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  • Artvin (Turkey)

    Artvin, city, northeastern Turkey. It is located on the ?oruh River near the border with Georgia. Together with the neighbouring region of Kars, Artvin was ceded to Russia at the conclusion of the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78. It was returned to Turkey by a treaty between Turkey and Soviet Russia

  • Artykuly Henrykowskie (Polish history)

    Henrician Articles, (1573) statement of the rights and privileges of the Polish gentry (szlachta) that all elected kings of Poland, beginning with Henry of Valois (elected May 11, 1573), were obliged to confirm and that severely limited the authority of the Polish monarchy. After King Sigismund II

  • Artyom (Russia)

    Artyom, city, Primorsky kray (region), far eastern Russia. It lies about 22 miles (35 km) northeast of Vladivostok. Founded in 1924, Artyom became a city in 1938 and is a centre of lignite (brown coal) production. Factories produce building materials, porcelain, and pianos. The city was named in

  • Artyomovsk (Ukraine)

    Artemivsk, city, eastern Ukraine, on the Bakhmut River. The town originated in the 17th century as a fort protecting the Russian frontiers against the Crimean Tatars. Peter I (the Great) established a salt industry there in 1701, but seven years later the fort was destroyed in the Bulavin revolt.

  • Artzivian, Abraham (Armenian patriarch)

    Armenian Catholic Church: …the Armenian bishop of Aleppo, Abraham Artzivian, already a Catholic, was elected patriarch of Sis (now Kozan, Turkey), in Cilicia. In 1911 the Armenian Catholic Church was divided into 19 dioceses; but, during the persecution of the Armenians in Turkey (1915–18), several dioceses were abolished, and the faithful left for…

  • ARU (American labour organization)

    Eugene V. Debs: …(1893) of the newly established American Railway Union. Debs successfully united railway workers from different crafts into the first industrial union in the United States. At the same time, industrial unionism was also being promoted by the Knights of Labor.

  • Aru Islands (islands, Indonesia)

    Aru Islands, easternmost island group of the Moluccas, eastern Indonesia, in the Arafura Sea. Administratively they form part of Maluku province. The group extends north-south about 110 miles (180 km) and some 50 miles (80 km) east-west and consists largely of six main islands (Warilau, Kola,

  • Aru onna (novel by Arishima)

    Arishima Takeo: Arishima received wider recognition with Aru onna. Yōko, the novel’s heroine, is totally unlike any previous heroine of modern Japanese fiction—strong-willed, decisive in her actions though capricious, and full of intense vitality. For the book’s earliest readers, her independence represented a rejection of women’s traditional place in Japanese society.

  • Aru Trough (trench, Pacific Ocean)

    Arafura Sea: …by localized uplift, border the Aru Trough, a curving trench that reaches a maximum depth of 12,000 feet (3,660 metres). The trough is part of a chain of depressions that underlies the Ceram, Arafura, and Timor seas, extending west as the Java Trench in the Indian Ocean.

  • Aru, Kepulauan (islands, Indonesia)

    Aru Islands, easternmost island group of the Moluccas, eastern Indonesia, in the Arafura Sea. Administratively they form part of Maluku province. The group extends north-south about 110 miles (180 km) and some 50 miles (80 km) east-west and consists largely of six main islands (Warilau, Kola,

  • Arua (town, Uganda)

    Arua, town located in northwestern Uganda. Arua is situated at an elevation of 4,300 feet (1,310 metres), about 12 miles (19 km) east of the border shared with the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Roads link it with Moyo and Nebbi, and it has an airstrip. Arua is a market town for cotton, tobacco,

  • Aruangua, Rio (river, East Africa)

    Luangwa River, river rising on the Malawi–Zambia border, southern Africa. From its source near Isoka, Zambia, it flows 500 miles (800 km) south-southwest, skirting the Muchinga Mountains to join the Zambezi River between Luangwa (formerly Feira), Zambia, and Zumbo, Mozambique. The river valley is

  • Aruba (island, Caribbean Sea)

    Aruba, island lying southwest of the Lesser Antilles in the Caribbean Sea, some 50 miles (80 km) northwest of Cura?ao and 18 miles (29 km) north of the Venezuelan peninsula of Paraguaná. Aruba was formerly a part of the Netherlands Antilles. In 1986 it became a separate self-governing part of the

  • Aruba Gap (ridge, Caribbean Sea)

    Beata Ridge: The Aruba Gap, a narrow connection between these two basins, truncates the Beata Ridge before it reaches the continental slope of South America.

