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  • Armstrong Hot Five (music recordings)

    Louis Armstrong: Solo career: …most important early works, the Armstrong Hot Five and Hot Seven recordings of 1925–28, on which he emerged as the first great jazz soloist. By then the New Orleans ensemble style, which allowed few solo opportunities, could no longer contain his explosive creativity. He retained vestiges of the style in…

  • Armstrong Hot Seven (music recordings)

    Louis Armstrong: Solo career: …the Armstrong Hot Five and Hot Seven recordings of 1925–28, on which he emerged as the first great jazz soloist. By then the New Orleans ensemble style, which allowed few solo opportunities, could no longer contain his explosive creativity. He retained vestiges of the style in such masterpieces as “Hotter…

  • Armstrong of Cragside, William George Armstrong, Baron (British engineer)

    William George Armstrong, Baron Armstrong, British industrialist and engineer who invented high-pressure hydraulic machinery and revolutionized the design and manufacture of guns. Armstrong abandoned his Newcastle law practice in 1847 to devote full time to scientific experimentation. He founded an

  • Armstrong’s Last Goodnight (work by Arden)

    John Arden: Armstrong’s Last Goodnight (1964) is a drama set in the Borders region of Scotland in the 1530s and written in Lowland Scottish vernacular. Left-Handed Liberty (1965), written to mark the 750th anniversary of the signing of Magna Carta, characteristically dwells on the failure of the…

  • Armstrong, Billie Joe (American musician)

    Green Day: The principal members were Billie Joe Armstrong (b. February 17, 1972, Oakland, California, U.S.), Mike Dirnt (byname of Michael Ryan Pritchard, b. May 4, 1972, Oakland), and Tré Cool (byname of Frank Edwin Wright III, b. December 9, 1972, Willits, California). Other members included Al Sobrante (byname of John…

  • Armstrong, David Malet (Australian philosopher)

    materialism: Translation central-state theories: Another Australian materialist, D.M. Armstrong, held, on the other hand, that colours are as a matter of fact properties of objects, such properties being of the sort describable in the theoretical terms of physics. Feigl, in turn, was to some extent (and rather reluctantly) a double-aspect theorist. He…

  • Armstrong, Debbie (American skier)

    Olympic Games: Sarajevo, Yugoslavia, 1984: Debbie Armstrong (U.S.) won her first and only international race, capturing gold in the giant slalom. Conspicuously absent from the Alpine events were 1980 gold medalists Ingemar Stenmark (Sweden) and Hanni Wenzel (Liechtenstein), who were considered professionals and were thus banned from Olympic competition.

  • Armstrong, Edwin H. (American inventor)

    Edwin H. Armstrong, American inventor who laid the foundation for much of modern radio and electronic circuitry, including the regenerative and superheterodyne circuits and the frequency modulation (FM) system. Armstrong was from a genteel, devoutly Presbyterian family of Manhattan. His father was

  • Armstrong, Edwin Howard (American inventor)

    Edwin H. Armstrong, American inventor who laid the foundation for much of modern radio and electronic circuitry, including the regenerative and superheterodyne circuits and the frequency modulation (FM) system. Armstrong was from a genteel, devoutly Presbyterian family of Manhattan. His father was

  • Armstrong, Garner Ted (American evangelist)

    Garner Ted Armstrong, American evangelist (born Feb. 9, 1930, Portland, Ore.—died Sept. 15, 2003, Tyler, Texas), ascended to celebrity in the 1950s as the principal evangelist on the radio and television programs of the Worldwide Church of God, which was founded by his father. The international p

  • Armstrong, Gillian (Australian director)

    Gillian Armstrong, Australian film director who was known for her carefully observed strong female characters. Many of her movies are historical dramas. Armstrong grew up near Melbourne and studied art and film at Swinburne Technical College (now Swinburne University of Technology). She made a few

  • Armstrong, Helen (Australian singer)

