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  • art fairy tale

    Fairy tale, wonder tale involving marvellous elements and occurrences, though not necessarily about fairies. The term embraces such popular folktales (M?rchen, q.v.) as “Cinderella” and “Puss-in-Boots” and art fairy tales (Kunstm?rchen) of later invention, such as The Happy Prince (1888), by the

  • art for art’s sake

    Art for art’s sake, a slogan translated from the French l’art pour l’art, which was coined in the early 19th century by the French philosopher Victor Cousin. The phrase expresses the belief held by many writers and artists, especially those associated with Aestheticism, that art needs no

  • art fraud

    Art fraud, the deliberately false representation of the artist, age, origins, or ownership of a work of art in order to reap financial gain. Forgery of a famous artist’s work is the best-known kind of art fraud, but fraud may also result from the knowing misattribution of the age or origin of a

  • art historiography (visual arts)

    Art history, historical study of the visual arts, being concerned with identifying, classifying, describing, evaluating, interpreting, and understanding the art products and historic development of the fields of painting, sculpture, architecture, the decorative arts, drawing, printmaking,

  • art history (visual arts)

    Art history, historical study of the visual arts, being concerned with identifying, classifying, describing, evaluating, interpreting, and understanding the art products and historic development of the fields of painting, sculpture, architecture, the decorative arts, drawing, printmaking,

  • Art in Lima, Museum of (museum, Lima, Peru)

    Museum of Art in Lima (MALI), art museum in Lima, Peru, that features the art of Peru from the ancient to the contemporary. The Museum of Art in Lima maintains one of Peru’s broadest art collections, featuring work from pre-Columbian times to the present day. The museum’s many rooms are organized

  • Art Informel (art movement)

    Western painting: Figuration: In France the Informel (“Unformed”) movement, its principles expounded most influentially by the critic Michel Tapié, combined the traditional iconography of the nude with massively ravaged painted surfaces to produce disturbing depictions of the body such as Jean Fautrier’s Otages (“Hostages”) series of the mid-1940s and Jean Dubuffet’s…

  • Art Institute of Chicago (museum, Chicago, Illinois, United States)

    Art Institute of Chicago, museum in Chicago, Illinois, U.S., featuring European, American, and Asian sculpture, paintings, prints and drawings, decorative arts, photography, textiles, and arms and armour, as well as African, pre-Columbian American, and ancient art. The museum contains more than

  • Art Institute of Chicago, School of the (school, Chicago, Illinois, United States)

    Roger Brown: Early influences: …a few classes at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago (SAIC). He then studied at Chicago’s American Academy of Art to become a commercial artist, another path he ultimately rejected. In 1965 he became a full-time student at SAIC, earning a B.F.A. in 1968 and an M.F.A. in…

  • Art Island (island, New Caledonia)

    Bélep Islands: Comprising Pott and Art islands and several islets, the group lies within the northern continuation of the barrier reef that surrounds the main island of New Caledonia. The chief settlement is Wala, on Art Island. The largest of the group, Art Island is 10 miles (16 km) long…

  • Art Loss Register (international organization)

    art fraud: Victims and resources: The Art Loss Register (ALR), founded in 1991, grew out of the International Foundation for Art Research (IFAR: founded 1969), a not-for-profit organization that initiated and maintained (until 1997) an international database of stolen works of art, antiques, and collectables. After 1998 ALR assumed maintenance, although…

  • art market (economics)

    Art market, physical or figurative venue in which art is bought and sold. At its most basic an art market requires a work of art, which might be drawn from a very wide range of collectible objects; a seller; and a buyer, who may participate directly in negotiations or be represented by agents.

  • art museum

    The Art of Looking at Art: …we should of course visit museums. They are the prime locus where the uniqueness of an artist’s work can be encountered. Yet even in museums, which are more and more acquiring the significance of churches, art is seen in very unpromising conditions. Each work was made to be seen alone,…

  • Art Museum of Estonia (museum, Tallinn, Estonia)
  • Art Museum of Romania (museum, Bucharest, Romania)

    Bucharest: …City of Bucharest and the Art Museum of Romania, the latter maintaining large collections of national, European, and East Asian art. A highly original ethnographic collection, the Village Museum (1936), is made up of peasant houses brought from various parts of the country.