  • Aruba, flag of (Netherlands territorial flag)

    Netherlands territorial flag consisting of a medium blue field (background) with a white-bordered red star in its upper hoist corner and two narrow horizontal yellow stripes in its lower half. The flag’s width-to-length ratio is 2 to 3.Aruba, long a part of the Netherlands Antilles, began to

  • Arucas (town, Canary Islands, Spain)

    Arucas, town, northeastern Gran Canaria Island, Las Palmas provincia (province), in the comunidad autónoma (autonomous community) of the Canary Islands, Spain. The town is in an agricultural district, and sugar and rum are produced there. Blue basalt is quarried nearby. Arucas was the scene of a

  • arugula (herb)

    Arugula, (subspecies Eruca vesicaria sativa), annual herb of the mustard family (Brassicaceae), grown for its pungent edible leaves. Native to the Mediterranean, arugula is a common salad vegetable in many parts of southern Europe and has grown in popularity around the world for its peppery, nutty

  • ?Aruj (Barbary pirate)

    Barbarossa: …Khi?r and his brother ?Arūj to intensify their piracy. They hoped, with the aid of Turks and Muslim emigrants from Spain, to wrest an African domain for themselves and had begun to succeed in that design when ?Arūj was killed by the Spanish in 1518. Khi?r, who had been…

  • ?Arukh (work by Nathan ben Yehiel)

    Hebrew literature: The Palestinian tradition in Europe, 800–1300: …Talmudic Aramaic and Hebrew, the ?Arukh, which is still used.

  • ?Arukh ha-shalem (work by Kohut)

    Alexander Kohut: …the last volume of his ?Arukh ha-shalem was published (the first volume had appeared in 1878), and the work brought him honours from learned Jewish bodies throughout the world.

  • Arukku (Persian prince)

    Cyrus I: …he sent his eldest son, Arukku, with tribute to Nineveh.

  • Arular (album by M.I.A.)

    M.I.A.: The album title, Arular, was the name her father adopted while a Tamil Tiger, and the album cover featured M.I.A.’s face surrounded by a collage of cartoon tanks and AK-47s. The compilation was a huge success on the club circuit, based on the strength of singles such as…

  • Arulpragasam, Maya (British-born Sri Lankan rapper)

    M.I.A., British-born Sri Lankan rapper who achieved global fame with politically charged dance music. Although Arulpragasam was born in London, she spent much of her childhood in northern Sri Lanka. When the civil war between the Tamil minority in the north and the Sinhalese government in the south

  • Arum (plant genus)

    Arum, genus of low-growing tuberous perennial plants in the family Araceae (order Arales). Of the 32 species generally recognized, a few are grown for their showy spathe, a funnel-shaped bract surrounding the rodlike spadix (on which the tiny flowers are borne), and for their glossy, arrow-shaped

  • arum family (plant family)

    angiosperm: Inflorescences: …fleshy spike characteristic of the Araceae is called a spadix, and the underlying bract is known as a spathe. A catkin (or ament) is a spike in which all the flowers are of only one sex, either staminate or carpellate. The catkin is usually pendulous, and the petals and sepals…

  • arum lily (plant)

    calla: …known as the arum lily, water arum, or wild calla. As a common name calla is also generally given to several species of Zantedeschia, which are often called calla lilies.

