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  • Arrernte (people)

    Aranda, Aboriginal tribe that originally occupied a region of 25,000 square miles (65,000 square km) in central Australia, along the upper Finke River and its tributaries. The Aranda were divided into five subtribes, which were marked by differences in dialect. In common with other Aborigines, t

  • Arres? Lake (lake, Denmark)

    Denmark: Drainage: …small lakes; the largest is Arres? on Zealand. Large lagoons have formed behind the coastal dunes in the west, such as at the Ringk?bing and Nissum fjords.

  • arrest (law)

    Arrest, placing of a person in custody or under restraint, usually for the purpose of compelling obedience to the law. If the arrest occurs in the course of criminal procedure, the purpose of the restraint is to hold the person for answer to a criminal charge or to prevent him from committing an

  • Arrest, Heinrich Louis d’ (German astronomer)

    Heinrich Louis d’Arrest, German astronomer who, while a student at the Berlin Observatory, hastened the discovery of Neptune by suggesting comparison of the sky, in the region indicated by Urbain Le Verrier’s calculations, with a recently prepared star chart. The planet was found the same night. In

  • arrestable offense (law)

    crime: Classification of crimes: …replaced by the distinction between arrestable offenses and other offenses. An arrestable offense was one punishable with five years’ imprisonment or more, though offenders could be arrested for other crimes subject to certain conditions. Subsequently, further classifications were devised. For example, a subcategory of “serious” arrestable offenses was created, and,…

  • Arrested Development (American television series)

    Liza Minnelli: …role on the TV series Arrested Development.

  • arrested growth, line of (zoology)

    dinosaur: Clues to dinosaurian metabolism: …other hand, most dinosaurs retain lines of arrested growth (LAGs) in most of their long bones. LAGs are found in other reptiles, amphibians, and fishes, and they often reflect a seasonal period during which metabolism slows, usually because of environmental stresses. This slowdown produces “rest lines” as LAGs in the…

  • arresting gear (aviation)

    naval ship: Improvements between the wars: Landing aircraft were caught by arresting wires strung across the deck that engaged a hook fastened under the planes’ tails. Originally, arresting wires were needed to keep the very light wood-and-cloth airplanes of the World War I era from being blown overboard by gusts of wind. After heavier steel-framed and…

  • arrêt (French law)

    Parlement: …power by means of its arrêts (final decisions), since these expressed the king’s law with incontestable authority.

  • Arretine ware (Roman pottery)

    Terra sigillata ware, bright-red, polished pottery used throughout the Roman Empire from the 1st century bc to the 3rd century ad. The term means literally ware made of clay impressed with designs. Other names for the ware are Samian ware (a misnomer, since it has nothing to do with the island of

  • Arretium (Italy)

    Arezzo, city, Toscana (Tuscany) regione, north-central Italy, in a fertile plain near the confluence of the Chiana and Arno rivers southeast of Florence. An important Etruscan city, it was known to the Romans as Arretium and was noted for its red-clay Arretine pottery. A flourishing commune in the

  • Arrhenatherum (plant genus)

    oat grass: …of two genera of grasses, Arrhenatherum and Danthonia (family Poaceae). Named for their similarity to true oats (Avena sativa), the plants generally feature long dense spikelets of seeds. Several species are grown as forage and pasture grasses.

  • Arrhenatherum elatius (plant)

    oat grass: Tall oat grass (A. elatius), which has been introduced into various countries as a pasture grass, grows wild in many areas and is considered a weed. Onion couch, a variety of tall oat grass (A. elatius, variety bulbosum) named for its bulblike basal stems, is…

  • Arrhenatherum elatius bulbosum (plant)
  • Arrhenius equation (chemistry)

    Arrhenius equation, mathematical expression that describes the effect of temperature on the velocity of a chemical reaction, the basis of all predictive expressions used for calculating reaction-rate constants. In the Arrhenius equation, k is the reaction-rate constant, A and E are numerical

  • Arrhenius theory (chemistry)

    Arrhenius theory, theory, introduced in 1887 by the Swedish scientist Svante Arrhenius, that acids are substances that dissociate in water to yield electrically charged atoms or molecules, called ions, one of which is a hydrogen ion (H+), and that bases ionize in water to yield hydroxide ions

  • Arrhenius, Carl Axel (Swedish army lieutenant)

    rare-earth element: Discovery and history: …1787 the Swedish army lieutenant Carl Axel Arrhenius discovered a unique black mineral in a small quarry in Ytterby (a small town near Stockholm). That mineral was a mixture of rare earths, and the first individual element to be isolated was cerium in 1803.