  • Art Museum of S?o Paulo (museum, S?o Paulo, Brazil)

    Lina Bo Bardi: …help establish and direct the Art Museum of S?o Paulo (Museu de Arte de S?o Paulo; MASP), the first museum in Brazil to collect and exhibit modern art. For the first iteration of the institution, which opened in 1947 in part of the building that housed Chateaubriand’s business, Bo Bardi…

  • Art Museums and Their Digital Future

    With the dramatic growth of museums around the world—over 2,000 built in China alone since the advent of the 21st century and new ones springing up on a regular basis throughout Europe and North America, the Middle East, and Latin America—this is a good moment to reflect on these institutions and

  • art music

    musical sound: Scales and modes: …began to disintegrate in the art music of the late 19th century. It was replaced in part by the methods of Arnold Schoenberg (1874–1951), which used all 12 notes as basic material. Since that revolution of the early 1920s, the raw pitch materials of Western music have frequently been drawn…

  • art needlework

    embroidery: …and Crafts movement, was “art needlework,” embroidery done on coarse, natural-coloured linen.

  • Art Nouveau (artistic style)

    Art Nouveau, ornamental style of art that flourished between about 1890 and 1910 throughout Europe and the United States. Art Nouveau is characterized by its use of a long, sinuous, organic line and was employed most often in architecture, interior design, jewelry and glass design, posters, and

  • Art Objects: Essays on Ecstasy and Effrontery (work by Winterson)

    Jeanette Winterson: Art Objects: Essays on Ecstasy and Effrontery—which covers various topics such as Gertrude Stein, modern literature, and lesbianism—was published in 1995. Winterson produced a collection of short stories, The World and Other Places (1998); the vivid memoir Why Be Happy When You Could Be Normal?…

  • Art of Conjecture, The (work by Jouvenel)

    futurology: …L’Art de la conjecture (The Art of Conjecture), in which he offered a systematic philosophical rationale for the field. The following year the American Academy of Arts and Sciences formed its Commission on the Year 2000 “to anticipate social patterns, to design new institutions, and to propose alternative programs”;…

  • Art of Death: Writing the Final Story, The (work by Dandicat)

    Edwidge Danticat: In The Art of Death: Writing the Final Story (2017), Danticat recounted her own mother’s passing and explored how other writers have depicted death in their work.

  • Art of Fiction, The (essay by James)

    The Art of Fiction, critical essay by Henry James, published in 1884 in Longman’s Magazine. It was written as a rebuttal to “Fiction as One of the Fine Arts,” a lecture given by Sir Walter Besant in 1884, and is a manifesto of literary realism that decries the popular demand for novels that are

  • Art of Fiction, The (essay by Woolf)

    Virginia Woolf: Major period: In two 1927 essays, “The Art of Fiction” and “The New Biography,” she wrote that fiction writers should be less concerned with naive notions of reality and more with language and design. However restricted by fact, she argued, biographers should yoke truth with imagination, “granite-like solidity” with “rainbow-like intangibility.”…

  • Art of Fugue, The (work by Bach)

    The Art of Fugue, monothematic cycle of approximately 20 fugues written in the key of D minor, perhaps for keyboard instrument, by Johann Sebastian Bach. The number and the order of the fugues remain controversial, as does the work’s date of composition. Bach did not indicate which instruments were

  • Art of Fugue, The, BWV 1080 (work by Bach)

    The Art of Fugue, monothematic cycle of approximately 20 fugues written in the key of D minor, perhaps for keyboard instrument, by Johann Sebastian Bach. The number and the order of the fugues remain controversial, as does the work’s date of composition. Bach did not indicate which instruments were

  • Art of Grammar, The (work by Dionysius Thrax)

    grammar: Ancient and medieval grammars: …wrote an influential treatise called The Art of Grammar, in which he analyzed literary texts in terms of letters, syllables, and eight parts of speech.

  • Art of Love (work by Ovid)

    Ars amatoria, (Latin: “Art of Love”) poem by Ovid, published about 1 bce. Ars amatoria comprises three books of mock-didactic elegiacs on the art of seduction and intrigue. One of the author’s best-known works, it contributed to his downfall in 8 ce on allegations of immorality. The work, which

  • Art of Painting, The (poem by Céspedes)

    Pablo de Céspedes: His poem “The Art of Painting,” containing a glowing eulogy of Michelangelo, is considered among the best didactic verse in Spanish. The few remaining fragments were first printed by Francisco Pacheco in his treatise Del arte de la pintura (“On the Art of Painting”) in 1649.