    Dame Nellie Melba, Australian coloratura soprano, a singer of great popularity. She sang at Richmond (Australia) Public Hall at the age of six and was a skilled pianist and organist, but she did not study singing until after her marriage to Charles Nesbitt Armstrong in 1882. She appeared in Sydney

  • Armstrong, Henry (American boxer)

    Henry Armstrong, American boxer, the only professional boxer to hold world championship titles in three weight divisions simultaneously. Armstrong fought as an amateur from 1929 to 1932. Early in his career he boxed under the name Melody Jackson. He first won the featherweight (126-pound) title by

  • Armstrong, Henry Edward (British chemist)

    Henry Edward Armstrong, English organic chemist whose research in substitution reactions of naphthalene was a major service to the synthetic-dye industry. Armstrong studied at the Royal College of Chemistry, where he developed a method of determining organic impurities (sewage) in drinking water,

  • Armstrong, Herbert W. (American religious leader)

    Worldwide Church of God: …Radio Church of God by Herbert W. Armstrong (1892–1986), an American newspaper advertising designer. Until the mid-1990s the church taught a non-Trinitarian theology, held Saturday worship services, and preached the imminent return of Jesus Christ.

  • Armstrong, Jeannett (Canadian author)

    Canadian literature: Fiction: …include novels and stories by Jeannette Armstrong (Slash, 1985, rev. ed. 1988; Whispering in Shadows, 2000), Beatrice Culleton (In Search of April Raintree, 1983), Tomson Highway (Kiss of the Fur Queen, 1998), Thomas King (Medicine River, 1990; Green Grass, Running Water, 1993), and Eden Robinson (Monkey Beach, 1999; Blood Sports,…

  • Armstrong, John (American diplomat)

    John Armstrong, American soldier, diplomat, and politician who, as U.S. secretary of war during the War of 1812, was blamed for the British capture of Washington, D.C. Armstrong fought in the American Revolution (1775–83) and, as an officer in the Continental Army, was apparently the author of the

  • Armstrong, Karen (English author)

    Karen Armstrong, English author of books on religion who was widely regarded as one of the leading commentators on the subject. At age 17 Armstrong entered a Roman Catholic convent. Though she had “pictured the religious life as a series of philosophical conversations sandwiched between prayerful

  • Armstrong, Lance (American cyclist)

    Lance Armstrong, American cyclist, who was the only rider to win seven Tour de France titles (1999–2005) but who was later stripped of all his titles after an investigation revealed that he was the key figure in a wide-ranging doping conspiracy while he compiled his Tour victories. Armstrong

  • Armstrong, Louis (American musician)

    Louis Armstrong, the leading trumpeter and one of the most influential artists in jazz history. Although Armstrong claimed to be born in 1900, various documents, notably a baptismal record, indicate that 1901 was his birth year. He grew up in dire poverty in New Orleans, Louisiana, when jazz was

  • Armstrong, Louis Daniel (American musician)

    Louis Armstrong, the leading trumpeter and one of the most influential artists in jazz history. Although Armstrong claimed to be born in 1900, various documents, notably a baptismal record, indicate that 1901 was his birth year. He grew up in dire poverty in New Orleans, Louisiana, when jazz was

  • Armstrong, Neil (American astronaut)

    Neil Armstrong, U.S. astronaut, the first person to set foot on the Moon. Neil Armstrong was the eldest of three children born to Viola Louise Engel and Stephen Koenig Armstrong, a state auditor. Neil’s passion for aviation and flight was kindled when he took his first airplane ride at age 6. He

  • Armstrong, Neil Alden (American astronaut)

    Neil Armstrong, U.S. astronaut, the first person to set foot on the Moon. Neil Armstrong was the eldest of three children born to Viola Louise Engel and Stephen Koenig Armstrong, a state auditor. Neil’s passion for aviation and flight was kindled when he took his first airplane ride at age 6. He

  • Armstrong, Samuel Chapman (United States military officer and educator)