  • Arrhenius, Svante (Swedish chemist)

    Svante Arrhenius, Swedish physicist and physical chemist known for his theory of electrolytic dissociation and his model of the greenhouse effect. In 1903 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry. Arrhenius attended the famous Cathedral School in Uppsala and then entered Uppsala University,

  • Arrhenius, Svante August (Swedish chemist)

    Svante Arrhenius, Swedish physicist and physical chemist known for his theory of electrolytic dissociation and his model of the greenhouse effect. In 1903 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry. Arrhenius attended the famous Cathedral School in Uppsala and then entered Uppsala University,

  • arrhenotoky (zoology)

    hymenopteran: Reproduction: …can occur in three forms: arrhenotoky, thelytoky, and deuterotoky. In arrhenotoky, males are produced from unfertilized eggs laid by mated (impregnated) females or by so-called secondary, or supplementary, queens, which have not been impregnated. In thelytoky, which occurs in many species of the suborder Symphyta, unmated females produce males. In…

  • Arrhidaeus, Philip III (king of Macedonia)

    Argead Dynasty: …Alexander’s two successors, his half-brother Philip III Arrhidaeus and his son Alexander IV, furnished a nominal focus for loyalty until about 311, the real power in the empire lay in other hands.

  • arrhythmia (pathology)

    Arrhythmia, variation from the normal rate or regularity of the heartbeat, usually resulting from irregularities within the conduction system of the heart. Arrhythmias occur in both normal and diseased hearts and have no medical significance in and of themselves, although they may endanger heart

  • Arriaca (Spain)

    Guadalajara, city, capital of Guadalajara provincia (province), in the comunidad autónoma (autonomous community) of Castile–La Mancha, central Spain. It is situated on the Henares River northeast of Madrid. The city, the ancient Arriaca, is Iberian in origin and was for a time held by the Romans,

  • Arriaga y Balzola, Juan Crisóstomo Jacobo Antonio (Spanish composer)

    Juan Crisóstomo Arriaga, Spanish violinist and composer of extraordinary precocity whose potential was cut short by his early death. Stylistically, his music stands between the Classical tradition of Joseph Haydn and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and the Romanticism of Gioacchino Rossini and Franz

  • Arriaga, Camilo (Mexican revolutionary)

    Mexico: Precursors of revolution: …took form in 1900, when Camilo Arriaga, a well-to-do engineer in San Luis Potosí, organized first a club and then a small party to restore the liberalism of Juárez. Arriaga called a national meeting of liberal clubs in 1901, and a short time later most of the small band were…

  • Arriaga, Guillermo (Mexican novelist and screenwriter)

    Alejandro González I?árritu: …with Mexican novelist and screenwriter Guillermo Arriaga, and the two began a long and fruitful collaboration. The pair continued to correspond and develop ideas when González I?árritu traveled to the United States to study filmmaking, and they transformed one of their early ideas—about three interconnected stories set in a grim…

  • Arriaga, Juan Crisóstomo (Spanish composer)

    Juan Crisóstomo Arriaga, Spanish violinist and composer of extraordinary precocity whose potential was cut short by his early death. Stylistically, his music stands between the Classical tradition of Joseph Haydn and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and the Romanticism of Gioacchino Rossini and Franz

  • Arriaga, Manuel José de (president of Portugal)

    Portugal: The First Republic, 1910–26: …24) to the new president, Manuel José de Arriaga. Despite initial hopes that the republic would solve the massive problems inherited from the monarchy, Portugal soon became western Europe’s most turbulent, unstable parliamentary regime.

  • Arrian (Greek historian)

    Arrian, Greek historian and philosopher who was one of the most distinguished authors of the 2nd-century Roman Empire. He was the author of a work describing the campaigns of Alexander the Great. Titled Anabasis, presumably in order to recall Xenophon’s work of that title, it describes Alexander’s

  • Arrieta, Agustín (Mexican painter)

    Latin American art: Costumbristas: Agustín Arrieta, a local painter in Puebla, Mexico, applied realistic techniques to show the beautiful interiors of his home city, which was renowned for its brightly painted tiles and ceramics. He realistically rendered the abundance of fruits and flowers in Puebla kitchens along with the…