  • Art of Painting, The (painting by Vermeer)

    Johannes Vermeer: Themes: …another work of this period, The Art of Painting (c. 1666/68). With a large curtain, drawn back as though revealing a tableau vivant, Vermeer announced his allegorical intent for this large and imposing work. The scene depicts an elegantly dressed artist in the midst of portraying the allegorical figure of…

  • Art of Playing on the Violin, The (work by Geminiani)

    Francesco Geminiani: His theoretical writings, particularly The Art of Playing on the Violin (1751), had considerable influence, and the latter work remains an important reference on the performance of late Baroque music.

  • Art of Poetry, The (work by Horace)

    Ars poetica, (Latin: “Art of Poetry”) work by Horace, written about 19–18 bce for Piso and his sons and originally known as Epistula ad Pisones (Epistle to the Pisos). The work is an urbane, unsystematic amplification of Aristotle’s discussion of the decorum or internal propriety of each literary

  • Art of Preserving All Kinds of Animal and Vegetable Substances For Several Years, The (work by Appert)

    Nicolas Appert: …which appeared that year as L’Art de conserver, pendant plusieurs années, toutes les substances animales et végétales (The Art of Preserving All Kinds of Animal and Vegetable Substances for Several Years). He used the money to establish the first commercial cannery, the House of Appert, at Massy, which operated from…

  • Art of Racing in the Rain, The (film by Curtis [2019])

    Kevin Costner: …a race car driver in The Art of Racing in the Rain (2019).

  • Art of Rehearsal, The (work by Shaw)

    directing: The director’s relation to the actor: …his own abilities, advised in The Art of Rehearsal:

  • Art of the Fugue, The (work by Bach)

    The Art of Fugue, monothematic cycle of approximately 20 fugues written in the key of D minor, perhaps for keyboard instrument, by Johann Sebastian Bach. The number and the order of the fugues remain controversial, as does the work’s date of composition. Bach did not indicate which instruments were

  • Art of Theatre, The (work by Craig)

    Western theatre: The new stagecraft: In his book The Art of the Theatre (1905) he outlined his concept of a “total theatre” in which the stage director alone would be responsible for harmonizing every aspect of the production—acting, music, colour, movement, design, makeup, and lighting—so that it might achieve its most unified effect. More…

  • Art of Thought, The (work by Wallace)

    philosophy of art: Expression in the creation of art: …Graham Wallas in his book The Art of Thought (1926)—that in the creation of every work of art there are four successive stages: preparation, incubation, inspiration, and elaboration; others have said that these stages are not successive at all but are going on throughout the entire creative process, while still…

  • Art of War (work by Machiavelli)

    Niccolò Machiavelli: The Art of War and other writings: The Art of War (1521), one of only a few works of Machiavelli to be published during his lifetime, is a dialogue set in the Orti Oricellari, a garden in Florence where humanists gathered to discuss philosophy and…

  • Art of War, The (work by Sunzi)

    Sunzi: …the Chinese classic Bingfa (The Art of War), the earliest known treatise on war and military science.

  • Art of War, The (work by Machiavelli)

    Niccolò Machiavelli: The Art of War and other writings: The Art of War (1521), one of only a few works of Machiavelli to be published during his lifetime, is a dialogue set in the Orti Oricellari, a garden in Florence where humanists gathered to discuss philosophy and…

  • Art of Writing, The (work by Lu Ji)

    Lu Ji: The Art of Writing), a subtle and important work of literary criticism that defines and demonstrates the principles of composition with rare insight and precision.

  • art patronage

    The arts, modes of expression that use skill or imagination in the creation of aesthetic objects, environments, or experiences that can be shared with others. Traditional categories within the arts include literature (including poetry, drama, story, and so on), the visual arts (painting, drawing,

  • Art poétique (poem by Verlaine)

    Paul Verlaine: Life.: In 1882 his famous “Art poétique” (probably composed in prison eight years earlier) was enthusiastically adopted by the young Symbolists. He later disavowed the Symbolists, however, chiefly because they went further than he in abandoning traditional forms: rhyme, for example, seemed to him an unavoidable necessity in French verse.

