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  • aron ha-qodesh (Judaism)

    Ark, (“holy ark”), in Jewish synagogues, an ornate cabinet that enshrines the sacred Torah scrolls used for public worship. Because it symbolizes the Holy of Holies of the ancient Temple of Jerusalem, it is the holiest place in the synagogue and the focal point of prayer. The ark is reached by

  • Aron, Raymond (French sociologist)

    Raymond Aron, French sociologist, historian, and political commentator known for his skepticism of ideological orthodoxies. The son of a Jewish jurist, Aron obtained his doctorate in 1930 from the école Normale Supérieure with a thesis on the philosophy of history. He was a professor of social

  • Aron, Raymond-Claude-Ferdinand (French sociologist)

    Raymond Aron, French sociologist, historian, and political commentator known for his skepticism of ideological orthodoxies. The son of a Jewish jurist, Aron obtained his doctorate in 1930 from the école Normale Supérieure with a thesis on the philosophy of history. He was a professor of social

  • Arondeus, Willem (Dutch artist)

    Holocaust: Jewish resistance: …a resistance group led by Willem Arondeus, a homosexual artist and author, bombed a population registry in Amsterdam to destroy the records of Jews and others sought by the Nazis. At Treblinka and Sobibor, uprisings occurred just as the extermination process was slowing down, and the remaining prisoners were fearful…

  • Aronian, Levon (Armenian chess player)

    Magnus Carlsen: …round by Armenian chess player Levon Aronian (who went on to place seventh at the world championship).

  • Aronofsky, Darren (American director)

    Rachel Weisz: …Fountain, directed by then boyfriend Darren Aronofsky, with whom she had a child that same year. She later appeared in The Lovely Bones (2009), directed by Peter Jackson, and The Whistleblower (2010). Weisz then received a Golden Globe nomination for her role in The Deep Blue Sea (2011). She made…

  • Aronov, A. N. (Russian author)

    Anatoly Rybakov, Russian author whose novels of life in the Soviet Union under Joseph Stalin’s dictatorship were published—and became popular—after the institution of glasnost in the late 1980s. In 1933 Rybakov completed his studies in transport engineering and soon after was arrested for making

  • Aroostook (county, Maine, United States)

    Aroostook, county, northern Maine, U.S. It is bordered by Quebec, Canada, to the west and northwest and by New Brunswick, Canada, to the north and east. The northern boundary is defined by the St. Francis and St. John rivers. The county is a hilly highland region with numerous streams and lakes.

  • Aroostook War (United States-Canadian history [1838–1839])

    Aroostook War, (1838–39), bloodless conflict over the disputed boundary between the U.S. state of Maine and the British Canadian province of New Brunswick. The peace treaty of 1783 ending the American Revolution had left unclear the location of a supposed “highlands,” or watershed, dividing the two

  • Arora (caste)

    Sikhism: The rejection of caste: The Khatri and Arora castes, both mercantile castes, form a very small minority, though they are influential within the Sikh community. Other castes represented among the Sikhs, in addition to the distinctive Sikh caste of Ramgarhias (artisans), are the Ahluwalias (formerly Kalals [brewers] who have raised their status…

  • Aros (Sweden)

    V?ster?s, city and capital of V?stmanland l?n (county), east-central Sweden. It lies at the confluence of the Svart?n River and Lake M?lar, west of Stockholm. V?ster?s is Sweden’s largest inland port and the centre of its electrical industry. Originally known as Aros (“River Mouth”) and later as

  • Arosa (Switzerland)

    Arosa, Alpine village, health resort, and winter sports centre, Graubünden canton, eastern Switzerland, on the Plessur River. The village, at an elevation of 5,689 feet (1,734 m), stretches along a wooded valley holding two small lakes, the Untersee and the Obersee, that are used for fishing,

  • Arosa, Gustave (European art patron)