    Samuel Chapman Armstrong, Union military commander of black troops during the American Civil War and founder of Hampton Institute, a vocational educational school for blacks. The son of American missionaries to Hawaii, Armstrong attended Oahu College for two years before going to the United States

  • Armstrong, Sir William George (British engineer)

    William George Armstrong, Baron Armstrong, British industrialist and engineer who invented high-pressure hydraulic machinery and revolutionized the design and manufacture of guns. Armstrong abandoned his Newcastle law practice in 1847 to devote full time to scientific experimentation. He founded an

  • Armstrong, Todd (American actor)

    Jason and the Argonauts: …prevent Aristo’s son, Jason (Todd Armstrong), from making claims to the throne by sending him on a dangerous quest to find the fabled Golden Fleece. Jason and his crew of Argonauts sail for Colchis in the ship Argo and overcome many seemingly insurmountable obstacles to retrieve the Golden Fleece.

  • Armstrong, William Howard (American educator and writer)

    William Howard Armstrong, American educator and writer whose best-known book, Sounder (1969), won the Newbery Medal in 1970 and was filmed in 1972; he taught ninth grade for over 50 years and, in addition to children’s books, wrote a number of educational philosophy works (b. Sept. 14, 1914,

  • Armstrong-Jones, Antony (British photographer)

    Antony Armstrong-Jones, earl of Snowdon, (Antony Charles Robert Armstrong-Jones), British photographer (born March 7, 1930, London, Eng.—died Jan. 13, 2017, London), was a fashion and society photographer of some note whose 1960 marriage to Princess Margaret, the younger sister of Queen Elizabeth

  • army (military)

    Army, a large organized force armed and trained for war, especially on land. The term may be applied to a large unit organized for independent action, or it may be applied to a nation’s or ruler’s complete military organization for land warfare. Throughout history, the character and organization of

  • Army Air Forces (United States military)

    The United States Air Force: …units were merged into the Army Air Forces (AAF) under a single commander, General Henry H. Arnold. From its headquarters in Washington, D.C., the AAF directed the expansion of the air arm into a powerful organization composed of 16 air forces (12 of them overseas), 243 combat groups, 2,400,000 officers…

  • army ant (insect)

    ant: Army ants, of the subfamily Dorylinae, are nomadic and notorious for the destruction of plant and animal life in their path. The army ants of tropical America (Eciton), for example, travel in columns, eating insects and other invertebrates along the way. Periodically, the colony rests…

  • Army Brat: A Memoir (work by Smith)

    William Jay Smith: …a period he recalled in Army Brat: A Memoir (1980; reissued 1991). After attending Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (B.A., 1939; M.A., 1941), he served in the U.S. Navy from 1941 to 1945. He subsequently did graduate work at Columbia University and at the Universities of Oxford and Florence. He…

  • Army Comrades Association (Irish history)

    Blueshirt, popular name for a member of the Army Comrades Association (ACA), who wore blue shirts in imitation of the European fascist movements that had adopted coloured shirts as their uniforms. Initially composed of former soldiers in the Irish Free State Army, the ACA was founded in response to

  • army corps (military unit)

    military unit: …support units make up an army corps, or a corps, which has 50,000 to 300,000 troops and is commanded by a lieutenant general. The army corps is the largest regular army formation, though in wartime two or more corps may be combined to form a field army (commanded by a…

  • Army High Command (German military)

    World War II: German strategy, 1939–42: …and the heads of the Oberkommando des Heeres (OKH, or German Army High Command), namely the army commander in chief Walther von Brauchitsch and the army general staff chief Franz Halder, were convinced that the Red Army could be defeated in two or three months, and that, by the end…

  • Army Industrial College (school, United States)

    National Defense University: …(ICAF) in 1946 (becoming the Dwight D. Eisenhower School for National Security and Resource Strategy in 2012), addressed that need.