  • Arum maculatum (plant)

    Cuckoopint, (Arum maculatum), tuberous herb of the arum family (Araceae), native to southern Europe and northern Africa. Like many other aroids, cuckoopint contains a bitter, sometimes poisonous, sap; the red berries are particularly toxic. In England, where it is common in woods and hedgerows, it

  • Arum vokzal (novella by Bergelson)

    Yiddish literature: Writers in Poland and the Soviet Union: …Depot,” translated into English in A Shtetl and Other Yiddish Novellas [1986]), his first novella, already exemplifies the new modernism—involving multiple perspectives and internal monologues in free, indirect style. Bergelson’s characteristic atmosphere of futility and despair is vividly present in the novella In a fargrebter shtot (1914; “In a Backwoods…

  • Arum, Bob (American boxing promoter)

    George Foreman: …later surfaced that Foreman’s promoter, Bob Arum, had paid bribes to the International Boxing Federation (IBF) in order to manipulate the rankings and permit Foreman a chance at a title fight. Nevertheless, Foreman did very well when his chance at a title bout came. Despite his age and more than…

  • Arun (district, England, United Kingdom)

    Arun, district, administrative county of West Sussex, historic county of Sussex, southeastern England. It is named for the River Arun, which rises near the northern boundary of the county and flows south across it. The district includes the ancient borough of Arundel, with the nearby Arundel

  • Arun (gas field, Indonesia)

    natural gas: Asia: …gas field in Asia is Arun, which was discovered in 1971 in the North Sumatra basin of Indonesia. The gas reservoir is a reef limestone that dates to the middle of the Miocene Epoch (some 16 million to 11.6 million years ago). Original reserves have been estimated at about 383…

  • Arunachal Pradesh (state, India)

    Arunachal Pradesh, state of India. It constitutes a mountainous area in the extreme northeastern part of the country and is bordered by the kingdom of Bhutan to the west, the Tibet Autonomous Region of China to the north, Myanmar (Burma) and the Indian state of Nagaland to the south and southeast,

  • Arunci (Spain)

    Morón de la Frontera, city, Sevilla provincia (province), in the Andalusia comunidad autónoma (autonomous community), southwestern Spain, lying in the valley of the Guadalquivir River near the northwestern foothills of the Baetic Cordillera. It was founded by the Phoenicians and settled by the

  • Aruncus dioicus (plant, Aruncus dioicus)

    Goatsbeard, (Aruncus dioicus), herbaceous perennial plant of the rose family (Rosaceae), native to the north temperate zone. Goatsbeard is often listed as the only species of the genus Aruncus. It occurs most commonly in rich woods in mountainous regions and is cultivated as a border plant. The

  • Arundale, Rukmini Devi (Indian dancer and theosophist)

    Rukmini Devi Arundale, Indian classical dancer and follower of theosophy, best known for catalyzing the renaissance of the bharata natyam dance form and founding the Kalakshetra Foundation in Madras (now Chennai). The foundation aimed to preserve and popularize bharata natyam and other Indian

  • Arundel (Maine, United States)

    Kennebunkport, town, York county, southwestern Maine, U.S. It is situated at the mouth of the Kennebunk River, on the Atlantic coast. It is adjacent to Kennebunk and lies 29 miles (47 km) southwest of Portland. The original settlement (1629) by Richard Vines was brought under the control of

  • Arundel (England, United Kingdom)

    Arundel, town (parish), Arun district, administrative county of West Sussex, historic county of Sussex, southern England. The town lies in the valley of the River Arun where it cuts through the South Downs. Arundel occupies the hillslope between the river and Arundel Castle, which was built soon

  • Arundel Castle (castle, Arundel, England, United Kingdom)

    Arundel: …hillslope between the river and Arundel Castle, which was built soon after the Norman Conquest (1066) to guard the route through the Arun valley and along the coast. It was a borough by prescription (without a written charter) and is first mentioned in 877. After the conquest, it became the…

  • Arundel Manuscript (work by Leonardo da Vinci)

    Leonardo da Vinci: Art and science: the notebooks: Finally, the Arundel Manuscript in the British Museum in London contains a number of Leonardo’s fascicles on various themes.