    Paul Gauguin: Beginnings: …the family with the businessman Gustave Arosa, who, upon Gauguin’s release from the merchant marine, secured a position for him as a stockbroker and introduced him to the Danish woman Mette Sophie Gad, whom Gauguin married in 1873. Gauguin’s artistic leanings were first aroused by Arosa, who had a collection…

  • Arosemena Monroy, Carlos Julio (Ecuadorian politician)

    Carlos Julio Arosemena Monroy, Ecuadoran politician (born Aug. 24, 1919, Guayaquil, Ecuador—died March 5, 2004, Guayaquil), was installed as president of Ecuador after the military overthrew Pres. José María Velasco Ibarra in 1961. Arosemena, who rose from the post of vice president, was among t

  • Arosi language

    Austronesian languages: Size and geographic scope: …western Indonesia, Malagasy of Madagascar, Arosi of the southeastern Solomon Islands in Melanesia, and Hawaiian.

  • Arouet, Fran?ois-Marie (French philosopher and author)

    Voltaire, one of the greatest of all French writers. Although only a few of his works are still read, he continues to be held in worldwide repute as a courageous crusader against tyranny, bigotry, and cruelty. Through its critical capacity, wit, and satire, Voltaire’s work vigorously propagates an

  • Around Her (painting by Chagall)

    Marc Chagall: Late career: …and a phantom bride in Around Her (1945) and, again, as the bride in The Wedding Candles (1945) and Nocturne (1947).

  • Around the World in Eighty Days (novel by Verne)

    Around the World in Eighty Days, travel adventure novel by French author Jules Verne, published serially in 1872 in Le Temps and in book form in 1873. The work tells the story of the unflappable Phileas Fogg’s trip around the world, accompanied by his emotional valet, Passepartout, to win a bet. It

  • Around the World in Eighty Days (film by Anderson [1956])

    Around the World in Eighty Days: Response and adaptations: The best-known film version, Around the World in 80 Days (1956), starred David Niven, Cantinflas, and Shirley MacLaine and won the Academy Award for best picture.

  • arousal (psychology)

    Activation, in psychology, the stimulation of the cerebral cortex into a state of general wakefulness, or attention. Activation proceeds from various portions of the brain, but primarily from the reticular formation, the nerve network in the midbrain that monitors ingoing and outgoing sensory and

  • Arp, Halton Christian (American astronomer)

    Halton Christian Arp, American astronomer noted for challenging the theory that redshifts of quasars indicate their great distance. Arp received a bachelor’s degree from Harvard University in 1949 and a Ph.D. from the California Institute of Technology in 1953. He subsequently accepted a research

  • Arp, Hans (French artist)

    Jean Arp, French sculptor, painter, and poet who was one of the leaders of the European avant-garde in the arts during the first half of the 20th century. Arp was of French Alsatian and German ancestry, and, thus, his parents gave him both French and German names. He began training as an artist in

  • Arp, Hans Peter Wilhelm (French artist)

    Jean Arp, French sculptor, painter, and poet who was one of the leaders of the European avant-garde in the arts during the first half of the 20th century. Arp was of French Alsatian and German ancestry, and, thus, his parents gave him both French and German names. He began training as an artist in

  • Arp, Jean (French artist)

    Jean Arp, French sculptor, painter, and poet who was one of the leaders of the European avant-garde in the arts during the first half of the 20th century. Arp was of French Alsatian and German ancestry, and, thus, his parents gave him both French and German names. He began training as an artist in

  • Arp, Jean-Pierre Guillaume (French artist)

    Jean Arp, French sculptor, painter, and poet who was one of the leaders of the European avant-garde in the arts during the first half of the 20th century. Arp was of French Alsatian and German ancestry, and, thus, his parents gave him both French and German names. He began training as an artist in

  • Arpa (river, Armenia)

    Armenia: Drainage: …the Hrazdan (90 miles), the Arpa (80 miles), and the Vorotan (Bargyushad; 111 miles), serve to irrigate most of Armenia. The tributaries of the Kura—the Debed (109 miles), the Aghstev (80 miles), and others—pass through Armenia’s northeastern regions. Lake Sevan, with a capacity in excess of 9 cubic miles (39…