  • Army Medical Library (library, Washington, District of Columbia, United States)

    John Shaw Billings: …General’s Library and ultimately the National Library of Medicine, the world’s largest medical reference centre. His attempt to construct a logical classification system for the library resulted in his founding of the Index Medicus (1879), a monthly guide to current medical literature, and publication of the first edition of the…

  • Army Museum (museum, Paris, France)

    Paris: The Invalides: …deathbed are displayed in the Army Museum (Musée de l’Armée) at the front of the Invalides. A portion of the Invalides still serves as a military hospital.

  • Army Public School massacre (terrorist attack, Peshawar, Pakistan [2014])

    Peshawar school massacre, terrorist attack in which seven heavily armed Taliban fighters stormed an army-run primary and secondary school in Peshawar, Pakistan, on December 16, 2014, killing 150 people, of whom at least 134 were students. At the time of the incident, the Army Public School held

  • Army Theatre of Art (Czechoslovak theatre)

    Emil Franti?ek Burian: …to open his own theatre, D34. That theatre (the name would change annually to reflect the current year) made Burian internationally famous. D34 and its successors saw Burian mount productions by contemporary Czechs and other Europeans, as well as reworkings of many older classics. The productions combined dance, film, song,…

  • Army War College (educational institution, Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania, United States)

    war college: U.S. Army War College: The AWC, established at Washington Barracks (now Fort Lesley J. McNair) in Washington, D.C., in 1901, traces its roots to the aftermath of the Spanish-American War. Although the United States easily defeated the Spanish in that conflict, the war revealed weaknesses…

  • army worm (larva)

    lepidopteran: Larva, or caterpillar: Swarms of armyworms (Pseudaletia) may travel long distances along the ground, driven by crowding and lack of food. Just before pupation many larvae stop eating and crawl some distance before settling down to pupate.

  • Army, British

    British army, in the United Kingdom, the military force charged with national defense and the fulfillment of international mutual defense commitments. The army of England before the Norman Conquest consisted of the king’s household troops (housecarls) and all freemen able to bear arms, who served

  • Army, French

    France: Military reforms: …foot soldiers, the new standing army was complete. Making use of a newly effective artillery, its companies firmly in the king’s control, supported by the people in money and spirit, France rid itself of brigands and Englishmen alike.

  • Army, United States (United States military)

    The United States Army, major branch of the United States armed forces charged with the preservation of peace and security and the defense of the country. The army furnishes most of the ground forces in the U.S. military organization. In the early months of the American Revolution, the first

  • armyworm (larva)

    lepidopteran: Larva, or caterpillar: Swarms of armyworms (Pseudaletia) may travel long distances along the ground, driven by crowding and lack of food. Just before pupation many larvae stop eating and crawl some distance before settling down to pupate.

  • Arnaldo da Brescia (Italian religious reformer)

    Arnold of Brescia, radical religious reformer noted for his outspoken criticism of clerical wealth and corruption and for his strenuous opposition to the temporal power of the popes. He was prior of the monastery at Brescia, where in 1137 he participated in a popular revolt against the government

  • Arnall, Roland Edmond (American businessman)

    Roland Edmond Arnall, American businessman (born March 29, 1939, Paris, France—died March 17, 2008, Los Angeles, Calif.), founded (1979) Ameriquest Mortgage, the largest subprime mortgage company in the U.S. during the housing boom of the 1990s, but the firm became a victim of the subprime meltdown

  • Arnarson, Ingólfur (Norse colonist)

    Reykjavík: …in 874 by the Norseman Ingólfur Arnarson. Until the 20th century it was a small fishing village and trading post. It was granted municipal powers and was designated the administrative centre of the Danish-ruled island on Aug. 18, 1786. The seat of the Althingi (parliament) since 1843, it became the…

  • Arnaud, Georges (French writer and activist)

    Georges Arnaud, French novelist and social activist. Arnaud’s father was Georges Girard, a state official and noted historian who was killed along with Arnaud’s aunt on the family estate near Perigueux in central France (1941). Accused of the murders, Arnaud spent 19 months in jail before he was

  • Arnaud, Henri (French clergyman)