  • Arundel, Cape (peninsula, Maine, United States)

    Kennebunkport: The rocky shores of Cape Arundel are known to artists and photographers. Kennebunkport also has a noted literary and art colony. The Seashore Trolley Museum displays more than 200 antique streetcars. President George Bush had a summer home at Kennebunkport. Area 20 square miles (53 square km). Pop. (2000)…

  • Arundel, Henry Fitzalan, 12th earl of (English noble)

    Henry Fitzalan, 12th earl of Arundel, prominent English lord during the reign of the Tudors, implicated in Roman Catholic conspiracies against Elizabeth I. Son of William Fitzalan (1483–1544), the 11th earl, he succeeded to the earldom in 1544. He took part in the siege of Boulogne (1544) and was

  • Arundel, Philip Howard, 1st or 13th Earl of (English noble)

    Philip Howard, 1st (or 13th) earl of Arundel, first earl of Arundel of the Howard line, found guilty of Roman Catholic conspiracies against Elizabeth I of England. Philip was the eldest son of Thomas Howard, 4th duke of Norfolk, executed for high treason in 1572, and of Lady Mary, daughter and

  • Arundel, Philip Howard, 1st or 13th Earl of, Earl of Surrey (English noble)

    Philip Howard, 1st (or 13th) earl of Arundel, first earl of Arundel of the Howard line, found guilty of Roman Catholic conspiracies against Elizabeth I of England. Philip was the eldest son of Thomas Howard, 4th duke of Norfolk, executed for high treason in 1572, and of Lady Mary, daughter and

  • Arundel, Richard Fitzalan, 4th Earl of (English noble)

    Richard Fitzalan, 4th earl of Arundel, one of the chief opponents of Richard II. He began as a member of the royal council during the minority of Richard II and about 1381 was made one of the young king’s governors. About 1385 he joined the baronial party led by the King’s uncle, Thomas of

  • Arundel, Richard Fitzalan, 4th Earl of, 10th Earl of Surrey (English noble)

    Richard Fitzalan, 4th earl of Arundel, one of the chief opponents of Richard II. He began as a member of the royal council during the minority of Richard II and about 1381 was made one of the young king’s governors. About 1385 he joined the baronial party led by the King’s uncle, Thomas of

  • Arundel, Thomas (archbishop of Canterbury)

    Thomas Arundel, English statesman and archbishop of Canterbury who aided the opponents of King Richard II. During the reign of King Henry IV, Arundel vigorously suppressed the Lollards. His father was Richard Fitzalan, 3rd earl of Arundel, and his mother was a member of the powerful house of

  • Arundel, Thomas Fitzalan, 11th Earl of Surrey (English noble)

    Thomas Fitzalan Arundel, 11th earl of Surrey, only surviving son of Richard Fitzalan, the 4th earl, and a champion of Henry IV and Henry V of England. King Richard II made him a ward of John Holland, duke of Exeter, from whose keeping he escaped about 1398 and joined his uncle, Archbishop Thomas

  • Arundel, Thomas Fitzalan, 5th Earl of, 11th Earl of Surrey (English noble)

    Thomas Fitzalan Arundel, 11th earl of Surrey, only surviving son of Richard Fitzalan, the 4th earl, and a champion of Henry IV and Henry V of England. King Richard II made him a ward of John Holland, duke of Exeter, from whose keeping he escaped about 1398 and joined his uncle, Archbishop Thomas

  • Arundel, Thomas Howard, 2nd Earl of (English noble)

    Thomas Howard, 2nd earl of Arundel, English noble prominent during the reigns of James I and Charles I and noted for his art collections of marbles and manuscripts. The son of Philip Howard, the first earl of the Howard line, he was educated at Westminster School and at Trinity College, Cambridge.

  • Arundel, Thomas Howard, 2nd or 14th Earl of, Earl of Surrey, Earl of Norfolk (English noble)

    Thomas Howard, 2nd earl of Arundel, English noble prominent during the reigns of James I and Charles I and noted for his art collections of marbles and manuscripts. The son of Philip Howard, the first earl of the Howard line, he was educated at Westminster School and at Trinity College, Cambridge.