  • Art poétique, L’? (work by Boileau-Despréaux)

    Nicolas Boileau: In 1674 he published L’Art poétique, a didactic treatise in verse, setting out rules for the composition of poetry in the Classical tradition. At the time, the work was considered of great importance, the definitive handbook of Classical principles. It strongly influenced the English Augustan poets Samuel Johnson, John…

  • Art poétique, L’? (work by Vauquelin de La Fresnaye)

    Jean Vauquelin de La Fresnaye, sieur (lord) des Yveteaux: L’Art poétique, commissioned by Henry III in 1574, reflects Vauquelin’s lifelong effort to persuade his fellow writers to abide by the precepts of Aristotle and Horace. He urged them to avoid Italianate excesses and to cultivate a pure French style, devoid of dialect, in works…

  • Art Puppet Theatre (theatre, Munich, Germany)

    puppetry: Styles of puppet theatre: The marionettes of the Art Puppet Theatre in Munich, for instance, were striking exemplars of the German tradition in deeply cut wood carving. In Austria the Salzburg Marionette Theatre specializes in Mozart operas and has achieved a high degree of naturalism and technical expertise. In Czechoslovakia—a country with a…

  • art quilt (American decorative arts)

    quilting: The quilt revival: “Art quilts” soon joined the quilter’s vocabulary, typified by work from Michael James, Jan Myers-Newbury, Nancy Crow, and others. These quilts, which escaped the practical constraints of quilts intended for use, were displayed in venues such as the biennial Quilt National exhibition in Athens, Ohio.

  • art restoration

    Art conservation and restoration, any attempt to conserve and repair architecture, paintings, drawings, prints, sculptures, and objects of the decorative arts (furniture, glassware, metalware, textiles, ceramics, and so on) that have been adversely affected by negligence, willful damage, or, more

  • art rock (music)

    Art rock, eclectic branch of rock music that emerged in the late 1960s and flourished in the early to mid-1970s. The term is sometimes used synonymously with progressive rock, but the latter is best used to describe “intellectual” album-oriented rock by such British bands as Genesis, King Crimson,

  • Art Ross Memorial Trophy (sports award)

    Jean Béliveau: He was awarded the Art Ross Trophy as leading scorer (1956), the Hart Trophy as most valuable player (1956, 1964), and the Conn Smythe Trophy as most valuable player in the play-offs (1965). He also participated in 13 All-Star Games and was named the league’s All-Star centre six times.

  • Art Ross Trophy (sports award)

    Jean Béliveau: He was awarded the Art Ross Trophy as leading scorer (1956), the Hart Trophy as most valuable player (1956, 1964), and the Conn Smythe Trophy as most valuable player in the play-offs (1965). He also participated in 13 All-Star Games and was named the league’s All-Star centre six times.

  • art song (music)

    song: Art songs, by contrast, are intended for performance by professional, or at least carefully taught, singers, generally accompanied by piano or instrumental ensemble. The notes are written down, and notes and words are thereafter resistant to casual alteration. Popular songs stand midway between folk and…

  • Art Spirit, The (painting by Henri)

    Robert Henri: Henri’s book, The Art Spirit (1923), embodying his conception of art as an expression of love for life, continues to be popular among artists and art students.

  • Art Students League (school, New York City, New York, United States)

    Art Students League, independent art school founded in New York City in 1875 and run by and for artists. The Art Students League was formed almost entirely by students—many of them women—from the National Academy of Design, which was the only other art school in the city at the time and was

  • art theft (crime)

    Art theft, criminal activity involving the theft of art or cultural property, including paintings, sculptures, ceramics, and other objets d’art. The perceived value of a given work, be it financial, artistic, or cultural—or some combination of those factors—is frequently the motive for art theft.

  • art therapy

    Art therapy, the use of creative processes as a means of aiding one’s well-being. Art therapies allow individuals to express themselves through creative means. Often the process of making art is the core of the process of art therapy: through the work, individuals can experience themselves as

  • Art Through the Ages (work by Gardner)

    Helen Gardner: …one herself, and the resulting Art Through the Ages (1926) far surpassed other available works in readability, breadth of coverage, and wealth of illustration. It remained a widely used text for decades. In 1932 she published Understanding the Arts, aimed at a wide general audience. A second edition of Art…

  • Art Work of the Future, The (work by Wagner)

    Richard Wagner: Exile: …Das Kunstwerk der Zukunft (The Art Work of the Future), Eine Mitteilung an meine Freunde (A Communication to My Friends), and Oper und Drama (Opera and Drama). The latter outlined a new, revolutionary type of musical stage work—the vast work, in fact, on which he was engaged. By 1852…

  • Art Worlds (work by Becker)

    Howard S. Becker: In Art Worlds (1982), a book that greatly influenced the sociology of art, Becker examined the cultural contexts (the “art worlds”) in which artists produce their work.