  • ARPA (United States government)

    Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), U.S. government agency created in 1958 to facilitate research in technology with potential military applications. Most of DARPA’s projects are classified secrets, but many of its military innovations have had great influence in the civilian world,

  • arpa (Scandinavian religious object)

    kobdas: …bone or metal called an arpa to move along the surface of the drum. The arpa might be in the shape of a brass ring or even a frog representing the tutelary spirit of the noiade that went out to discover the things he wanted to know. From the movements…

  • Arpa ?ayy (river, Armenia)

    Aras River: …are the Arpa ?ay? (Akhuryan), which receives the waters of the Kars River and Lake ??ld?r in Turkey, the Hrazdan, draining Lake Sevan in Armenia, and the Qareh Sū, flowing off the Sabalān Mountains in northeastern Iranian Azerbaijan. On an island in the Aras stood Artaxata, seat of the…

  • arpa y la sombra, El (work by Carpentier)

    Alejo Carpentier: …arpa y la sombra (1979; The Harp and the Shadow). In the latter, the protagonist is Christopher Columbus, involved in a love affair with the Catholic Queen Isabella of Castile. Carpentier’s last novel, La consagración de la primavera (1979; “The Consecration of Spring”), deals with the Cuban revolution.

  • Arpad (ancient city, Syria)

    Arpad, ancient city in northwestern Syria. Arpad is frequently mentioned in the Old Testament and in Assyrian texts. Coming under Assyrian influence in the 9th century bc, Arpad regained its independence in 754, and it successfully sided with Sardur II of Urartu until the Assyrian king

  • árpád (ruler of Hungary)

    árpád dynasty: The dynasty was named after árpád (d. 907), who was chosen by seven Hungarian tribes to lead them westward from their dwelling place on the Don River (889). Having crossed the Carpathian Mountains (c. 896), the Hungarians settled on the Pannonian, or Hungarian, Plain and for the next half century…

  • árpád Dynasty (Hungarian history)

    árpád dynasty, rulers of Hungary from the late 9th century until 1301, under whom the Hungarian nation was transformed from a confederation of Hungarian tribes into a powerful state of east-central Europe. The dynasty was named after árpád (d. 907), who was chosen by seven Hungarian tribes to lead

  • ARPANET (United States defense program)

    ARPANET, experimental computer network that was the forerunner of the Internet. The Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), an arm of the U.S. Defense Department, funded the development of the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) in the late 1960s. Its initial purpose was to link

  • arpilleras (South American decorative arts)

    Latin American art: Trends, c. 1970–present: …stitched on burlap, known as arpilleras (“burlaps”). Another form developed in the Central Andes, where tourist enthusiasm created a market for Indian textiles and portable wooden altars. In the Caribbean, tourists created a demand for Panamanian Kuna Indian molas, trade cloth panels decorated with cut-out patterns that express the Kuna…

  • Arpino (Italy)

    Arpino, town, Lazio (Latium) regione, central Italy, on two hills 1,476 feet (450 m) above sea level, just east of the city of Frosinone. Arpino originated as a stronghold of the Volsci, who entered the area during the 5th century bc. During the 4th century bc it was held for a time by the

  • Arpino, Gerald (American choreographer)

    Gerald Arpino, American ballet choreographer, a leader of the Joffrey Ballet from its founding in 1956 until 2007. While serving in the U.S. Coast Guard (1945–48), Arpino met dancer Robert Joffrey in Seattle, Washington, and learned dancing in his spare time. Later, after training and performing in

  • Arpino, Gerald Peter (American choreographer)

    Gerald Arpino, American ballet choreographer, a leader of the Joffrey Ballet from its founding in 1956 until 2007. While serving in the U.S. Coast Guard (1945–48), Arpino met dancer Robert Joffrey in Seattle, Washington, and learned dancing in his spare time. Later, after training and performing in

  • Arpino, Giovanni (Italian author)

    Italian literature: Other writings: Giovanni Arpino excelled at personal sympathies that cross cultural boundaries (La suora giovane [1959; The Novice] and Il fratello italiano [1980; “The Italian Brother”]). Fulvio Tomizza also tackled this theme in L’amicizia (1980; “The Friendship”).