  • Arundinaria (plant genus)

    Arundinaria, genus of bamboos and canes in the grass family (Poaceae), found in temperate areas. The plants typically grow in marshy areas or along riverbanks, and the stems can be woven into baskets and mats and are used to make pipes and fishing poles. The taxonomy of the genus is contentious,

  • Arundinaria gigantea (plant, Arundinaria species)

    Arundinaria: Giant cane, also known as river cane and canebrake bamboo (Arundinaria gigantea), was once widely utilized as a forage plant in the southeastern United States, from eastern Texas and Oklahoma to the Atlantic coast and north to the Ohio River valley. It produces green leaves…

  • Arundinoideae (plant subfamily)

    Poaceae: Distribution and abundance: Arundinoideae is not nearly as sharply defined as the preceding subfamilies. The 600 species of this heterogeneous group of primitive grasses grow mostly in the tropics and Southern Hemisphere. Phragmites australis belongs in this subfamily. The final two small subfamilies are Centothecoideae (11 genera) and…

  • arundo (plant)

    Giant reed, (Arundo donax), tall perennial grass of the family Poaceae. Giant reed is found in wetlands and riparian habitats and is thought to be native to eastern Asia; the plant has been widely introduced to southeastern North America, the Caribbean, and parts of the Mediterranean. The woody

  • Arundo donax (plant)

    Giant reed, (Arundo donax), tall perennial grass of the family Poaceae. Giant reed is found in wetlands and riparian habitats and is thought to be native to eastern Asia; the plant has been widely introduced to southeastern North America, the Caribbean, and parts of the Mediterranean. The woody

  • Arung Palakka (Indonesian leader)

    Central Sulawesi: History: …Bone, who were led by Arung Palakka, and succeeded in overthrowing Gowa in 1669. Arung Palakka then emerged as the most powerful ruler on the island; internecine warfare, however, paved the way for the gradual extension of the Dutch hegemony. Celebes was occupied briefly by the British in 1810–16, but…

  • Arung Singkang (Indonesian rebel)

    Arung Singkang, Buginese aristocrat who unified his southern Celebes people and created a state that held out against the Dutch for more than a century. As a young man Arung Singkang was exiled to Borneo, where he gathered a following and in 1737 returned and won control of his native state, Wadjo.

  • Arunta (people)

    Aranda, Aboriginal tribe that originally occupied a region of 25,000 square miles (65,000 square km) in central Australia, along the upper Finke River and its tributaries. The Aranda were divided into five subtribes, which were marked by differences in dialect. In common with other Aborigines, t

  • Arunta Desert (desert, Australia)

    Simpson Desert, largely uninhabited arid region covering some 55,000 square miles (143,000 square km) in central Australia. Situated mainly in the southeastern corner of the Northern Territory, it overlaps into Queensland and South Australia and is bounded by the Finke River (west), the MacDonnell

  • Arunta Ranges (mountains, Australia)

    Precambrian: Granulites and gneisses: the Musgrave and Arunta ranges in Australia, and in Lapland in the northern Baltic Shield. They were brought up from the mid-lower crust on major thrusts as a result of continental collisions.

  • arūpa-loka (Buddhism)

    Arūpa-loka, (Sanskrit and Pāli: “world of immaterial form”), in Buddhist thought, the highest of the three spheres of existence in which rebirth takes place. The other two are rūpa-loka, “the world of form,” and kāma-loka, “the world of feeling” (the three are also referred to as arūpa-dhātu,

  • arūpadhātu (Buddhism)

    Arūpa-loka, (Sanskrit and Pāli: “world of immaterial form”), in Buddhist thought, the highest of the three spheres of existence in which rebirth takes place. The other two are rūpa-loka, “the world of form,” and kāma-loka, “the world of feeling” (the three are also referred to as arūpa-dhātu,

  • arupya-dhatu (Buddhism)

    Arūpa-loka, (Sanskrit and Pāli: “world of immaterial form”), in Buddhist thought, the highest of the three spheres of existence in which rebirth takes place. The other two are rūpa-loka, “the world of form,” and kāma-loka, “the world of feeling” (the three are also referred to as arūpa-dhātu,