  • Arriflex camera

    motion-picture technology: Principal parts: …mirror shutter employed in the Arriflex camera. Light is reflected into the viewfinder only when the shutter blade covers the film as it advances to the next frame. This arrangement, however, is not wholly free from objections. Chief among these is that the arrangement opens a return path for light…

  • Arrighi (typeface)

    typography: Mechanical composition: Italics included Arrighi, a version of the letter used by the 16th-century papal writing master and printer (see above). Among the modern faces whose design Morison supervised were Eric Gill’s Sans Serif, which enjoyed a wide vogue in advertising and avant-garde book typography; Gill’s Perpetua, based upon…

  • Arrighi, Cletto (Italian writer)

    scapigliatura: One of the founding members, Cletto Arrighi (pseudonym for Carlo Righetti), coined the name for the group in his novel Scapigliatura e il 6 febbraio (1862). The chief spokesmen were the novelists Giuseppe Rovani and Emilio Praga. Other members included the poet and musician Arrigo Boito (chiefly remembered today as…

  • Arrighi, Luciana (Australian production designer and art director)
  • Arrighi, Ludovico degli (calligrapher)

    cancellaresca corsiva: …by the calligrapher and printer Ludovico degli Arrighi of Vicenza in the early decades of the 16th century, the cancellaresca corsiva can range from eye-arresting contrasts of Gothic-like thick and thin strokes to a delicate, supple monotone tracery. Arrighi’s ascending letters, rather than terminating in serifs as in earlier versions,…

  • Arringatore (statue)

    Western sculpture: The last century of the Republic: …orator popularly called the “Arringatore” (Museo Archeologico) at Florence and a terra-cotta married pair on the lid of a cinerary chest (for ashes of the dead) in the Museo Etrusco Guarnacci, at Volterra, is earlier than c. 100 bc; works of that type may be reckoned as provincial imitations…

  • Arrington, Leonard James (American historian)

    Leonard James Arrington, American historian whose many writings on the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and service in the 1970s and ’80s as church historian and then as director of the Joseph Fielding Smith Institute for Church History at Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, led him

  • Arripidae (fish)

    perciform: Annotated classification: Family Arripidae (Australian salmon) Not related to true salmons of Northern Hemisphere. Rather long, slender body; deeply forked tail; moderately long dorsal fin, a notch between the shorter spinous dorsal and longer soft dorsal fin. 4 species; marine, young in brackish water; shallow waters off South Australia,…

  • Arrius, Quintus (Roman praetor)

    Third Servile War: … in Apulia by the praetor Quintus Arrius, but this defeat did little to check the revolt. According to Plutarch, Spartacus, with the main body of his army, defeated the consul Lentulus and then pressed towards the Alps. A force of some 10,000 men under Gaius Cassius, governor of Cisalpine Gaul,…

  • Arrival (film by Villeneuve [2016])

    Amy Adams: …appeared as a linguist in Arrival, a sci-fi drama about alien spacecraft landing on Earth, and starred as an unhappy art gallery owner in Tom Ford’s stylish thriller Nocturnal Animals. She then portrayed a self-destructive reporter who returns to her hometown to cover a recent murder in Sharp Objects (2018),…

  • Arrival of the College Football Playoff, The

    On Jan. 1, 2015, a new era of American Collegiate football kicked off the new year, ushering in the inaugural national semifinal matchups of the College Football Playoff (CFP) system. What made the CFP notable was that it was the first true play-off for the national championship in more than a

  • Arrival of the Queen of Sheba, The (work by Handel)

    The Arrival of the Queen of Sheba, sinfonia for two oboes and strings by George Frideric Handel that premiered in London on March 17, 1749, as the first scene of Act III in the oratorio Solomon. One of the last of Handel’s many oratorios, Solomon is rarely performed in its entirety, but Handel’s

  • Arrival of the Stagecoach, The (painting by Boilly)

    Louis-Léopold Boilly: …the Studio of Isabey (1798), The Arrival of the Stagecoach (1803), The Studio of Houdon (1804), and Departure of the Conscripts (1808) show his considerable skill at handling crowd scenes. In 1823 Boilly produced his first lithographs, a humorous series entitled Grimaces. In 1833 he received the Legion of Honour.…

  • Arriyadh Development Authority (government agency, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia)

    Riyadh: Government: …by its executive branch, the Arriyadh Development Authority (ADA). The ADA, which is responsible for the socioeconomic, cultural, and environmental development of the city, devises plans and procedures to improve the standard of services and facilities provided for city residents. The ADA does not rely upon the national budget for…

  • Arromanches (France)

    Arromanches, seaside resort, Normandy région, northwestern France. It lies on the English Channel, 6 miles (10 km) northeast of Bayeux. During the Normandy Invasion of World War II, it was part of the Gold Beach landing area and was taken by the British 50th Division on D-Day (June 6, 1944).