    Henri Arnaud, Savoyard pastor who led the Waldensian, or Vaudois, exiles on the glorieuse rentrée, their historic journey from Switzerland back to their Piedmontese valleys (1689). After studying theology in Switzerland, Arnaud returned to Piedmont and established himself as pastor at Torre Pellice

  • Arnauld d’Andilly, Robert (French author and translator)

    Robert Arnauld d’Andilly, brother and follower of the prominent Jansenist theologian Antoine Arnauld. See Arnauld

  • Arnauld family (French family)

    Arnauld Family, French family of the lesser nobility that came to Paris from Auvergne in the 16th century and is chiefly remembered for its close connection with Jansenism (a Roman Catholic movement that propounded heretical doctrines on the nature of free will and predestination) and with the

  • Arnauld, Antoine (French theologian)

    Antoine Arnauld, leading 17th-century theologian of Jansenism, a Roman Catholic movement that held heretical doctrines on the nature of free will and predestination. Arnauld was the youngest of the 10 surviving children of Antoine Arnauld, a Parisian lawyer, and Catherine Marion de Druy (see

  • Arnauld, Antoine (French lawyer)

    Arnauld Family: The founder of the family, Antoine Arnauld (1560–1619), was born in Paris, the son of Antoine Arnauld, seigneur de la Mothe. Well known as an eloquent lawyer, he pleaded for the University of Paris against the Jesuits in 1594 and presented his case so forcefully that his speech on this…

  • Arnauld, Catherine (French nun)

    Arnauld Family: The most notable was Catherine Arnauld (1590–1651). She married Isaac Le Maistre, a king’s counselor, but, after his death, she too took religious vows and entered Port-Royal.

  • Arnauld, Henri (French bishop)

    Arnauld Family: Robert’s younger brother, Henri Arnauld (1597–1692), left his diplomatic career for a life in the church. Ordained as a priest, he ultimately became bishop of Angers. He played an important part in the Jansenist religious controversy, his sympathy lying with the Jansenists.

  • Arnauld, Jacqueline-Marie-Angélique (French abbess)

    Jacqueline-Marie-Angélique Arnauld, monastic reformer who was abbess of the important Jansenist centre of Port-Royal de Paris. She was one of six sisters of the prominent Jansenist theologian Antoine Arnauld (the Great Arnauld). Jacqueline Arnauld entered religious life as a child of 9, becoming

  • Arnauld, Jeanne-Catherine-Agnès (French abbess)

    Jeanne-Catherine-Agnès Arnauld, abbess of the Jansenist centre of Port-Royal and author of the religious community’s Constitutions (1665). She was one of six sisters of the prominent Jansenist theologian Antoine Arnauld (the Great Arnauld). Like her older sister, the abbess Mère Angélique

  • Arnault, Bernard (French businessman)

    Bernard Arnault, French businessman best known as the chairman and CEO of the French conglomerate LVMH Mo?t Hennessy Louis Vuitton SA, the largest luxury-products company in the world. Arnault graduated from the école Polytechnique in Paris with a degree in engineering. In 1971 he took control of

  • Arnaut Daniel (Proven?al poet and troubadour)

    Arnaut Daniel, Proven?al poet, troubadour, and master of the trobar clus, a poetic style composed of complex metrics, intricate rhymes, and words chosen more for their sound than for their meaning. Thought to have been born in Ribérac (now in France), Arnaut was a nobleman and a highly regarded

  • Arnaut de Mareuil (Perigordian troubadour)

    Arnaut de Mareuil, Perigordian troubadour who is credited with having introduced into Proven?al poetry the amatory epistle (salut d’amour) and the short didactic poem (ensenhamen). Arnaut was born in Mareuil-sur-Belle, Périgord (now in France), but little else is known of his life. His early poems

  • Arnaut de Zwolle, Henri (French physician and artist)

    keyboard instrument: Principle of operation: Arnaut of Zwolle’s clavichord used only 9 or 10 pairs of strings to produce all the 37 notes of its 3-octave keyboard, and the clavichord represented in an Italian intarsia (picture in wood inlay) of about 1480 (Palazzo Ducale, Urbino) used only 17 pairs of…