  • Aruqtai (Mongol chief)

    Aruqtai, chief of the As (or Alan) Mongols, who allied himself with Mahamu, chief of the Oirat Mongols, and with him defeated Ugechi, whom the Ming dynasty had recognized as the chief of the Mongols. In 1423 Aruqtai proclaimed himself great khan of the Mongols, launching devastating raids into

  • Aruru (Mesopotamian deity)

    Ninhursag, in Mesopotamian religion, city goddess of Adab and of Kish in the northern herding regions; she was the goddess of the stony, rocky ground, the hursag. In particular, she had the power in the foothills and desert to produce wildlife. Especially prominent among her offspring were the

  • Arusha (region, Tanzania)

    Arusha, administrative region, northern Tanzania, East Africa. It is bordered on the northeast by Kenya. The Serengeti Plain lies in the northwest, and the Masai Steppe, broken only by isolated gneiss hills, lies in the south. In the central area of the region are the Crater Highlands, bordering

  • Arusha Declaration (East Africa [1967])

    Tanzania: Economy: …planning, as outlined in the Arusha Declaration of 1967. The declaration also resulted in the nationalization of a number of industries and public services. In the long term, however, the centrally planned economy contributed to a marked economic decline.

  • Arusha National Park (national park, Tanzania)

    Arusha National Park, Preserve, northern Tanzania. Established in 1960, the park contains a rich variety of flora and fauna. It is the site of Mount Meru (14,978 ft [4,565 m]) and Ngurdoto Crater, an extinct volcano. Nearby are Mount Kilimanjaro, Olduvai Gorge, and Ngorongoro Crater, whose

  • Arusi (people)

    African art: Horn of Africa: The Arusi, also of southern Ethiopia, make tombstones of like height, ornamented with engravings filled in with red or black, sometimes showing the deceased in rough relief. Similarly shaped gravestones—sometimes plain, sometimes adorned with decoration—occur in Somalia.

  • Arvad (island, Syria)

    Jazīrat Arwād, island in the eastern Mediterranean off the Syrian coastal town of ?ar?ūs. Originally settled by the Phoenicians in the early 2nd millennium bc, it formed an excellent base for their commercial operations, into both the Orontes Valley and the hinterland as far as the Euphrates, and

  • Arval Brothers (ancient Roman priesthood)

    Arval Brothers, in ancient Rome, college or priesthood whose chief original duty was to offer annual public sacrifice for the fertility of the fields. The brotherhood, probably of great antiquity, was almost forgotten in republican times but was revived by Augustus and probably lasted until the t

  • Arvand Rūd (river, Iraq)

    Sha?? Al-?Arab, (Arabic: “Stream of the Arabs”) river in southeastern Iraq, formed by the confluence of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers at the town of Al-Qurnah. It flows southeastward for 120 miles (193 km) and passes the Iraqi port of Basra and the Iranian port of Abadan before emptying into the

  • Arve River (river, Europe)

    Arve River, river in eastern France and Switzerland, rising in the Savoy Alps and flowing north into the Rh?ne River below Geneva. Over its 62-mi (100-km) course, the river passes by some of the finest and most varied Alpine scenery. Its upper section collects the drainage of the northwest face of

  • Arverni (people)

    Arverni, Celtic tribe that inhabited what is now the region of Auvergne, in central France. The Arverni dominated an extensive territory in the 2nd century bc, until they were defeated by the Romans in 121. In about 60 they invited Ariovistus, king of a German tribe, to aid them against their old

  • Arvicola terrestris (rodent)

    vole: The European water vole (Arvicola terrestris) is the largest of the native Eurasian voles, weighing up to 250 grams (9 ounces) and having a body up to 22 cm (9 inches) long and a tail up to 13 cm (5 inches). Depending upon the species, voles’…

  • ARVN (Vietnamese military force)

    Vietnam War: The Diem regime and the Viet Cong: …American training and weapons, the Army of the Republic of Vietnam, usually called the ARVN, was in many ways ill-adapted to meet the insurgency of the Viet Cong. Higher-ranking officers, appointed on the basis of their family connections and political reliability, were often apathetic, incompetent, or corrupt—and sometimes all three.…