  • Arpinum (Italy)

    Arpino, town, Lazio (Latium) regione, central Italy, on two hills 1,476 feet (450 m) above sea level, just east of the city of Frosinone. Arpino originated as a stronghold of the Volsci, who entered the area during the 5th century bc. During the 4th century bc it was held for a time by the

  • ARPS (political organization, Africa)

    western Africa: The emergence of African leaders: …Aborigines’ Rights Protection Society (ARPS) to prevent the wholesale expropriation of African lands by European entrepreneurs or officials. The ARPS went on to campaign against the exclusion of qualified Africans from the colonial administration. Following this, in 1918–20, a National Congress of British West Africa was formed by professionals…

  • ARQ (communications)

    telecommunication: Channel encoding: …of error control is called automatic repeat request (ARQ). In this method redundant bits are added to the transmitted information and are used by the receiver to detect errors. The receiver then signals a request for a repeat transmission. Generally, the number of extra bits needed simply to detect an…

  • Arqalyq (Kazakhstan)

    Arqalyq, city, north-central Kazakhstan. It is located about 75 miles (120 km) west of Lake Tengiz. Settlement of the site began in 1956 in connection with the exploitation of the Turgay bauxite deposits, and it became a city in 1965. Arqalyq is linked to the rail line between Nursultan and Tobyl

  • arquebus (weapon)

    Harquebus, first gun fired from the shoulder, a smoothbore matchlock with a stock resembling that of a rifle. The harquebus was invented in Spain in the mid-15th century. It was often fired from a support, against which the recoil was transferred from a hook on the gun. Its name seems to derive

  • Arqueológico Nacional Brüning, Museo (museum, Lambayeque, Peru)

    Brüning Museum, archaeological museum in Lambayeque, Peru, displaying objects and artifacts of Peru’s ancient civilizations. Upon opening in 1966, the Brüning Museum became northern Peru’s preeminent museum, specializing in Peru’s pre-Hispanic cultures. The museum was named for Hans Heinrich

  • Arquette, Alexis (American actress and transgender activist)

    Alexis Arquette, (Robert Arquette), American actress and transgender activist (born July 28, 1969, Los Angeles, Calif.—died Sept. 11, 2016, Los Angeles), played numerous small parts, mostly in little-known or horror movies, notably as the character Damien in Bride of Chucky (1998). She also won

  • Arquette, Patricia (American actress)

    Patricia Arquette, American actress whose performance in Richard Linklater’s film Boyhood (2014)—filmed in increments over a 12-year period—was praised for its naturalism and lack of vanity. She won a BAFTA Award, a Golden Globe, and an Academy Award for best supporting actress for her role as a

  • Arquette, Robert (American actress and transgender activist)

    Alexis Arquette, (Robert Arquette), American actress and transgender activist (born July 28, 1969, Los Angeles, Calif.—died Sept. 11, 2016, Los Angeles), played numerous small parts, mostly in little-known or horror movies, notably as the character Damien in Bride of Chucky (1998). She also won

  • Arquipélago da Madeira (archipelago, Portugal)

    Madeira Islands, archipelago of volcanic origin in the North Atlantic Ocean, belonging to Portugal. It comprises two inhabited islands, Madeira and Porto Santo, and two uninhabited groups, the Desertas and the Selvagens. The islands are the summits of mountains that have their bases on an abyssal

  • Arquipélago dos A?ores (archipelago, Portugal)

    Azores, archipelago and regi?o autónoma (autonomous region) of Portugal. The chain lies in the North Atlantic Ocean roughly 1,000 miles (1,600 km) west of mainland Portugal. It includes nine major islands. The Azores are divided into three widely separated island groups: the eastern group,