  • Arnavad Peak (mountain, Central Asia)

    Pamirs: Physiography: …metres]); the Darvaz Range, with Arnavad Peak (19,957 feet [6,083 metres]); and the Vanch and Yazgulem ranges, with Revolution (Revolyutsii) Peak (22,880 feet [6,974 metres]). The ranges are separated by deep ravines. To the east of the Yazgulem Range, in the central portion of the Pamirs, is the east-west Muzkol…

  • Arnay-le-duc, Battle of (French history)

    Henry IV: Prince of Béarn.: Henry distinguished himself at the Battle of Arnay-le-Duc on June 26, 1570, when he led the first charge of the Huguenot cavalry. The long campaign through the ravaged provinces, extending from Poitou to the heart of Burgundy, forged in him the soldierly spirit that he would retain throughout his life…

  • Arnaz y de Acha, Desiderio Alberto, III (American musician and actor)

    Lucille Ball: …popular Cuban bandleader and actor Desi Arnaz, whom she married in 1940. For 10 years they conducted separate careers, he as a bandleader and she as a movie actress who was usually seen in B-grade comedies. She won major roles in The Big Street (1942) with Henry Fonda, Du Barry…

  • Arnaz, Desi (American musician and actor)

    Lucille Ball: …popular Cuban bandleader and actor Desi Arnaz, whom she married in 1940. For 10 years they conducted separate careers, he as a bandleader and she as a movie actress who was usually seen in B-grade comedies. She won major roles in The Big Street (1942) with Henry Fonda, Du Barry…

  • Arnd, Johann (German theologian)

    Johann Arndt, German Lutheran theologian whose mystical writings were widely circulated in Europe in the 17th century. Arndt studied at Helmstadt, Wittenberg, Strasbourg, and Basel. In 1583 he became a pastor at Badeborn, but in 1590 he was deposed for refusing to remove pictures from his church

  • Arndale Centre (building, Manchester, England, United Kingdom)

    Manchester: Architecture and the face of the city: …large enclosed shopping precinct, the Arndale Centre, which contains a significant proportion of the total retail activity in the city centre. As it grew, however, older shopping streets suffered by the shift of businesses, so that parts of the city core have a run-down, half-abandoned appearance; but this is part…

  • Arndt, Ernst Moritz (German writer)

    Ernst Moritz Arndt, prose writer, poet, and patriot who expressed the national awakening in his country in the Napoleonic era. Arndt was educated at Stralsund, Greifswald, and Jena and qualified for the Lutheran ministry. At the age of 28 he rejected his clerical career and for 18 months travelled

  • Arndt, Johann (German theologian)

    Johann Arndt, German Lutheran theologian whose mystical writings were widely circulated in Europe in the 17th century. Arndt studied at Helmstadt, Wittenberg, Strasbourg, and Basel. In 1583 he became a pastor at Badeborn, but in 1590 he was deposed for refusing to remove pictures from his church

  • Arndt, Michael (American screenwriter)
  • Arne, Michael (British composer)

    Jonathan Battishill: …the work of Battishill and Michael Arne. In 1764 he became organist at St. Clement Danes and St. Martin-in-the-Fields and wrote psalm settings and hymns, catches, glees, and madrigals. After his wife left him in 1777, he declined into alcoholism and devoted himself mainly to his book collection.

  • Arne, Thomas (British composer)

    Thomas Arne, English composer, chiefly of dramatic music and song. According to tradition, Arne was the son of an upholsterer in King Street, Covent Garden. Educated at Eton, he was intended for the law, but by secretly practicing he acquired such mastery of the violin and keyboard instruments that

  • Arne, Thomas Augustine (British composer)

    Thomas Arne, English composer, chiefly of dramatic music and song. According to tradition, Arne was the son of an upholsterer in King Street, Covent Garden. Educated at Eton, he was intended for the law, but by secretly practicing he acquired such mastery of the violin and keyboard instruments that

  • Arnel (fibre)

    cellulose acetate: …introduced under the trademarked name Arnel. Triacetate fabrics became known for their superior shape retention, resistance to shrinking, and ease of washing and drying.