  • Arvon, Mount (mount, Michigan, United States)

    Mount Arvon, peak, Baraga county, northern Upper Peninsula, Michigan, U.S. Reaching an elevation of 1,979 feet (603 metres), it is the highest point in the state. It lies about 12 miles (20 km) east of L’Anse, inland from the Lake Superior shore in a wilderness recreational region of lakes and

  • Arwād, Jazīrat (island, Syria)

    Jazīrat Arwād, island in the eastern Mediterranean off the Syrian coastal town of ?ar?ūs. Originally settled by the Phoenicians in the early 2nd millennium bc, it formed an excellent base for their commercial operations, into both the Orontes Valley and the hinterland as far as the Euphrates, and

  • Arwyrain Owain (poem by Gwalchmai)

    Celtic literature: The Middle Ages: Gwalchmai in his Arwyrain Owain (“Exaltation of Owain”) displayed one characteristic of all the gogynfeirdd, description of water, whether of river or sea. Bardic poetry, highly conventional in form, was now marked not by profundity but by adornment and linguistic virtuosity. Two poet-princes, Owain Cyfeiliog of Powys and…

  • arXiv.org (online archive)

    Internet: Electronic publishing: For example, arXiv.org has transformed the rate at which scientists publish and react to new theories and experimental data. Begun in 1991, arXiv.org is an online archive in which physicists, mathematicians, computer scientists, and computational biologists upload research papers long before they will appear in a print…

  • Arya Chakaravartis dynasty (Indian dynasty)

    Sri Lanka: Political changes: …south Indian dynasty called the Arya Chakaravartis seized power in the north. By the beginning of the 14th century, it had founded a Tamil kingdom, its capital at Nallur in the Jaffna Peninsula. The kingdom of Jaffna soon expanded southward, initiating a tradition of conflict with the Sinhalese, though Rajarata—by…

  • Arya Samaj (religious sect, India)

    Arya Samaj, (Sanskrit: “Society of Nobles”) vigorous reform movement of modern Hinduism, founded in 1875 by Dayananda Sarasvati, whose aim was to reestablish the Vedas, the earliest Hindu scriptures, as revealed truth. He rejected all later accretions to the Vedas as degenerate but, in his own

  • arya-pudgala (Buddhism)

    Ariya-puggala, (Pali: “noble person”) in Theravada Buddhism, a person who has attained one of the four levels of holiness. A first type of holy person, called a sotapanna-puggala (“stream-winner”), is one who will attain nibbana (Sanskrit nirvana)—release (moksha) from the cycle of death and

  • Aryabhata (Indian satellite)

    Aryabhata, first unmanned Earth satellite built by India. It was named for a prominent Indian astronomer and mathematician of the 5th century ce. The satellite was assembled at Peenya, near Bangalore, but was launched from within the Soviet Union by a Russian-made rocket on April 19, 1975.

  • Aryabhata (Indian astronomer and mathematician)

    Aryabhata, astronomer and the earliest Indian mathematician whose work and history are available to modern scholars. He is also known as Aryabhata I or Aryabhata the Elder to distinguish him from a 10th-century Indian mathematician of the same name. He flourished in Kusumapura—near Patalipurta

  • Aryabhata I (Indian astronomer and mathematician)

    Aryabhata, astronomer and the earliest Indian mathematician whose work and history are available to modern scholars. He is also known as Aryabhata I or Aryabhata the Elder to distinguish him from a 10th-century Indian mathematician of the same name. He flourished in Kusumapura—near Patalipurta

  • Aryabhata the Elder (Indian astronomer and mathematician)

    Aryabhata, astronomer and the earliest Indian mathematician whose work and history are available to modern scholars. He is also known as Aryabhata I or Aryabhata the Elder to distinguish him from a 10th-century Indian mathematician of the same name. He flourished in Kusumapura—near Patalipurta

  • Aryabhatiya (work by Aryabhata)