  • Arromanches-les-Bains (France)

    Arromanches, seaside resort, Normandy région, northwestern France. It lies on the English Channel, 6 miles (10 km) northeast of Bayeux. During the Normandy Invasion of World War II, it was part of the Gold Beach landing area and was taken by the British 50th Division on D-Day (June 6, 1944).

  • Arron, Henck (prime minister of Suriname)

    Henck Arron, politician who became prime minister of Suriname in 1973 and led that nation to independence in 1975. He was overthrown by a military coup in 1980. Arron worked in banks in the Netherlands and Dutch Guiana before entering politics in 1963. He was elected to the Staten (Suriname

  • Arron, Henck Alphonsus Eugène (prime minister of Suriname)

    Henck Arron, politician who became prime minister of Suriname in 1973 and led that nation to independence in 1975. He was overthrown by a military coup in 1980. Arron worked in banks in the Netherlands and Dutch Guiana before entering politics in 1963. He was elected to the Staten (Suriname

  • arrondissement (government)

    Paris: Character of the city: It comprises 20 arrondissements (municipal districts), each of which has its own mayor, town hall, and particular features. The numbering begins in the heart of Paris and continues in the spiraling shape of a snail shell, ending to the far east. Parisians refer to the arrondissements by number…

  • Arrow (constellation)

    Sagitta, (Latin: “Arrow”) constellation in the northern sky at about 20 hours right ascension and 20° north in declination. Its brightest star is Gamma Sagittae, with a magnitude of 3.5. The Greeks and Romans identified this constellation with various arrows from mythology, such as the arrow

  • Arrow (Montserratian singer)

    soca: In 1983 singer Arrow (Alphonsus Cassell), from Montserrat island in the Lesser Antilles, had a big soca hit with the song “Hot Hot Hot” even though as a foreigner he was not eligible to compete in Trinidad’s Carnival competitions. In the 1990s singer Alison Hinds, from Barbados, and…

  • Arrow (American television series)

    Black Canary: …in the Green Arrow series Arrow, which began in 2012.

  • arrow

    Bow and arrow, a weapon consisting of a stave made of wood or other elastic material, bent and held in tension by a string. The arrow, a thin wooden shaft with a feathered tail, is fitted to the string by a notch in the end of the shaft and is drawn back until sufficient tension is produced in the

  • Arrow (British ship)

    Opium Wars: The second Opium War: …officials boarded the British-registered ship Arrow while it was docked in Canton, arrested several Chinese crew members (who were later released), and allegedly lowered the British flag. Later that month a British warship sailed up the Pearl River estuary and began bombarding Canton, and there were skirmishes between British and…

  • Arrow Cross Party (Hungarian organization)

    Arrow Cross Party, Hungarian fascist organization that controlled the Hungarian government from October 1944 to April 1945 during World War II. It originated as the Party of National Will founded by Ferenc Szálasi in 1935. Szálasi’s party was quite small and underwent numerous reorganizations; it r

  • Arrow Development Company (American company)

    roller coaster: Introduction of steel coasters: …Company (later Arrow Dynamics; now S&S-Arrow), led by Ed Morgan and Karl Bacon, to design the bobsled-style Matterhorn (1959), the first steel coaster. Tubular steel rails and nylon wheels expanded the possibilities of coaster design while making the rides themselves dramatically smoother.

  • Arrow Dynamics (American company)

    roller coaster: Introduction of steel coasters: …Company (later Arrow Dynamics; now S&S-Arrow), led by Ed Morgan and Karl Bacon, to design the bobsled-style Matterhorn (1959), the first steel coaster. Tubular steel rails and nylon wheels expanded the possibilities of coaster design while making the rides themselves dramatically smoother.