  • Art’om (Russia)

    Artyom, city, Primorsky kray (region), far eastern Russia. It lies about 22 miles (35 km) northeast of Vladivostok. Founded in 1924, Artyom became a city in 1938 and is a centre of lignite (brown coal) production. Factories produce building materials, porcelain, and pianos. The city was named in

  • art, academy of

    Academy of art, in the visual arts, institution established primarily for the instruction of artists but often endowed with other functions, most significantly that of providing a place of exhibition for students and mature artists accepted as members. In the late 15th and early 16th centuries, a

  • art, African (visual arts)

    African art, the visual arts of native Africa, particularly sub-Saharan Africa, including such media as sculpture, painting, pottery, rock art, textiles, masks, personal decoration, and jewelry. For more general explorations of media, see individual media articles (e.g., painting, sculpture,

  • art, Anatolian

    Anatolian art and architecture, the art and architecture of ancient Anatolian civilizations. Anatolia is the name that is currently applied to the whole Asian territory of modern Turkey. Its western half is a broad peninsula connecting the continent of Asia with Europe. Because the country lacks

  • art, Arabian (ancient art)

    Arabian art and architecture, the art and architecture of ancient Arabia. The pre-Islāmic history of the great Arabian subcontinent is primarily that of a nomadic people. By the second half of the 20th century, traces of their art and architecture had been found only in the long-settled agrarian

  • art, Iranian (ancient art)

    Iranian art and architecture, the art and architecture of ancient Iranian civilizations. Any reservation about attributing to Iran primary status among the countries contributing to the art of the ancient Middle East must be associated with the discontinuity of its early history and the

  • Art, L’? (work by Ozenfant)

    Amédée Ozenfant: …1928 (translated into English as The Foundations of Modern Art in 1931). From 1931 to 1938 he painted a massive figural composition in the Purist style entitled Life.

  • art, Mesopotamian

    Mesopotamian art and architecture, the art and architecture of the ancient Mesopotamian civilizations. The name Mesopotamia has been used with varying connotations by ancient writers. If, for convenience, it is to be considered synonymous with the modern state of Iraq, it can be seen in terms of

  • art, Oceanic (visual arts)

    Oceanic art and architecture, the visual art and architecture of native Oceania, including media such as sculpture, pottery, rock art, basketry, masks, painting, and personal decoration. In these cultures, art and architecture have often been closely connected—for example, storehouses and

  • art, philosophy of

    Philosophy of art, the study of the nature of art, including concepts such as interpretation, representation and expression, and form. It is closely related to aesthetics, the philosophical study of beauty and taste. The philosophy of art is distinguished from art criticism, which is concerned with

  • Art, School of (building, Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom)

    Charles Rennie Mackintosh: …chief architectural projects were the Glasgow School of Art (1896–1909), considered the first original example of Art Nouveau architecture in Great Britain; two unrealized projects—the 1901 International exhibition, Glasgow (1898), and “Haus eines Kunstfreundes” (1901); Windyhill, Kilmacolm (1899–1901), and Hill House, Helensburgh (1902); the Willow Tea Rooms, Glasgow (1904); and…

  • art, Syro-Palestinian (ancient art)

    Syro-Palestinian art and architecture, the art and architecture of ancient Syria and Palestine. The countries bordering the Mediterranean between the Sinai Peninsula and the Nur Da?lar? (Amanus Mountains), to which the names Palestine and Syria are often loosely applied, had in fact no geographic

  • art-as-idea

    Conceptual art, artwork whose medium is an idea (or a concept), usually manipulated by the tools of language and sometimes documented by photography. Its concerns are idea-based rather than formal. Conceptual art is typically associated with a number of American artists of the 1960s and

  • arta (Hinduism)