  • Arquipélago dos Bijagós (islands, Atlantic Ocean)

    Bijagós Islands, islands of Guinea-Bissau, located about 30 miles (48 km) off the Guinea coast of western Africa. They compose an archipelago of 15 main islands, among which are Caravela, Carache, Formosa, Uno, Orango, Orangozinho, Bubaque, and Roxa. They are covered with a lush vegetation and have

  • ARRA (United States [2009])

    American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), legislation, enacted by the U.S. Congress and signed into law by Pres. Barack Obama in 2009, that was designed to stimulate the U.S. economy by saving jobs jeopardized by the Great Recession of 2008–09 and creating new jobs. In December 2007 the U.S.

  • Arrabal, Fernando (French author and playwright)

    Fernando Arrabal, Spanish-born French absurdist playwright, novelist, and filmmaker. Arrabal’s dramatic and fictional world is often violent, cruel, and pornographic. Arrabal worked as a clerk in a paper company, then studied law at the University of Madrid. He turned to writing in the early 1950s,

  • Arrabbiati (political party, Florence)

    Girolamo Savonarola: Political intrigues.: A Florentine party called the Arrabbiati was formed in opposition to him. These internal enemies formed an alliance with powerful foreign forces, foremost of which were the Duke of Milan and the Pope, who had joined in the Holy League against the King of France and saw in Savonarola the…

  • Arrábida Highway Bridge (bridge, Porto, Portugal)

    Arrábida Highway Bridge, in Porto, Port., bridge (completed in 1963) spanning the gorge of the Douro River. The bridge carries a roadway 82 feet (25 m) wide, supported 170 feet (52 m) above the river; its overall length of 1,617 feet (493 m) includes a reinforced-concrete arch 885 feet (270 m)

  • Arrabona (Hungary)

    Gy?r, historic city and seat of Gy?r-Moson-Sopron megye (county), northwestern Hungary. It is located on the Moson arm of the Danube, the meandering southern arm in Hungary proper, where the south bank tributaries, Rába and Rábca, converge. The Marcal River joins the Rába just south of Gy?r. The

  • arrack (alcoholic beverage)

    Kalutara: …fibre crafts, the area produces arrack (an alcoholic beverage distilled from malted rice mash and molasses) and mangosteen, a reddish-brown fruit that is valued for its juicy, delicate texture and its slightly astringent flavour. Pop. (2012) 32,417.

  • Arragona (Spain)

    Sabadell, city, Barcelona provincia (province), in the comunidad autónoma (autonomous community) of Catalonia, northeastern Spain. The city, just north of Barcelona, originated as an Iberian and Roman settlement known as Arragona and became a medieval fief of the Castle of Arahona. Called Sabadell

  • Arrah (India)

    Ara, city, western Bihar state, northeastern India. It is situated on a tributary of the Ganges (Ganga) River, about 30 miles (50 km) west of Patna. The city is a major rail and road junction. Agricultural trade and oilseed milling are carried on there. It is the site of several colleges affiliated

  • arraignment (law)

    Arraignment, in Anglo-American law, first encounter of an accused person with the court prior to trial, wherein that person is brought to the bar and the charges are read. The accused usually enters a plea of guilt or innocence. If the accused chooses not to plead, a plea of not guilty will be

  • Arraignment of Paris, The (play by Peele)

    George Peele: His earliest important work is The Arraignment of Paris (c. 1581–84), a mythological extravaganza written for the Children of the Chapel, a troupe of boy actors, and performed at court before Queen Elizabeth.