  • Arrow of God (novel by Achebe)

    Chinua Achebe: In Arrow of God (1964), set in the 1920s in a village under British administration, the principal character, the chief priest of the village, whose son becomes a zealous Christian, turns his resentment at the position he is placed in by the white man against his…

  • arrow of time (physics)

    thermodynamics: Entropy and the arrow of time: ) The inevitable increase of entropy with time for isolated systems plays a fundamental role in determining the direction of the “arrow of time.” Everyday life presents no difficulty in distinguishing the forward flow of time from its reverse. For example, if a film…

  • Arrow War (1856–1860)

    Opium Wars: The second Opium War: In the mid-1850s, while the Qing government was embroiled in trying to quell the Taiping Rebellion (1850–64), the British, seeking to extend their trading rights in China, found an excuse to renew hostilities. In early October 1856 some Chinese officials boarded the…

  • Arrow’s theorem (political science)

    Impossibility theorem, in political science, the thesis that it is generally impossible to assess the common good. It was first formulated in Social Choice and Individual Values (1951) by Kenneth J. Arrow, who was awarded (with Sir John R. Hicks) the Nobel Prize for Economics in 1972 partially in

  • Arrow, Kenneth J. (American economist)

    Kenneth J. Arrow, American economist known for his contributions to welfare economics and to general economic equilibrium theory. He was cowinner (with Sir John R. Hicks) of the Nobel Prize for Economics in 1972. Perhaps his most startling thesis (built on elementary mathematics) was the

  • Arrow, Kenneth Joseph (American economist)

    Kenneth J. Arrow, American economist known for his contributions to welfare economics and to general economic equilibrium theory. He was cowinner (with Sir John R. Hicks) of the Nobel Prize for Economics in 1972. Perhaps his most startling thesis (built on elementary mathematics) was the

  • Arrow, Kenneth Joseph (American economist)

    Kenneth J. Arrow, American economist known for his contributions to welfare economics and to general economic equilibrium theory. He was cowinner (with Sir John R. Hicks) of the Nobel Prize for Economics in 1972. Perhaps his most startling thesis (built on elementary mathematics) was the

  • arrow-poison frog (amphibian)

    Poison frog, (family Dendrobatidae), any of approximately 180 species of New World frogs characterized by the ability to produce extremely poisonous skin secretions. Poison frogs inhabit the forests of the New World tropics from Nicaragua to Peru and Brazil, and a few species are used by South

  • arrowhead (weapon)

    bow and arrow: Arrowheads have been made of shaped flint, stone, metal, and other hard materials.

  • arrowhead (plant)

    Arrowhead, (genus Sagittaria), genus of plants of the family Alismataceae, consisting of at least 28 species distributed worldwide, having leaves resembling arrowpoints. Arrowheads are perennial herbs with fleshy rhizomes (and frequently with tubers) that grow in shallow lakes, ponds, and streams.

  • arrowroot (plant)

    Arrowroot, any of several species of the genus Maranta, members of the family Marantaceae, the rhizomes, or rootstocks, of which yield an edible starch. The most commonly used species is M. arundinacea, the source of genuine, or West Indies, arrowroot. This herbaceous perennial, a native of Guyana

  • arrowroot family (plant family)

    Marantaceae, the prayer plant family of the ginger order (Zingiberales), composed of about 31 genera and 550 species of rhizomatous perennial herbs that are native to moist or swampy tropical forests, particularly in the Americas but also in Africa and Asia. Members of the Marantaceae vary from

  • Arrowsmith (novel by Lewis)

    Arrowsmith, novel by Sinclair Lewis, published in 1925. The author declined to accept a Pulitzer Prize for the work because he had not been awarded the prize for his Main Street in 1921. The narrative concerns the personal and professional travails of Martin Arrowsmith, a Midwestern physician.

  • Arrowsmith, Aaron (British geographer and cartographer)

    Aaron Arrowsmith, British geographer and cartographer who engraved and published many fine maps and atlases based on the best available sources of the day. Without a formal education Arrowsmith went to London c. 1770 and, after working as a surveyor, established himself as a mapmaker and publisher.

  • arrowwood (plant)

    viburnum: …toothed, oval leaves; and the arrowwood (V. dentatum), with roundish to oval, coarsely toothed leaves. Laurustinus (V. tinus), a 3-metre-tall evergreen with oblong leaves, is native to the Mediterranean area. Sweet viburnum (V. odoratissimum), from India and Japan, bears dark-green, shiny, evergreen leaves and large clusters of fragrant flowers.