    Rita, in Indian religion and philosophy, the cosmic order mentioned in the Vedas, the ancient sacred scriptures of India. As Hinduism developed from the ancient Vedic religion, the concept of rita led to the doctrines of dharma (duty) and karma (accumulated effects of good and bad actions). Rita is

  • árta (Greece)

    árta, city and dímos (municipality), Epirus (Modern Greek: ípeiros) periféreia (region), western Greece. It is situated on the left bank of the árachthos River north of the Gulf of árta. The modern city stands on the site of Ambracia, an ancient Corinthian colony and the capital (from 294 bce) of

  • árta, Gulf of (gulf, Greece)

    Gulf of árta, deep inlet on the western coast of Greece. Almost landlocked by the peninsulas of Préveza on the north and áktion on the south, it has access to the sea through the narrow Prévezis Strait. The northern shore of the gulf is formed by the combined deltas of the Loúros and árachthos

  • Artabanus (Achaemenian minister)

    Artabanus, minister of the Achaemenid king Xerxes I of Persia, whom he murdered in 465. According to one Greek source, Artabanus had previously killed Xerxes’ son Darius and feared that the father would avenge him; other sources relate that he killed Xerxes first and then, pretending that Darius

  • Artabanus I (king of Parthia)

    Artabanus I, king of Parthia (reigned 211–191 bc) in southwestern Asia. In 209 he was attacked by the Seleucid king Antiochus III of Syria, who took Hecatompylos, the Arsacid capital (the present location of which is uncertain), and Syrinx in Hyrcania. Finally, however, Antiochus concluded a treaty

  • Artabanus II (king of Parthia)

    Parthia: …I (reigned 171–138 bc) and Artabanus II (reigned 128–124 bc), all of the Iranian Plateau and the Tigris-Euphrates valley came under Parthian control. The Parthians, however, were troubled by nomad attacks on their northeastern borders as well as attacks by the Scythians. Mithradates II the Great (reigned 123–88 bc), by…

  • Artabanus III (king of Parthia)

    Artabanus III, king of Parthia (reigned c. ad 12–c. 38). At first king of Media Atropatene, Artabanus III took the Parthian throne in ad 9 or 10 from Vonones and was proclaimed king about two years later in Ctesiphon, the Parthian capital on the Tigris River. Vonones fled to Armenia, but Artabanus

  • Artabanus IV (king of Parthia)

    ancient Iran: Dissolution of the Parthian state: …in 79 by the ephemeral Artabanus IV (80/81), who was then replaced permanently by Pacorus II. During his reign the country showed signs of a profound decomposition. The barons refused to obey the crown. In the provinces the army and the finances were in the hands of the nobility. Aristocrats…

  • Artabanus V (king of Parthia)

    Artabanus V, last king of the Parthian empire (reigned c. ad 213–224) in southwest Asia. He was the younger son of Vologases IV, who died probably in 207, and was ruling the Median provinces at the time of his rebellion (c. 213) against his brother, Vologases V. By 216 he had apparently extended

  • Artabotrys odoratissimus (plant)

    ylang-ylang: Ylang-ylang vine (Artabotrys odoratissimus), also in the family Annonaceae, produces masses of small greenish white flowers in spring and clustered, long-stalked, yellow, plumlike, two-seeded fruits in fall. It is a source of commercial perfume. A 2- to 3.5-metre (about 6.5- to 11.5-foot) woody climber, it…

  • Artakhshathra I (king of Persia)

    Artaxerxes I, Achaemenid king of Persia (reigned 465–425 bc). He was surnamed in Greek Macrocheir (“Longhand”) and in Latin Longimanus. A younger son of Xerxes I and Amestris, he was raised to the throne by the commander of the guard, Artabanus, who had murdered Xerxes. A few months later,

  • Artakhshathra I (Sāsānian king)

    Ardashīr I, the founder of the Sāsānian empire in ancient Persia (reigned ad 224–241). Ardashīr was the son of Bābak, who was the son or descendant of Sāsān and was a vassal of the chief petty king in Persis, Gochihr. After Bābak got Ardashīr the military post of argabad in the town of Dārābgerd

  • Artakhshathra II (Sāsānian king)

    Ardashīr II , king of the Sāsānian empire in ancient Persia (reigned ad 379–383). During the reign of his brother Shāpūr II, he had been king of Adiabene (now a region of northeast Iraq), where he took part in the persecution of Christians. After Shāpūr’s death, he was set on the throne by the