  • Arraiolos rug

    Arraiolos rug, embroidered floor covering made at Arraiolos, north of évora in Portugal. The technique is a form of cross-stitch that completely covers the linen cloth foundation. Today most rugs are made as a cottage industry by the women of Arraiolos. Early Arraiolos rugs utilized designs derived

  • Arrais, Amador (Portuguese writer)

    Portuguese literature: The novel and other prose: …“Image of the Christian Life”); Amador Arrais with his 10 Diálogos (1589; “Dialogues”) on religious and other topics; and Tomé de Jesus with his mystic and devotional treatise Trabalhos de Jesus (1602–09; “Deeds of Jesus”). The work of scientists included that of a cosmographer and mathematician, Pedro Nunes, and of…

  • Arran (island, Scotland, United Kingdom)

    Arran, largest island in the North Ayrshire council area and the historic county of Buteshire, western Scotland, on the Atlantic coast at the mouth of the Firth of Clyde. Arran is approximately 20 miles (32 km) long and has a mean breadth of 9 miles (14 km) and an area of 166 square miles (431

  • arran (turtle)

    Arrau, large and somewhat flat freshwater turtle with a neck that does not retract but instead can be tucked to the side and concealed beneath the shell (see side-necked turtle). Of the several South American Podocnemis species, arrau generally refers to the largest, P. expansa of northern South

  • Arran, James Hamilton, 1st earl of (Scottish noble)

    James Hamilton, 1st earl of Arran, son of James, 1st Lord Hamilton, and of Mary, daughter of James II of Scotland; he was created earl of Arran in 1503 on the occasion of the marriage of James IV to Margaret Tudor. Arran commanded a naval expedition against England in 1513 but failed lamentably and

  • Arran, James Hamilton, 2nd earl of, duc de Chatelherault (Scottish noble)

    James Hamilton, 2nd earl of Arran, earl of Arran who was heir presumptive to the throne after the accession of Mary Stuart in 1542 and was appointed her governor and tutor. He negotiated for a marriage between Mary and Prince Edward (afterward Edward VI of England) but suddenly abandoned the

  • Arran, James Hamilton, 3rd earl of (Scottish noble)

    James Hamilton, 3rd earl of Arran, earl of Arran who was twice considered as a husband both for Mary Stuart and for Henry VIII’s daughter Elizabeth (afterward Elizabeth I). During his childhood these projects arose from his father’s ambitions; later, when he had returned from commanding the Scots

  • Arran, James Stewart, earl of (Scottish noble)

    James Stewart, earl of Arran, cousin of the 3rd earl, whose honours he claimed and for a short time legally enjoyed, from 1581 to 1585. Both Stewart and his rival, Esmé, duke of Lennox, were deprived of office when the Protestant lords seized power by the raid of Ruthven (1582); but a year later

  • Arran, John Hamilton, earl of (Scottish noble)

    John Hamilton, 1st marquess of Hamilton, Scottish nobleman active in Scottish and English politics and in the unsuccessful negotiations for the release of Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots. The third son of James Hamilton, 2nd earl of Arran, he was given the abbey of Arbroath in 1551. In politics he was

  • Arran, Thomas Boyd, earl of (Scottish noble)

    Robert Boyd, 1st Lord Boyd: …son Thomas Boyd, earl of Arran (d. c. 1473), was in Denmark when his father was overthrown. However, he fulfilled his mission, that of bringing the king’s bride, Margaret, to Scotland, and then, warned by his wife, escaped to the continent of Europe. He is mentioned very eulogistically in one…

  • Arráncame la vida (work by Mastretta)

    Latin American literature: Post-boom writers: …successful Arráncame la vida (1985; Mexican Bolero) ironically revisits the most hallowed theme of 20th-century Mexican fiction: the Revolution. But Mastretta portrays revolutionary Mexico from a woman’s perspective, which gives the whole process a subtly ironic twist that sometimes turns into outright humour. Montero’s and Mastretta’s titles are drawn from…

  • arranged marriage

    family: Family law: …are still vestiges of the arranged marriage that once flourished in eastern Europe and Asia). The emancipation of women in the 19th and 20th centuries changed marriage dramatically, particularly in connection with property and economic status. By the mid-20th century, most Western countries had enacted legislation establishing equality between spouses.…

  • arrangement (music)

    Arrangement, in music, traditionally, any adaptation of a composition to fit a medium other than that for which it was originally written, while at the same time retaining the general character of the original. The word was frequently used interchangeably with transcription, although the latter

  • Arrangement in Grey and Black, No. 1 (painting by Whistler)

    James McNeill Whistler: …of the Artist’s Mother or Whistler’s Mother).