  • arrowworm (animal phylum)

    Arrowworm, any member of a group of free-living wormlike marine carnivores that belong to the invertebrate phylum Chaetognatha. The bodies of arrowworms appear transparent to translucent or opaque and are arrow shaped. There are more than 120 species, most of which are in the genus Sagitta. The

  • arroyo (dry channel)

    Arroyo, a dry channel lying in a semiarid or desert area and subject to flash flooding during seasonal or irregular rainstorms. Such transitory streams, rivers, or creeks are noted for their gullying effects and especially for their rapid rates of erosion, transportation, and deposition. There

  • Arroyo del Río, Carlos (president of Ecuador)

    Ecuador: Economic development and loss of territory in the 1940s: Carlos Arroyo del Río, Ecuador drew some benefit from the higher prices for raw materials caused by the war, and the early years of the war were relatively prosperous and tranquil.

  • Arroyo González, Alvaro José (Colombian singer)

    Joe Arroyo , (Alvaro José Arroyo González), Colombian singer (born Nov. 1, 1955, Cartagena, Colom.—died July 26, 2011, Barranquilla, Colom.), blended Colombian and Caribbean musical traditions to create a unique style showcased in such songs as “Rebelión” (1986), “La noche” (1988), and “En

  • Arroyo, Gloria Macapagal (president of the Philippines)

    Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, Filipino politician who was president of the Philippines (2001–10). Arroyo’s father, Diosdado P. Macapagal, was president of the Philippines from 1961 to 1965. Arroyo studied economics at Georgetown University in Washington, D.C., where she began a lasting friendship with

  • Arroyo, Joe (Colombian singer)

    Joe Arroyo , (Alvaro José Arroyo González), Colombian singer (born Nov. 1, 1955, Cartagena, Colom.—died July 26, 2011, Barranquilla, Colom.), blended Colombian and Caribbean musical traditions to create a unique style showcased in such songs as “Rebelión” (1986), “La noche” (1988), and “En

  • Arrupe, Pedro (Spanish noble and Jesuit superior general)

    Pedro Arrupe, 28th superior general (1965–83) of the Society of Jesus. Known for his spiritual depth and commitment to justice, Arrupe helped guide the order through the changes of the Second Vatican Council (1962–65) and refocused the Jesuits with a “preferential option for the poor.” Arrupe

  • Arruza, Carlos (Mexican bullfighter)

    Carlos Arruza, Mexican bullfighter, the dominant Mexican matador and one of the greatest of any nationality in modern times. Born in Mexico of Spanish parents, he began as a professional torero at the age of 14 in Mexico City. He went to Spain in 1944 billed as “El Ciclón” and soon was ranked as

  • ?rs (Denmark)

    Himmerland: At ?rs, the main town of the interior, the Vesthimmerlands Museum displays prehistoric and folk artifacts. Himmerland is a predominantly rural region of villages and farms. Although much of the former wetland has been drained, the leached soils are not highly fertile, and peat bogs still…

  • Ars (France)

    St. John Vianney: …of the small village of Ars, which he made a model parish and from which reports of his holiness and his supernatural powers soon spread. He was known for his devotion to the Virgin Mary and to St. Philomena and was dedicated to the sacrament of reconciliation (confession) for his…

  • Ars amatoria (work by Ovid)

    Ars amatoria, (Latin: “Art of Love”) poem by Ovid, published about 1 bce. Ars amatoria comprises three books of mock-didactic elegiacs on the art of seduction and intrigue. One of the author’s best-known works, it contributed to his downfall in 8 ce on allegations of immorality. The work, which

  • Ars Antiqua (medieval music history)

    Ars Antiqua, (Medieval Latin: “Ancient Art”), in music history, period of musical activity in 13th-century France, characterized by increasingly sophisticated counterpoint (the art of combining simultaneous voice parts), that culminated in the innovations of the 14th-century Ars Nova (q.v.). The

  • Ars cantus mensurabilis (work by Franco of Cologne)

    Ars Antiqua: …mid-13th century), a theorist, whose Ars cantus mensurabilis (“The Art of Measured Song”) served to organize and codify the newly formed mensural system (a more precise system of rhythmic notation, the direct ancestor of modern notation); and Pierre de la Croix (flourished last half of 13th century), whose works anticipate…

  • Ars Conjectandi (work by Bernoulli)

    Jakob Bernoulli: Jakob Bernoulli’s pioneering work Ars Conjectandi (published posthumously, 1713; “The Art of Conjecturing”) contained many of his finest concepts: his theory of permutations and combinations; the so-called Bernoulli numbers, by which he derived the exponential series; his treatment of mathematical and moral predictability; and the subject of probability—containing what…

  • Ars magna (work by Llull)

    Ramon Llull: …is collectively known as the Ars magna (1305–08; “The Great Art”) and includes the treatises Arbor scientiae (“The Tree of Knowledge”) and Liber de ascensu et descensu intellectus (“The Book of the Ascent and Descent of the Intellect”). Llull attempted to place Christian apologetics on the level of rational discussion,…

  • Ars magna (work by Cardano)

    Girolamo Cardano: …whose book Ars magna (The Great Art; or, The Rules of Algebra) is one of the cornerstones in the history of algebra.