  • Artakhshathra II (king of Persia)

    Artaxerxes II, Achaemenid king of Persia (reigned 404–359/358). He was the son and successor of Darius II and was surnamed (in Greek) Mnemon, meaning “the mindful.” When Artaxerxes took the Persian throne, the power of Athens had been broken in the Peloponnesian War (431–404), and the Greek towns

  • Artakhshathra III (king of Persia)

    Artaxerxes III , Achaemenid king of Persia (reigned 359/358–338 bc). He was the son and successor of Artaxerxes II and was called Ochus before he took the throne. Artaxerxes III was a cruel but energetic ruler. To secure his throne he put to death most of his relatives. In 356 he ordered all the

  • Artamene (opera by Gluck)

    Christoph Willibald Gluck: The middle years: …as Gluck’s second London opera, Artamene, produced on March 14, 1746, consisted largely of music from his own earlier works, lack of time having forced him to this device. Neither opera met with success. On March 25, shortly after the production of Artamene, Handel and Gluck together gave a concert…

  • Artamène; ou, le grand Cyrus (work by Scudéry)

    French literature: The heroic ideal: …ou, le grand Cyrus (1649–53; Artamenes; or, The Grand Cyrus) and Clélie (1654–60; Eng. trans. Clelia), both by Madeleine de Scudéry, are set in Persia and Rome, respectively. Such novels reflect the society of the time. They also show again what influenced the readers and playgoers of the Classical age:…

  • Artamènes; or, The Grand Cyrus (work by Scudéry)

    French literature: The heroic ideal: …ou, le grand Cyrus (1649–53; Artamenes; or, The Grand Cyrus) and Clélie (1654–60; Eng. trans. Clelia), both by Madeleine de Scudéry, are set in Persia and Rome, respectively. Such novels reflect the society of the time. They also show again what influenced the readers and playgoers of the Classical age:…

  • Artamonov Business, The (novel by Gorky)

    Maxim Gorky: Last period: In Delo Artamonovykh (1925; The Artamonov Business), one of his best novels, he showed his continued interest in the rise and fall of prerevolutionary Russian capitalism. From 1925 until the end of his life, Gorky worked on the novel Zhizn Klima Samgina (“The Life of Klim Samgin”). Though he…

  • Artamus (bird genus)

    Woodswallow, (genus Artamus), any of about 16 species of songbirds constituting the family Artamidae (order Passeriformes). Woodswallows are found from eastern India, Southeast Asia, and the Philippines southward to Australia and Tasmania. They resemble swallows in wing shape and aerial feeding

  • Artamus minor (bird)

    woodswallow: …examples are the 15-cm (6-inch) little woodswallow (Artamus minor) and the 22-cm (9-inch) white-browed woodswallow (A. superciliosus)—among the smallest and largest members of the family.

  • Artamus superciliosus (bird)

    woodswallow: …minor) and the 22-cm (9-inch) white-browed woodswallow (A. superciliosus)—among the smallest and largest members of the family.

  • Artand (archbishop of Reims)

    Louis IV: …June 19 at Laon by Artand, archbishop of Reims, who became Louis’s chief supporter against Hugh the Great. Louis proved not to be the puppet monarch that Hugh had anticipated; he even moved from Paris to Laon to avoid Hugh’s influence. In 939 he married Gerberga, the sister of King…

  • Artapanus (Jewish writer)

    Judaism: Egyptian Jewish literature: Artapanus (c. 100 bce), in his own book On the Jews, went even further in romanticizing Moses—by identifying him with Musaeus, the semi-mythical Greek poet, and Thoth, the Egyptian god of writing and culture, by asserting that Moses was the real originator of Egyptian civilization,…

  • Artaphernes (Persian satrap)

    Histiaeus: …by the satrap (provincial governor) Artaphernes and was ultimately driven to establish himself as a pirate at Byzantium. After the total defeat of the Ionian fleet (c. 495), Histiaeus made various attempts to reestablish himself but was captured and crucified at Sardis by Artaphernes.

  • Artashes (king of Armenia)

    Artaxias, one of the founders of the ancient kingdom of Armenia (reigned 190–159 bc). After the defeat of the Seleucid king Antiochus III the Great by the Romans in the Battle of Magnesia (190), Artaxias and Zariadres, who were Antiochus’ satraps (governors) in Armenia, revolted and established

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