  • Arrangement of British Plants, An (work by Withering)

    William Withering: Botanical works: Withering’s later work, An Arrangement of British Plants (1787–92), was designed to show amateur botanists, many of whom were young women, the utility of the Linnaean classification system. In addition, this work introduced his specially designed field microscope, which subsequently became known as the Withering botanical microscope.

  • Arrapha (Iraq)

    Kirkūk, city, capital of Kirkūk mu?āfa?ah (governorate), northeastern Iraq. The city is 145 miles (233 km) north of Baghdad, the national capital, with which it is linked by road and railway. Kirkūk is located near the foot of the Zagros Mountains in the Kurdistan region of Iraq. The oldest part of

  • Arrapkha (Iraq)

    Kirkūk, city, capital of Kirkūk mu?āfa?ah (governorate), northeastern Iraq. The city is 145 miles (233 km) north of Baghdad, the national capital, with which it is linked by road and railway. Kirkūk is located near the foot of the Zagros Mountains in the Kurdistan region of Iraq. The oldest part of

  • Arras (France)

    Arras, town, capital of Pas-de-Calais département, Hauts-de-France région, former capital of Artois, northern France. It lies on the Scarpe River, southwest of Lille. Of Gallo-Roman origin, it was the chief town (Nemetacum or Nemetocenna) of the Atrebates, one of the last Gallic peoples to

  • Arras lace

    Arras lace, bobbin lace made at Arras, Fr., from the 17th century onward and similar to that of Lille. Although Arras was known for its gold lace, its popularity rested on its exceptionally pure-white lace, stronger than Lille but with similar floral patterns. Arras lace was worn at the coronation

  • Arras, Battle of (European history)

    Battle of Arras, (9 April–17 May 1917), British offensive on the German defenses around the French city of Arras during World War I. It was noteworthy for the swift and spectacular gains made by the British in the opening phase—above all, the capture of Vimy Ridge, considered virtually impregnable,

  • Arras, Gautier d’ (French author)

    Gautier d’Arras, author of early French romances. He lacked the skill and profundity of his contemporary Chrétien de Troyes, but his work, emphasizing human action and its psychological foundations, exercised an important influence on the genre known as roman d’aventure (“romance of adventure”). An

  • Arras, Mathieu d’ (Flemish mason)

    Bohemian school: …by the Flemish master mason Mathieu d’Arras; when Mathieu died in 1352, the work on both buildings was taken over by the influential German architect Petr Parlé?, who, in his virtuoso experiments with decorative vault design in the cathedral, provided the starting point for late German Gothic architectural achievements in…

  • Arras, treaties of (European history)

    Burgundy: History: The Treaty of Arras (1435), which established peace between Burgundy and Charles VII of France, added greatly to the Burgundian domain. Even so, mercenary bands continued their depredations in Burgundy until 1445, after which the duchy enjoyed peace until Philip III’s death in 1467.

  • Arras, Union of (European history)

    history of the Low Countries: Unification after Alba: 6, 1579, the Union of Arras (Artois) was formed in the south among Artois, Hainaut, and the town of Douay, based on the Pacification of Ghent but retaining the Roman Catholic religion, loyalty to the king, and the privileges of the estates. As a reaction to the accommodation…

  • arrastra (metallurgy)

    Arrastra, crude drag-stone mill for pulverizing ores such as those containing silver or gold or their compounds. See patio

  • Arrate y Acosta, José Martín Félix de (author)

    Latin American literature: Historiographies: José Martín Félix de Arrate y Acosta finished his Llave del Nuevo Mundo, antemural de las Indias Occidentales: La Habana descripta (“Key to the New World, Holding Wall of the Indies: Havana Described”) in 1761, though it was first published in 1827. Alongside his defense…

  • arrau (turtle)