  • Arneson, Dave (American inventor)

    Dave Arneson, (David Lance Arneson), American inventor (born Oct. 1, 1947, Minnesota—died April 7, 2009, St. Paul, Minn.), cocreated (1974), with Gary Gygax, the first fantasy role-playing game (RPG), Dungeons & Dragons (D&D), the ancestor to a host of computer-based video RPGs. Arneson and Gygax,

  • Arneson, David Lance (American inventor)

    Dave Arneson, (David Lance Arneson), American inventor (born Oct. 1, 1947, Minnesota—died April 7, 2009, St. Paul, Minn.), cocreated (1974), with Gary Gygax, the first fantasy role-playing game (RPG), Dungeons & Dragons (D&D), the ancestor to a host of computer-based video RPGs. Arneson and Gygax,

  • Arness, James (American actor)

    James Arness, (James King Aurness), American actor (born May 26, 1923, Minneapolis, Minn.—died June 3, 2011, Los Angeles, Calif.), was best known for his portrayal of Marshal Matt Dillon, the deliberate, level-headed lawman who kept the peace in the frontier town of Dodge City, Kan., on the

  • Arnesson, Nicholas (Norwegian bishop)

    Sverrir Sigurdsson: …the dissident bishop of Oslo, Nicholas Arnesson, joined forces with the exiled archbishop Erik Ivarsson and returned to Norway with a fleet, precipitating the Crosier War, a rebellion of the Crosiers, a group headed by religious and secular leaders opposed to Sverrir’s ecclesiastical and administrative reforms. Nicholas gained control of…

  • Arneth, Alfred, Ritter von (Austrian historian)

    Alfred, Ritter von Arneth, historian important chiefly for his work in evaluating and publishing sources for Austrian history found in the Vienna state archives. In 1841 Arneth was appointed by the Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich to a post at the state archives, of which he became keeper

  • Arnett, Peter (American journalist)

    CNN: correspondents—including Bernard Shaw, Peter Arnett, and John Holliman—became familiar faces. Other prominent CNN reporters and commentators have included Daniel Schorr, Wolf Blitzer, Catherine Crier, Mary Alice Williams, Christiane Amanpour, and Paula Zahn. The “voice of CNN” is provided by distinguished actor James Earl Jones,

  • Arngrímur the Learned (Icelandic writer)

    Arngrímur Jónsson, scholar and historian who brought the treasures of Icelandic literature to the attention of Danish and Swedish scholars. Jónsson studied at the University of Copenhagen and returned to Iceland to head the Latin school at Hólar, which had been established to educate the new

  • Arnheim (Netherlands)

    Arnhem, gemeente (municipality), eastern Netherlands, on the north bank of the Lower Rhine (Neder Rijn) River. Possibly the site of the Roman settlement of Arenacum, it was first mentioned in 893. Chartered and fortified in 1233 by Otto II, count of Geldern, it joined the Hanseatic League in 1443.

  • Arnheim, Rudolf (American psychologist)

    Gestalt psychology: …the perceptual investigations undertaken by Rudolf Arnheim and Hans Wallach in the United States.

  • Arnhem (Netherlands)

    Arnhem, gemeente (municipality), eastern Netherlands, on the north bank of the Lower Rhine (Neder Rijn) River. Possibly the site of the Roman settlement of Arenacum, it was first mentioned in 893. Chartered and fortified in 1233 by Otto II, count of Geldern, it joined the Hanseatic League in 1443.

