Baroque architect whose work, often produced in collaboration with his brother Cosmas Damian Asam, utilized illusionist decoration and exhibited great religious sentiment. Asam, a son of the influential Bavarian painter Hans Georg Asam, was both an architect and a sculptor of

  • Asama Shrine (shrine, Fujinomiya, Japan)

    Fujinomiya: It developed around the Sengen (Asama) Shrine, the main Shintō shrine for the worship of Mount Fuji since the 9th century. During the early part of the Edo (Tokugawa) period (1603–1867), the shogun (military ruler) Tokugawa Ieyasu built an inner shrine, a hall of worship, and a main torii…

  • Asamando (religion)

    Asamando, in Akan religion, the land of the spirits and the dwelling place of the Nsamanfo, or ancestors. For the Akan, physical death (owuo) does not mark the end of life but represents the transition from earthly life to spiritual life, a transition that each individual must make to reach

  • Asamkirche (church, Munich, Germany)

    Cosmas Damian Asam: The Church of St. John of Nepomuk in Munich (1733–46), also known as the Asamkirche in honour of the brothers, is their masterwork and is an early contribution to the Bavarian Rococo style. The high, narrow interior, mysteriously lit from above, is richly decorated with paint,…

  • Asan, Kumaran (Indian poet)

    South Asian arts: Malayalam: …the late 19th century with Asan, who was temperamentally a pessimist—a disposition reinforced by his metaphysics—yet all his life was active in promoting his downtrodden Ezhava community. Ullor wrote in the classical tradition, on the basis of which he appealed for universal love, while Vallathol (died 1958) responded to the…

  • āsana (Yoga)

    Asana, (Sanksrit: “sitting posture,” “seat”) in the Yoga system of Indian philosophy, an immobile bodily posture that a person assumes in an attempt to isolate the mind by freeing it from attention to bodily functions. It is the third of the eight prescribed stages intended to lead the aspirant to

Your preference has been recorded
Get a Premium membership for 30% off!
Save 30% with our Memorial Day Sale!
港台一级毛片免费观看