    Arrau, large and somewhat flat freshwater turtle with a neck that does not retract but instead can be tucked to the side and concealed beneath the shell (see side-necked turtle). Of the several South American Podocnemis species, arrau generally refers to the largest, P. expansa of northern South

  • Arrau, Claudio (Chilean pianist)

    Claudio Arrau, Chilean pianist who was one of the most-renowned performers of the 20th century. Arrau’s father, an eye doctor, died when Arrau—the youngest of three children—was one year old. His mother supported the family by giving piano lessons and must have been gratified when her own son

  • array (electronics)

    radio telescope: Radio telescope arrays: The world’s most powerful radio telescope, in its combination of sensitivity, resolution, and versatility, is the Very Large Array (VLA) located on the plains of San Agustin near Socorro, in central New Mexico, U.S. The VLA consists of 27 parabolic antennas, each measuring 25…

  • array (computing)

    computer programming language: Data structures: …compound data structures are the array, a homogeneous collection of data, and the record, a heterogeneous collection. An array may represent a vector of numbers, a list of strings, or a collection of vectors (an array of arrays, or mathematical matrix). A record might store employee information—name, title, and salary.…

  • array (solar-cell grouping)

    solar cell: …arranged into large groupings called arrays. These arrays, composed of many thousands of individual cells, can function as central electric power stations, converting sunlight into electrical energy for distribution to industrial, commercial, and residential users. Solar cells in much smaller configurations, commonly referred to as solar cell panels or simply…

  • Array, Commissons of (English history)

    United Kingdom: The administration of justice: Commissions of Array composed of local notables were appointed by the crown for each county in order to make use of the power of the aristocracy in raising troops but to prevent them from maintaining private armies (livery) with which to intimidate justice (maintenance) or…

  • Arrayanes, Patio de los (patio, Granada, Spain)

    court: …Court of the Lions and Court of the Myrtles, the most celebrated of all Muslim patios. In Tudor and Elizabethan England of the 16th century, the principal mansions frequently had a forecourt, with wings of the house projecting forward on either side. The larger houses in France were similarly planned;…

  • Arre, Lake (lake, Denmark)

    Denmark: Drainage: …small lakes; the largest is Arres? on Zealand. Large lagoons have formed behind the coastal dunes in the west, such as at the Ringk?bing and Nissum fjords.

  • Arrebo, Anders (Danish author)

    Danish literature: The literary Renaissance: Anders Arrebo translated the Psalms and wrote Hexa?meron (1661), a Danish version of the 16th-century French poet Guillaume du Bartas’s La Semaine. The century was rich in occasional poetry; didactic and pastoral poems were also common. Anders Bording, an exponent of Danish Baroque poetry, was…

  • Arrecifos (island, Palau)

    Babelthuap, largest of the Caroline Islands and largest island within the country of Palau. It has an area of 143 square miles (370 square km) and lies in the western Pacific Ocean, 550 miles (885 km) east of the Philippines. Partly elevated limestone and partly volcanic in origin, Babelthuap

  • arrector pili (anatomy)

    integument: Hair: A small muscle, the arrector pili, is attached to each hair follicle, with the exception of the small follicles that produce only fine vellus hairs. If this muscle contracts, the hair becomes more erect and the follicle is dragged upward. This creates a protuberance on the skin surface, producing…

  • Arrée Mountains (mountains, France)

    Brittany: Geography: …separates the heights of the Arrée Mountains (1,260 feet [384 metres]) in the north and the Noires Mountains (1,001 feet [305 metres]) in the south. Both run east-west. Belle-?le-en-Mer, Ouessant, and several other small islands are part of the région. Erosion has carved out sharp abers, or gorges, in the…

  • Arreola, Juan José (Mexican writer)

    Juan José Arreola, Mexican short-fiction writer and humorist who was a master of brief subgenres, such as the short story, the epigram, and the sketch. He published only one novel, La feria (1963; The Fair). His collection of stories Confabulario (1952) has been reprinted in several expanded

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