  • Arnhem Land (region, Northern Territory, Australia)

    Arnhem Land, historical region of Northern Territory, Australia. It consists of the eastern half of the large peninsula that forms the northernmost portion of the Northern Territory. The region, with a total area of about 37,000 square miles (95,900 square km), consists of a ruggedly dissected

  • Arnhem, Battle of (European history)

    Arnhem: …by the French in 1672, Arnhem was refortified in the 18th century only to fall again to the French in 1793. Occupied by the Germans during World War II, it was the object of Operation Market Garden, a heroic but unsuccessful attempt by American, British, and Polish airborne troops to…

  • arni (mammal)

    Water buffalo, (Bubalus bubalis), either of two forms, wild and domestic, of Asian mammal similar to the ox. There are 74 breeds of domestic water buffalo numbering some 165 million animals, but only small numbers of wild water buffalo remain. Both forms are gray to black with off-white “socks” and

  • arni souvlakia (food)

    Shish kebab, dish of small pieces of lamb threaded on a skewer and cooked over an open fire. The name of the dish is derived from the Turkish ?i?, a spit or skewer, and kebab, mutton or lamb. Variants of this dish are found throughout the Balkans, the Middle East, and the Caucasus. In Greece it is

  • arnica (plant)

    Arnica, (genus Arnica), genus of some 30 species of plants in the composite family (Asteraceae), most of which occur in the mountains of northwestern North America. Arnica species are perennial herbs that grow 10–70 cm (4–28 inches) tall. The simple leaves are oppositely arranged with toothed or

  • Arnica (plant)

    Arnica, (genus Arnica), genus of some 30 species of plants in the composite family (Asteraceae), most of which occur in the mountains of northwestern North America. Arnica species are perennial herbs that grow 10–70 cm (4–28 inches) tall. The simple leaves are oppositely arranged with toothed or

  • Arnica angustifolia (plant)

    arnica: Narrowleaf arnica (A. angustifolia) of Arctic Asia and America has orange-yellow flower heads 5–7 cm (2–2.5 inches) across and is a protected species in some countries.

  • Arnica montana (plant)

    arnica: …of the most important species, mountain arnica (Arnica montana), is a perennial herb of northern and central European highlands. It yields an essential oil formerly used in treating bruises and sprains and is often grown as a garden ornamental. Narrowleaf arnica (A. angustifolia) of Arctic Asia and America has orange-yellow…

  • Arniches, Carlos (Spanish dramatist)

    Carlos Arniches, popular Spanish dramatist of the early 20th century, best known for works in the género chico (“lesser genre”): the one-act zarzuela (musical comedy) and the one-act sainete (sketch). These plays were based upon direct observation of the customs and speech of the lower-class people

  • Arniches, Carlos (Spanish dramatist)

    Carlos Arniches, popular Spanish dramatist of the early 20th century, best known for works in the género chico (“lesser genre”): the one-act zarzuela (musical comedy) and the one-act sainete (sketch). These plays were based upon direct observation of the customs and speech of the lower-class people

  • Arnim Paragraph (German law)

    Harry, count von Arnim: …gave rise to the so-called Arnim Paragraph, an addition to the German criminal code that made unauthorized disclosures of official documents a criminal offense.

  • Arnim, Achim von (German writer)

    Achim von Arnim, folklorist, dramatist, poet, and story writer whose collection of folk poetry was a major contribution to German Romanticism. While a student at the University of Heidelberg, Arnim published jointly with Clemens Brentano a remarkable collection of folk poetry, Des Knaben Wunderhorn

  • Arnim, Bettina von (German writer)

    Bettina von Arnim, one of the outstanding figures of German Romanticism, memorable not only for her books but also for the personality they reflect. All of her writings, whatever their ostensible themes, are essentially self-portraits. Von Arnim was unconventional to the point of eccentricity;

  • Arnim, Elisabeth Katharina Ludovica Magdalena von (German writer)

    Bettina von Arnim, one of the outstanding figures of German Romanticism, memorable not only for her books but also for the personality they reflect. All of her writings, whatever their ostensible themes, are essentially self-portraits. Von Arnim was unconventional to the point of eccentricity;

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