    Bhaskara I: In his commentary on the Aryabhatiya, Bhaskara explains in detail Aryabhata’s method of solving linear equations and provides a number of illustrative astronomical examples. Bhaskara particularly stressed the importance of proving mathematical rules rather than just relying on tradition or expediency. In supporting Aryabhata’s approximation to π, Bhaskara criticized the…

  • Aryadeva (Buddhist philosopher)

    Buddhism: Madhyamika (Sanlun/Sanron): Along with his disciple Aryadeva, the Indian philosopher Nagarjuna (c. 150–250 ce) is recognized as the founder and principal exponent of the Madhyamika system. Nagarjuna is the presumed author of the voluminous Mahaprajnaparamita-shastra (“The Great Treatise on the Perfection of Wisdom”), preserved in its Chinese translation (402–405) by

  • Aryan (people)

    Aryan, name originally given to a people who were said to speak an archaic Indo-European language and who were thought to have settled in prehistoric times in ancient Iran and the northern Indian subcontinent. The theory of an “Aryan race” appeared in the mid-19th century and remained prevalent

  • Aryan Nations (American hate group)

    Aryan Nations, prominent Christian Identity-based hate group founded in the United States in the 1970s. In the 1970s and ’80s the Aryan Nations developed a strong network comprising neo-Nazi, skinhead, Ku Klux Klan (KKK), white supremacist, and militia groups, many of which congregated and

  • Aryana Vaejah (ancient state, Asia)

    Hystaspes: …the Avesta (the Zoroastrian scripture) Aryana Vaejah, which may have been a Greater Chorasmian state abolished by the Achaemenid king Cyrus II the Great in the mid-6th century bc.

  • Aryandes (satrap of Egypt)

    Darius I: Ascent to monarchy: …the insubordination of its satrap, Aryandes, whom he put to death.

  • aryanism (racism)

    race: Gobineau’s Essay on the Inequality of Human Races: …a new dogma of “Aryanism” that was to expand and become the foundation for Nazi race theories in the 20th century.

  • Aryans, Society of (religious sect, India)

    Arya Samaj, (Sanskrit: “Society of Nobles”) vigorous reform movement of modern Hinduism, founded in 1875 by Dayananda Sarasvati, whose aim was to reestablish the Vedas, the earliest Hindu scriptures, as revealed truth. He rejected all later accretions to the Vedas as degenerate but, in his own

  • aryballos (vase)

    Aryballos, small, narrow-necked, spherical or globular Greek vase. Commonly used as a scent or oil bottle, particularly by athletes at the baths, the aryballos derives from the globular wine pourer (oinochoe) of the Geometric style (9th century bc), evolving its distinctive shape in the early

  • Aryeh, Judah (Italian rabbi and writer)

    Leone Modena, Italian rabbi, preacher, poet, scholar, gambling addict, and polemicist who wrote an important attack on the Sefer ha-zohar (“Book of Splendour”), the chief text of Kabbala, the influential body of Jewish mystical teachings. By the time Modena was 12, he could translate portions of

  • aryepiglottic fold (anatomy)

    speech: Vocal cords: …the laryngeal vestibule, forming the aryepiglottic folds. These folds extend from the apex of the arytenoids to the lateral margin of the epiglottis. Laterally from this ring enclosing the laryngeal vestibule, the mucous membrane descends downward to cover the upper-outer aspects of the larynx where the mucous membrane blends with…

  • aryl halide (chemical compound)

    organohalogen compound: are subdivided into alkyl, vinylic, aryl, and acyl halides. In alkyl halides all four bonds to the carbon that bears the halogen are single bonds; in vinylic halides the carbon that bears the halogen is doubly bonded to another carbon; in aryl halides the halogen-bearing carbon is part of an…

  • aryl salt (chemical compound)

    zinc group element: Toxicity of the elements: The behaviour of aryl salts—as for example phenylmercuric acetate—in the body is similar to that of inorganic compounds. Both groups if ingested cause vomiting, colic, and diarrhea, and both are skin irritants. No fatal case of aryl salt poisoning has been reported; however, exposure to alkyl salts has…

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