  • Ars magna, generalis et ultima (work by Llull)

    Ramon Llull: …is collectively known as the Ars magna (1305–08; “The Great Art”) and includes the treatises Arbor scientiae (“The Tree of Knowledge”) and Liber de ascensu et descensu intellectus (“The Book of the Ascent and Descent of the Intellect”). Llull attempted to place Christian apologetics on the level of rational discussion,…

  • Ars maior (work by Donatus)

    Aelius Donatus: …and a small school grammar, Ars maior and Ars minor. The latter was written for young students and gives, by question and answer, elementary instruction in the eight parts of speech. It remained in use throughout the European Middle Ages, and its author’s name in the forms donat and donet…

  • Ars minor (work by Donatus)

    Aelius Donatus: …school grammar, Ars maior and Ars minor. The latter was written for young students and gives, by question and answer, elementary instruction in the eight parts of speech. It remained in use throughout the European Middle Ages, and its author’s name in the forms donat and donet came to mean…

  • Ars Nova (work by Vitry)

    Philippe de Vitry: …and authoritative treatise of music Ars nova (c. 1320; “New Art”), which dealt with the theoretical aspects of French music in the first half of the 14th century. It included an explanation of new theories of mensural notation, a detailed account of the various uses and meanings of the coloured…

  • Ars nova (logic)

    history of logic: The properties of terms and discussions of fallacies: …were known collectively as the Logica nova (“New Logic”). In a flurry of activity, others in the 12th and 13th centuries produced additional translations of these works and of Greek and Arabic commentaries on them, along with many other philosophical writings and other works from Greek and Arabic sources.

  • Ars Nova (music)

    Ars Nova, (Medieval Latin: “New Art”), in music history, period of the tremendous flowering of music in the 14th century, particularly in France. The designation Ars Nova, as opposed to the Ars Antiqua (q.v.) of 13th-century France, was the title of a treatise written about 1320 by the composer

  • Ars novae musicae (work by Muris)

    Jean de Muris: In his treatise Ars novae musicae (1319; “The Art of the New Music”) he enthusiastically supported the great changes in musical style and notation occurring in the 14th century and associated with the composer and theorist Philippe de Vitry, whose book, Ars Nova (1320; “The New Art”), gave…

  • Ars poetica (work by Horace)

    Ars poetica, (Latin: “Art of Poetry”) work by Horace, written about 19–18 bce for Piso and his sons and originally known as Epistula ad Pisones (Epistle to the Pisos). The work is an urbane, unsystematic amplification of Aristotle’s discussion of the decorum or internal propriety of each literary

  • Ars vetus (logic)

    history of logic: Transmission of Greek logic to the Latin West: …were known collectively as the Logica vetus (“Old Logic”).

  • Arsaces (king of Persia)

    Artaxerxes II, Achaemenid king of Persia (reigned 404–359/358). He was the son and successor of Darius II and was surnamed (in Greek) Mnemon, meaning “the mindful.” When Artaxerxes took the Persian throne, the power of Athens had been broken in the Peloponnesian War (431–404), and the Greek towns

  • Arsaces (king of Armenia)

    Artabanus III: …his son, known only as Arsaces, on the Armenian throne. Two Parthian nobles, apparently restless at Artabanus’ assertion of central authority, applied to the Roman emperor Tiberius for a king from among the descendants of an earlier king, Phraates IV. Thus, a grandson of Phraates, Tiridates III, arrived in Syria…

  • Arsaces (Parthian royal name)

    Arsaces, Iranian name borne by the Parthian royal house as being descended from Arsaces, son of Phriapites (date unknown), a chief of the seminomadic Parni tribe from the Caspian steppes. The first of his line to gain power in Parthia was Arsaces I, who reigned from about 250 to about 211 bc.

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